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2020年第11期共收录46

1. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Agricultural Planting Structure and Crop Water Consumption in Groundwater Overdraft Area

Accession number: 20205009619797

Title of translation:

Authors: Meng, Jian (1); Yao, Xuqing (2); Yang, Xiaolin (2); Luo, Jianmei (3); Shen, Yanjun (3)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Horticulture, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding; 071001, China; (2) College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100193, China; (3) Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang; 050022, China

Corresponding author: Yang, Xiaolin(yangxiaolin429@cau.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 302-312

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Due to the influence of agricultural production activities and precipitation changes in Hebei Province, the social water use and water resource carrying capacity in Hebei Plain was seriously unbalanced. Based on the regional water resource condition and Penman-Monteith formula, the water consumption and irrigation water demand of staple crops were estimated and the effect of planting structure change on the water irrigation amount in Hebei Province was evaluated. Results showed that the total water resources, surface water resources and groundwater resources in Hebei Province during 2001-2017 were decreased by 22.36%, 42.15% and 9.01% with respect to the averages of the past 62 years (i.e. 1956-2017), respectively. Although the groundwater extraction and farmland irrigation amount displayed a slight decline trend, the groundwater overdraft still reached up to 3.31 billion m3, together with the groundwater table reached 60.34~70.46 m in the typical groundwater funnel area. Compared with that shown in 1980, the planting area of the staple crops was increased by 21.68% in 2017. The water requirement in the crop growing season for all of the text crops showed a decline trend, with the order from high to low to be vegetable (750.56~893.09 mm), rice (698.25~832.60 mm), fruit (653.93~773.28 mm), cotton (506.30~634.23 mm), potato (481.42~594.37 mm), winter wheat (401.66~504.60 mm), oil crops (406.26~510.68 mm), soybean (335.28~429.74 mm), maize (309.72~399.54 mm) and millet (269.94~345.77 mm). The water deficit index of winter wheat was the highest among all crops (0.72), followed by vegetables (0.47), rice (0.46) and fruit (0.36). The annual irrigation water of winter wheat, vegetable and fruit accounted for 46.87%, 12.94% and 12.24% of the total crop irrigation amount. Compared with that of 1980-1989, the planting area of vegetable and fruit was increased by 186.01% and 59.98% from 2010 to 2017, respectively. Correspondingly, the water demand of vegetable and fruit was increased by 143.75% and 18.91% whereas the water demand of other crops was decreased by 3.34%~91.57%. The increasing planting area of vegetable and fruit resulted in the elevated amount of agricultural irrigation water. It was suggested to reduce the planting proportion of high water consumption crops, such as vegetable and fruit meanwhile to sustain the field crop cropping index by decreasing the planting scale of winter wheat-summer maize rotation. Moreover, these practices were benefit to balance the staple food’s supply and demand, sustainable water resource and help the national food security. Scenario analysis showed that the planting area of vegetable and fruit should be decreased to 1.72×105 hm2 and 1.97×105 hm2, which could meet the market demand of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Plain and reduce the irrigation demand amount of 3.31 billion m3 in this ecological region. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 35

Main heading: Groundwater resources

Controlled terms: Agricultural robots? - ?Crops? - ?Cultivation? - ?Economics? - ?Food supply? - ?Fruits? - ?Groundwater? - ?Irrigation? - ?Soybean oil? - ?Surface water resources ? - ?Surface waters? - ?Vegetables? - ?Water conservation? - ?Water supply

Uncontrolled terms: Agricultural irrigation water? - ?Agricultural productions? - ?Crop water consumption? - ?Groundwater extraction? - ?Groundwater overdraft? - ?Penman-Monteith formula? - ?Regional water resources? - ?Sustainable water resources

Classification code: 444 Water Resources? - ?446.1 Water Supply Systems? - ?821.3 Agricultural Methods? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products? - ?822.3 Food Products? - ?971 Social Sciences

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 1.22e+01%, Percentage 1.29e+01%, Percentage 1.44e+02%, Percentage 1.86e+02%, Percentage 1.89e+01%, Percentage 2.17e+01%, Percentage 2.24e+01%, Percentage 4.21e+01%, Percentage 4.69e+01%, Percentage 6.00e+01%, Percentage 9.01e+00%, Size 2.70e-01m to 3.46e-01m, Size 3.10e-01m to 4.00e-01m, Size 3.35e-01m to 4.30e-01m, Size 4.02e-01m to 5.05e-01m, Size 4.06e-01m to 5.11e-01m, Size 4.81e-01m to 5.94e-01m, Size 5.06e-01m to 6.34e-01m, Size 6.03e+01m to 7.05e+01m, Size 6.54e-01m to 7.73e-01m, Size 6.98e-01m to 8.33e-01m, Size 7.51e-01m to 8.93e-01m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.033

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

2. Analysis on Atomization Effect of Thermal Atomization Pesticide for Pulsed Smoker/Fogger

Accession number: 20205009619749

Title of translation:

Authors: Wang, Dong (1, 2); Chen, Qing (1); Xu, Linyun (1); Zhou, Hongping (1); Hou, Xiumei (1)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Nanjing Foresty University, Nanjing; 210037, China; (2) Department of Science and Technology, Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing; 210023, China

Corresponding author: Zhou, Hongping(hpzhou@njfu.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 113-122 and 130

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: In view of the several poor atomization phenomena, such as drops, flowing liquid or larger fog group in the application of the pulsed smoker/fogger to spray pesticide, the 6HYW-60S pulsed smoker/fogger machine was improved to set the liquid medicine flow into an adjustable test device, with five throttle openings and four liquid flux. The air flow velocity and temperature before and after injection of pulse engine, as well as the droplet size distribution under each spraying condition were tested. The results showed that from the minimum throttle opening to the maximum throttle opening adjustable range, the corresponding pulse engine fuel consumption rate was changed in a small range, only causing a 13.0% relative change. The corresponding air temperature and speed in the nozzle was also changed to the same extent. When spraying, the temperature and velocity of the air flow at the nozzle had a very obvious change. The high temperature air flow of more than 700 without spraying fell to about 75, and the corresponding velocity of the air flow was decreased by about 16%. The opening of the throttle and the flow of liquid had little effect on the temperature, but the influence on the velocity of the droplet flow was very obvious. When the throttle opening was increased, the velocity of droplet flow was obviously increased, the liquid flux was increased, and the velocity of droplet flow was obviously decreased. Under the different throttle openings, the atomization effect of the minimum liquid flow rate of 20 L/h was not good, especially in the vicinity of the tailpipe exit, there were a large number of droplets larger than 300 μm. These droplets were easy to fall to the ground and cannot be effectively applied to the target. When the liquid flow rate was increased to 40 L/h and above, the droplet volume diameter of each droplet was smaller and the average value of each position under the same working condition was less than 60 μm. The droplet size distribution of thermal atomization was not a normal distribution with single peak value, and there were different droplet size groups, and the central droplet size of droplet groups was basically the same. The droplets on the central axis of the nozzle were fine and even atomized. The droplets on the central axis were slightly larger than those at the center point, but the droplets on the bottom of the nozzle was increased significantly. The farther the distance from the center axis was, the more obvious the droplets was increased, that was, the amount of larger fog droplets in the droplet stream was gradually increased. The flow rate of 60 L/h and the throttle opening of 90° was the best atomization condition, and a good atomization effect was formed in the whole spraying area. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 22

Main heading: Spray nozzles

Controlled terms: Air? - ?Atomization? - ?Drops? - ?Exhaust systems (engine)? - ?Flow velocity? - ?Liquids? - ?Normal distribution? - ?Pesticides? - ?Size distribution? - ?Smoke ? - ?Velocity

Uncontrolled terms: Adjustable ranges? - ?Air flow velocity? - ?Air temperature? - ?Droplet size distributions? - ?Droplet volume? - ?High temperature air? - ?Liquid flow rates? - ?Throttle opening

Classification code: 631 Fluid Flow? - ?631.1 Fluid Flow, General? - ?802.3 Chemical Operations? - ?803 Chemical Agents and Basic Industrial Chemicals? - ?804 Chemical Products Generally? - ?922.1 Probability Theory? - ?922.2 Mathematical Statistics

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 1.30e+01%, Percentage 1.60e+01%, Size 3.00e-04m, Size 6.00e-05m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.012

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

3. Design and Experiment of Profiling and Damping Device for Rapeseed Tooth-belt Pickup

Accession number: 20205009619758

Title of translation:

Authors: Jiang, Tao (1); Guan, Zhuohuai (1); Liang, Suning (1); Li, Haitong (1); Wu, Chongyou (1); Hu, Zhichao (1)

Author affiliation: (1) Nanjing Institute of Agriculture Mechanization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Nanjing; 210014, China

Corresponding author: Hu, Zhichao(zchu369@163.com)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 148-157

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Rapeseed is one of the most important oil crops in China. Obstruction exists in mechanized combine harvesting because of the biological characteristics of rapeseed. In recent years, the two stage-harvesting is widely adopted due to the advantages in well-adapted ability of rapeseed variety and high quality of the harvested rapeseed, but there are still some problems in the pick-up stage especially the low operation efficiency and quality due to the instability when working on the uneven terrain. Aiming at the problem of low operating stability of existing rapeseed pickers during the high-speed operation in complex fields, a profiling-damping device for articulated toothed-belt pickup was designed. By establishing the kinematic model of the profiling and vibration reduction system, the key structures and operating parameters that affected the stability of profiling were determined. And the specific parameters which could play important roles in the operation process were analyzed. The spring stiffness coefficient k, system damping ratio ξ and forward speed vf were selected as the test factors, and the variation coefficient of peak angle of hinged point was selected as the test index based on the response surface method of three factors and three levels Box-Benhnken combination test. The order of the factors affecting the average degree deviation was obtained from large to small as follows: damping ratio, stiffness coefficient and forward speed. The order of the factors affecting the stability of profiling was obtained from large to small as follows: forward speed, stiffness coefficient and damping ratio. The optimum parameter combination under the minimum average degree deviation and profiling stability variation coefficient was found as follows: stiffness coefficient of 9.7 N/mm, damping ratio of 0.38 and forward speed of 0.95 m/s. Field comparison tests were carried out using the approximate optimal parameters combination, the results showed that the average loss ratio of the pickup harvester with the profiling-damping device was 4.53% and the average impurity ratio was 3.22%. The loss and impurity ratio were 30.73% and 27.64% lower than the one that without the device respectively and the operation quality was significantly improved. The research results can provide references for improving the profiling and operation stability and quality. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 22

Main heading: Damping

Controlled terms: Belts? - ?Harvesting? - ?Kinematics? - ?Oilseeds? - ?Pickups? - ?Speed? - ?Stability? - ?Stiffness

Uncontrolled terms: Biological characteristic? - ?High-speed operation? - ?Operating parameters? - ?Operation efficiencies? - ?Response surface method? - ?Stiffness coefficients? - ?Variation coefficient? - ?Vibration reductions

Classification code: 602.1 Mechanical Drives? - ?821.3 Agricultural Methods? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products? - ?931.1 Mechanics? - ?951 Materials Science

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 2.76e+01%, Percentage 3.07e+01%, Percentage 3.22e+00%, Percentage 4.53e+00%, Surface_Tension 9.70e-03N*m, Velocity 9.50e-01m/s

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.016

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

4. Automatic Orientation Method for Postharvest Cabbage Based on Moment of Inertia

Accession number: 20205009619727

Title of translation:

Authors: Cui, Gongpei (1); Zheng, Xinmeng (1); Cui, Yongjie (1, 2); Wang, Jingzheng (1); Shi, Yinggang (1, 2); Fu, Longsheng (1, 3)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; 712100, China; (2) Key Laboratory of Agricultural Internet of Things, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangling; 712100, China; (3) Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Agricultural Information Perception and Intelligent Service, Yangling; 712100, China

Corresponding author: Cui, Yongjie(agriculturalrobot@nwafu.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 183-195

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: The orientation of postharvest cabbage is the key to the automatic operation of the postharvest processing system, which provides the position and posture conditions for the subsequent root trimming, detection and grading, etc. Aiming at the problems of low efficiency and high labor intensity of artificial continuous orientation of postharvest cabbage, an automatic orientation method based on the moment of inertia for postharvest cabbage was proposed, and the “Zhonggan 15” cabbage was taken as the research object. Firstly, the simplified geometric model of postharvest cabbage was established, and the moment of inertia in the three principal axes of inertia and the motion stability of postharvest cabbage during orientation were analyzed. Secondly, the orientation simulation model was established, and the variations both of displacement difference and included angle with time of 26 initial attitudes of postharvest cabbage during orientation were simulated and analyzed based on ADAMS software, to verify the feasibility of the method. Finally, automatic orientation test platform was built, and single factor test and orthogonal test were carried out with the roller diameter, axial clearance, radial clearance and angular velocity as test factors, and the included angle between the central axis of postharvest cabbage and the roller axis and the orientation success rate as test indexes. It can be seen from the theoretical analysis and simulation results, postharvest cabbage gradually tended to rotate around the central axis with the smallest and only moment of inertia during the orientation, and the movement state was stable. That was to say, the automatic orientation of postharvest cabbage by this method can be realized. The experimental results showed that the primary and secondary influence order of test factors on the included angle between the central axis of postharvest cabbage and the roller axis was roller diameter, angular velocity, axial clearance and radial clearance. And the primary and secondary influence order of test factors on the orientation success rate was angular velocity, roller diameter, axial clearance and radial clearance. The optimal parameters of roller diameter, axial clearance, radial clearance and angular velocity were 80 mm, 80 mm, 70 mm and 6 rad/s, respectively. On the condition of the optimal parameter combination, the validation test was carried out. The average included angle between the central axis of postharvest cabbage and the roller axis was (6.72±1.23)°, the time needed for orientation was 6.8 s, and the orientation success rate was 96%, which met the requirements of automatic orientation and subsequent high-throughput processing for postharvest cabbage, and also provided theoretical basis and technical support for orientation operation of postharvest processing that can be applied in other irregular spherical fruits and vegetables. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 29

Main heading: Rollers (machine components)

Controlled terms: Angular velocity? - ?Computer software? - ?Grading

Uncontrolled terms: Analysis and simulation? - ?Geometric modeling? - ?Moment of inertia? - ?Optimal parameter? - ?Optimal parameter combinations? - ?Postharvest processing? - ?Secondary influences? - ?Technical support

Classification code: 601.2 Machine Components? - ?723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications

Numerical data indexing: Angular_Velocity 6.00e+00rad/s, Percentage 9.60e+01%, Size 7.00e-02m, Size 8.00e-02m, Time 6.80e+00s

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.020

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

5. Preparation and Threshing Performance Tests of Rubber Composite Nail Teeth under Maize with High Moisture Content

Accession number: 20205009619742

Title of translation:

Authors: Li, Yibo (1); Jiang, Jianjun (1); Xu, Yang (1); Cui, Tao (1); Su, Yuan (1); Qiao, Mengmeng (1)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China

Corresponding author: Xu, Yang(xuyang@cau.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 158-167

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: In order to meet the requirements of maize combine harvester for threshing device, the breakage rate and the non threshing rate of maize should be reduced in the threshing process of ear with high moisture content. The threshing nail teeth with composite structure of rubber and carbon steel layers were improved and designed. Besides NBR, NR and EPDM were self-made as the materials of outer structure of composite nail teeth. The effects of composite nail teeth in different outer materials on threshing performance of maize ears (the breakage rate and the non threshing rate of maize) and self anti-fraying performance (loss weight on damage and abrasion of surface tissue) were studied by bench tests. The results of threshing tests showed that when the moisture content of maize grain was 29.7%~30.5%, and the feed quantity of maize ear was 8~12 kg/s, the breakage rates of maizes in NBR, NR, EPDM composite nail teeth and traditional carbon steel nail teeth were 4.85% to 7.27%, 3.77% to 6.23%, 2.92% to 4.88% and 6.90% to 10.35%, respectively, and the non threshing rates of maize were 0.41% to 0.82%, 0.35% to 0.78%, 0.30% to 0.69% and 0.24% to 0.59%, respectively. The results of abrasion tests showed that from the macroscopic abrasion of the surface, the gullies of the NBR layer were obvious and the abrasion of surface was serious, the number of pits in the EPDM layer was far less than that of the NR layer, neither of which led to the failure; from the microscopic morphology of the surface based on SEM, the number of cracks in the NBR layer was the most and the structure was discontinuous, and the holes in the NR layer weakened the combination between the tissues. Most of the structures of EPDM were relatively complete and continuous and had strong resistance to external forces. The comprehensive results showed that under the high moisture content of maize grain, rubber composite nail teeth could significantly improve the threshing performance of ear, among which EPDM composite nail teeth had the best comprehensive effects in threshing and self anti-fraying performance, the breakage rate of maize was 52.85%~57.68% lower than that of traditional carbon steel nail teeth, and the non threshing rate of maize was similar to that of traditional carbon steel nail teeth, meeting the requirements of technical specifications for threshing quality evaluation of maize harvester. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 28

Main heading: Grain (agricultural product)

Controlled terms: Abrasion? - ?Composite structures? - ?Erosion? - ?Moisture? - ?Moisture determination? - ?Morphology? - ?Nails? - ?Rubber? - ?Structure (composition)? - ?Surface testing ? - ?Tissue

Uncontrolled terms: Combine harvesters? - ?Comprehensive effect? - ?High moisture contents? - ?Microscopic morphology? - ?Quality evaluation? - ?Structure of composites? - ?Technical specifications? - ?Threshing process

Classification code: 408.2 Structural Members and Shapes? - ?461.2 Biological Materials and Tissue Engineering? - ?605 Small Tools and Hardware? - ?818.1 Natural Rubber? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products? - ?944.2 Moisture Measurements? - ?951 Materials Science

Numerical data indexing: Mass_Flow_Rate 8.00e+00kg/s to 1.20e+01kg/s, Percentage 2.40e-01% to 5.90e-01%, Percentage 4.10e-01% to 8.20e-01%, Percentage 4.85e+00% to 7.27e+00%, Percentage 6.90e+00% to 1.03e+01%

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.017

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

6. Modeling and Control of Self-steering Electric Chassis Structure of High Clearance Sprayer

Accession number: 20205009619773

Title of translation:

Authors: Shen, Yue (1); He, Siwei (1); Liu, Hui (1); Cui, Yemin (2)

Author affiliation: (1) School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang; 212013, China; (2) Nantong Guangyi Mechanical and Electrical Co., Ltd., Nantong; 226631, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 385-392 and 402

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: At present, the chassis of the high clearance sprayer mostly adopts the traditional four-wheel steering structure. When working in the complex paddy field environment, the sprayer often gets stuck in the mud and cannot turn. A new type of chassis based on four wheel independent electric drive steering structure was designed. The chassis consisted of three main parts, the front and rear steering structure and the frame. The front and rear steering mechanism was connected to the frame by plane bearings, so that the steering mechanism can freely rotate around the fixed point on the frame. The four wheels were fixed on the front and rear steering mechanism, and the steering control purpose can be achieved by controlling the output torque of the four wheels. According to the characteristics of the structure, a modeling and control method was proposed. The two steering mechanisms were modeled separately, and part of their dynamic models were obtained. The unmodeled dynamics and external disturbances were regarded as total disturbances, and then an extended state observer (ESO) was designed to observe the total disturbances. Then the output was used to cancel out the total disturbance, and the undisturbed linear model was obtained. Then a cascade proportion controller was designed to control the steering. Finally, Matlab was used to identify and simulate system parameters and carry out physical verification. The simulation results showed that when the step signal was used to simulate the disturbance, the observed value of the disturbance can converge to the actual disturbance within 0.5 s. After the disturbance observer converged, when the expected turning angle was suddenly increased from 0° to 20°, the rising time of the turning angle tracking control response curve was 1.9 s, and the overshoot was 2.3%. The test results showed that when the sprayer was traveling on a flat road at speed of 1 m/s, the rise time of the steering angle of the front steering mechanism was 3.1 s, and the rise time of the angle of rear steering mechanism was 2.0 s, which verified that the control method had a good control effect. When it was working in the field under full load, it can easily cross a muddy deep trench with width of 20 cm and depth of 40 cm, which verified that it had good passing ability in the field. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 25

Main heading: Four wheel steering

Controlled terms: Chassis? - ?Electric drives? - ?MATLAB? - ?Wheels

Uncontrolled terms: Control methods? - ?Disturbance observer? - ?Extended state observer? - ?External disturbances? - ?Modeling and control? - ?Steering control? - ?Steering mechanisms? - ?Unmodeled dynamics

Classification code: 601.2 Machine Components? - ?662.4 Automobile and Smaller Vehicle Components? - ?921 Mathematics

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 2.30e+00%, Size 2.00e-01m, Size 4.00e-01m, Time 1.90e+00s, Time 2.00e+00s, Time 3.10e+00s, Time 5.00e-01s, Velocity 1.00e+00m/s

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.042

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

7. Design and Experiment of Air-assisted Layered Fertilization Machine of Centralized Distributing for Corn

Accession number: 20205009619739

Title of translation:

Authors: He, Yakai (1, 2); Yang, Xuejun (3); Zhai, Changyuan (1, 2); Zhao, Xueguan (1, 2); Dou, Hanjie (1, 4); Wang, Xiu (1, 2)

Author affiliation: (1) Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing; 100097, China; (2) National Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing; 100097, China; (3) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences, Beijing; 100083, China; (4) College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; 712100, China

Corresponding author: Wang, Xiu(wangx@nercita.org.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 54-63

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Corn is the most important food in China, which has the vital significance in ensuring food security and economic development. The work of topdressing is the important part in the process of corn production. The fertilizer management can effectively improve crop yield at the middle and later stage of maize growth, which can also increase the comprehensive benefit of corn production. However, the current topdressing work of corn is most performed by artificial fertilization. The uniformity of artificial fertilization is worse and the topdressing efficiency is lower, which can be improved by the mechanized fertilizer. So, the mechanized fertilizer would be in urgent need of development. According to the agronomic characteristics of corn layered fertilization, the centralized and pneumatic conveying fertilizer applicator was designed. The fertilizer machine was mainly composed of multi-line concentration distributing device, pneumatic conveying device, control system of fertilization and layered fertilizing device, which can realize long-range and wide-range rapid fertilization. Theoretical analysis and structural parameters of the key components were conducted. The software of control system and the interface of human-machine interaction were developed. The whole fertilizer applicator was assembled completely at last. In order to check the working performance of topdressing machinery, experimental tests concerning the consistency of fertilizer discharge, fertilization accuracy, and depth of fertilization between rows were conducted. Based on the prototype of fertilizer applicator, the tests were carried out according to relevant standards at Malan Farm in Shijiazhuang City of China in July 2019. During the experiment, a 51.5 kW tractor was selected as the only power. Granular urea was used as test fertilizer. The experimental results showed that the rotating speed of fertilization wheel had less influence on the consistency of fertilizer quantity among each row. The difference of fertilizer quantity consistency between the deep and shallow fertilization was small at the same speed of fertilization wheel. And the fertilizer quantity was stable and uniform. The variation coefficient of fertilizer quantity consistency was reduced with the increase of rotational speed. And the maximum variation coefficient was 2.64%. With the increase of forward speed, the precision of fertilizer quantity was reduced to 95.42%. And the minimum average depth of deep fertilization of 11.04 cm remained stable with the variation coefficient being less than 5.35%, while the stability of depth for shallow fertilization was reduced with the minimum of 6.9 cm and the coefficient of variation reached 9.36%. The results indicated that the fertilizer applicator designed can meet the standard requirement of maize topdressing machinery better. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 25

Main heading: Fertilizers

Controlled terms: Applicators? - ?Control systems? - ?Food supply? - ?Machinery? - ?Man machine systems? - ?Pneumatic conveyors? - ?Pneumatics? - ?Urea? - ?Wheels

Uncontrolled terms: Coefficient of variation? - ?Comprehensive benefit? - ?Fertilizer management? - ?Human machine interaction? - ?Standard requirements? - ?Structural parameter? - ?Variation coefficient? - ?Working performance

Classification code: 601 Mechanical Design? - ?601.2 Machine Components? - ?632.3 Pneumatics? - ?632.4 Pneumatic Equipment and Machinery? - ?731.1 Control Systems? - ?804 Chemical Products Generally? - ?804.1 Organic Compounds? - ?822.3 Food Products

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 2.64e+00%, Percentage 5.35e+00%, Percentage 9.36e+00%, Percentage 9.54e+01%, Power 5.15e+04W, Size 1.10e-01m, Size 6.90e-02m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.006

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

8. Evaluation of Water Status of Winter Wheat Based on Simulated Reflectance of Multispectral Satellites

Accession number: 20205009619806

Title of translation:

Authors: Jin, Ning (1); Zhang, Dongyan (2); Li, Zhenhai (3); He, Liang (4)

Author affiliation: (1) Department of Resources and Environment, Shanxi Institute of Energy, Jinzhong; 030600, China; (2) National Engineering Research Center for Agro-Ecological Big Data Analysis and Application, Anhui University, Hefei; 230601, China; (3) Key Laboratory of Quantitative Remote Sensing in Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing; 100097, China; (4) National Meteorological Center, Beijing; 100081, China

Corresponding author: Zhang, Dongyan(zhangdy@ahu.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 243-252

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Making the crop water use status clear in time is important to assess crop water deficit and develope water-saving irrigation strategies. It is of high theoretical and practical significance to promote the sustainable use of regional water resources and improve crop water use efficiency. The field trials of winter wheat under different water treatments were carried out during 2012-2016, the crop canopy reflectance and leaf water content were observed during the major winter wheat growth period. Then the simulated reflectances for the spectral bands of several different satellites were generated by combing the crop canopy reflectance and spectral response functions of Quickbird, IKONOS, GF-2, GF-1, Landsat8, HJ-1A/B, GF-4 and MODIS satellite sensors. Following the forms of normalized vegetation index (NDVI), ratio vegetation index (RVI) and difference vegetation index (DVI), every two simulated reflectances of all satellites were used to establish new vegetation indices. Then the correlations between vegetation indices and leaf water content were systematically analyzed. The response of combination bands and vegetation indices at different spatial resolutions (2.44 m, 4 m, 8 m, 30 m, 50 m and 250 m) to crop water status and irrigation activities were evaluated. The results showed that the sensitive distribution patterns of NDVI, RVI and DVI indices to crop water status were similar. The correlation coefficients between the near-infrared band reflectance of eight satellites and leaf water content were positive, while the correlation coefficients for other bands were negative. Better correlations were obtained between leaf water content and vegetation indices, including NDVI (GF-1 green band, GF-2 green band), RVI (GF-1 green band, GF-2 green band) and DVI (GF-2 blue band, GF-4 blue band), with R2 of 0.776, 0.774 and 0.886, respectively. Among which the vegetation index in the form of DVI got the best accuracy when estimating leaf water content. Comparing with the existed vegetation indices, the vegetation indices selected had higher accuracy when estimating leaf water content. The above works provided a technical and methodological support for the assessment of crop water conditions and monitoring of crop irrigation at regional scale. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 24

Main heading: Crops

Controlled terms: Infrared devices? - ?Irrigation? - ?Reflection? - ?Satellites? - ?Vegetation? - ?Water conservation? - ?Water resources

Uncontrolled terms: Correlation coefficient? - ?Crop canopy reflectance? - ?Distribution patterns? - ?MODIS satellite sensors? - ?Ratio vegetation indices? - ?Regional water resources? - ?Spectral response functions? - ?Water-saving irrigation

Classification code: 444 Water Resources? - ?655.2 Satellites? - ?821.3 Agricultural Methods? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products

Numerical data indexing: Size 2.44e+00m, Size 2.50e+02m, Size 3.00e+01m, Size 4.00e+00m, Size 5.00e+01m, Size 8.00e+00m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.027

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

9. Parameter Optimization and Experiment of Negative Pressure Impurity Removal Device for Fresh Corn Ear Harvest

Accession number: 20205009619808

Title of translation:

Authors: Zhou, Fujun (1); Guan, Xiaodong (1); Tang, Zunfeng (2); Wu, Hao (1)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin; 150030, China; (2) Modern Agricultural Equipment Co., Ltd., Beijing; 100083, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 138-147

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: In view of the existing fresh corn harvester in grain harvest, grain contains impurities such as stem leaf, affected transportation, storage and subsequent processing and so on, by axial flow fan technology of negative pressure to get rid of the impurities such as the stem and leaf of ear, at the same time increase in the subtraction, knife chop of impurities, facilitating subsequent packaging recycling. Performance analysis and parameter optimization were carried out for the fan negative pressure impurity removal device, in order to reduce the rate of clutter in the ear and improve the recovery efficiency of green stalks. Through the dynamic analysis of moving and fixed knives, as well as the analysis of the number and clearance of moving and fixed knives, the fan speed range of the device was determined to be 1 326~1 573 r/min, the clearance of moving and fixed knives was 20 mm, and the fixed knives were 3~8. Using quadratic regression orthogonal combination experiment schemes to the fan speed, knife number, feeding amount as test factors, chop to grain impurity rate and stem length, percent of pass was bench test, the test indexes were obtained by analysis of the contribution rate of various factors on the indicators qualified rate of the primary and secondary influence stem chopped length in order to feed rate, the fan speed, the number on the edge of the sword. The primary and secondary order influencing the impurity rate of fruit ear were fan speed, feeding amount and fixed number of knives. The mathematical model of parameter optimization was established, and the optimization module was used to get that when the fan speed was 1 524 r/min, the single setting knife was 4, and the feeding amount was 7.6 kg/s, the qualified rate of the cutting length of the stalk was 96.8%, and the hybrid rate of the ear was 0.69%. When the fan speed was 1 524 r/min, the number of fixed blades was 4, and the feeding amount was 7.6 kg/s, the qualified rate of cutting length of stalk was 96.2%, and the impurity rate of ear was 0.71%, which was 23.3% lower than that of traditional harvester. The experimental results showed that the optimized parameters met the technical requirements of fresh corn ear harvest and stem and leaf silage. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 34

Main heading: Removal

Controlled terms: Axial flow? - ?Feeding? - ?Grain (agricultural product)? - ?Harvesters? - ?Harvesting? - ?Speed

Uncontrolled terms: Optimization module? - ?Optimized parameter? - ?Parameter optimization? - ?Performance analysis? - ?Quadratic regression? - ?Recovery efficiency? - ?Secondary influences? - ?Technical requirement

Classification code: 631.1 Fluid Flow, General? - ?691.2 Materials Handling Methods? - ?821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control

Numerical data indexing: Mass_Flow_Rate 7.60e+00kg/s, Percentage 2.33e+01%, Percentage 6.90e-01%, Percentage 7.10e-01%, Percentage 9.62e+01%, Percentage 9.68e+01%, Rotational_Speed 1.33e+03RPM to 1.57e+03RPM, Rotational_Speed 1.52e+03RPM, Size 2.00e-02m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.015

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

10. Multi-function Evaluation and Optimization of Cultivated Land in Henan Province Based on Perspective of Demand and Supply

Accession number: 20205009619857

Title of translation:

Authors: Zhou, Dingyang (1); Li, Shuhan (1); Wen, Wen (2); Jiang, Guanghui (1)

Author affiliation: (1) Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing; 100875, China; (2) Henan Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation, Zhengzhou; 450016, China

Corresponding author: Jiang, Guanghui(macrophage@bnu.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 272-281

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Aiming at the confusion of supply and demand of cultivated land multi-function evaluation, a theoretical framework of multi-function supply and demand of cultivated land was put forward. The index evaluation system was constructed from two perspectives of supply and demand respectively, and the multi-function index of cultivated land was calculated by using the full array polygon graphic method, so as to analyze the spatial differentiation of the multi-functional supply and demand of cultivated land in Henan Province. According to the national strategic demand and taking the balance of supply and demand as the target, the optimal path of the balanced supply and demand of the cultivated land were identified. The results were as follows: the multifunctional supply of cultivated land was the output of its products and services. The multi-functional demand of cultivated land referred to products and services consumed by humans; the multi-functional supply and demand can be divided into five functions, i.e., production, economy, ecology, social security and landscape culture. Compared with the demand (0.723), the multi-functional supply of cultivated land (0.678) in Henan Province showed hysteresis only the landscape function was the mismatch mode of oversupply, and the largest number of cities were the mismatch between supply and demand of ecological function and social security function. The multi-functional supply and demand of cultivated land generally presented the spatial pattern of low in northwest and high in southeast; the multi-functional supply and demand of cultivated land in southeast Henan were relatively balanced; the imbalance of multi-functional supply and demand of cultivated land in mid-levels was significant. According to the matching degree of supply-demand of various functions and national strategic planning, Henan Province can be divided into three optimization paths: functional transformation area, supply promotion area and cultivated land reserve area. The conclusion showed that the types of cultivated land utilization was optimized according to local conditions, and it can provide support for “trinity conservation of cultivated land”. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 28

Main heading: Economics

Controlled terms: Ecology? - ?Function evaluation? - ?Graphic methods? - ?Land use

Uncontrolled terms: Demand and supply? - ?Ecological functions? - ?Functional transformation? - ?Index evaluations? - ?Landscape functions? - ?Products and services? - ?Spatial differentiation? - ?Theoretical framework

Classification code: 403 Urban and Regional Planning and Development? - ?454.3 Ecology and Ecosystems? - ?921.6 Numerical Methods? - ?971 Social Sciences

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.030

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

11. Design and Test of Posture Controlled Chassis for Caterpillar Combine

Accession number: 20205009619776

Title of translation:

Authors: Jin, Chengqian (1); Yang, Tengxiang (1); Liu, Gangwei (1); Wang, Tingen (2); Chen, Man (1); Liu, Zheng (1)

Author affiliation: (1) Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Nanjing; 210014, China; (2) School of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo; 255000, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 393-402

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Considering the fact that the tracked combine inclined with the undulation of the terrain when it worked on the uneven ground, which resulted in the reduction of the working efficiency, the poor driving comfort and the low safety of the manipulator, a kind of posture controlled chassis of the tracked combine was designed. The chassis was composed of upper frame, lower frame, lifting mechanism and electrohydraulic control system, which can realize automatic and manual adjustment when the combine chassis tilted. The longitudinal adjustment range was -5°~ 7°, the transverse adjustment range was -6.5°~ 6.5°, the maximum lifting height of the chassis was 130 mm. The working principle of posture controlled chassis, the structure of electrohydraulic control system and leveling control strategy were described, and then static and dynamic leveling verification tests for chassis performance were carried out. The static leveling test was carried out on the eight tilting states of the chassis: the lowest in front, the lowest in rear, the lowest in left, the lowest in right, the lowest in front, the lowest in right, the lowest in rear and the lowest in right. The test result showed that the maximum adjustment time of the automatic leveling system was 8.2 s, the average adjustment time was 4.2 s, and the maximum inclination error was 0.67°. The dynamic leveling experiment was carried out for three leveling control modes: automatic leveling control, manual leveling control and fixed gap leveling control. In the experiment of slope and furrow field, the automatic leveling control mode can improve the tilt state of chassis and the stability of chassis. The manual leveling control mode had a certain adjustment effect, but the adjustment stability was poor. In the paddy field experiment, the leveling effect of the automatic leveling control mode was better than that of the slope and furrow fields, which showed that the leveling performance of the automatic leveling control system was better under the condition of small terrain fluctuation. The dynamic leveling test showed that the automatic leveling system can reduce the inclination of the chassis, improve the stability of the chassis and enhance the adaptability of the combine to the uneven ground. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 25

Main heading: Chassis

Controlled terms: Control systems? - ?Hydraulics? - ?Metal drawing? - ?Slope stability

Uncontrolled terms: Automatic leveling controls? - ?Automatic leveling systems? - ?Control strategies? - ?Electro-hydraulic control systems? - ?Inclination errors? - ?Lifting mechanisms? - ?Verification tests? - ?Working efficiency

Classification code: 406.2 Roads and Streets? - ?535.2 Metal Forming? - ?632.1 Hydraulics? - ?662.4 Automobile and Smaller Vehicle Components? - ?731.1 Control Systems

Numerical data indexing: Size 1.30e-01m, Time 4.20e+00s, Time 8.20e+00s

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.043

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

12. Regulation Effect of Biomass Improved Materials on Migration of Soil Water, Salt and Nitrogen in Salt-affected Soil under Drip Irrigation

Accession number: 20205009619741

Title of translation:

Authors: Yao, Rongjiang (1); Li, Hongqiang (1, 2); Yang, Jingsong (1); Chen, Qiang (3); Zheng, Fule (1, 2); Shang, Hui (4)

Author affiliation: (1) State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing; 210008, China; (2) University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; 100049, China; (3) Centre of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Technology Extension of Hanggin Rear Banner of Inner Mongolia, Bayannaoer; 015400, China; (4) Jiangsu Province Coastal Development (Dongtai) Co., Ltd., Dongtai; 224237, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 282-291

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Aiming to explore the regulation effect of biomass materials on water, salt and fertilizer transport in salt-affected soil under drip irrigation, an indoor soil tank experiment was carried out to investigate the influential law of two biomass materials, including biochar and humic acid, on the migration, redistribution and spatio-temporal characters of soil water, salt and nitrogen under the conditions of water-fertilizer integration and drip irrigation. The results showed that under drip irrigation, the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil water and salts consisted of two obvious processes: the transport process of soluble salts driven by water infiltration, and the redistribution process of soil water and salts induced by evaporation and diffusion. Ammonium nitrogen content showed temporal changes of first increasing and then decreasing, and the migration and redistribution characteristics were not obvious in space. Nitrate nitrogen exhibited similar migration and spatio-temporal distribution characteristics to those of soil water and salts, and it was also influenced by the nitrification of ammonium nitrogen. Biochar greatly improved the migration rate and distribution range of soil water, salts and nitrogen in the infiltration stage by significantly increasing the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity. Humic acid enhanced the range and intensity of soil water, salts and nitrogen in the redistribution stage by increasing the soil water holding capacity. Meanwhile, humic acid showed stronger inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis and nitrification process of urea. It was concluded that the application of biomass materials could not only regulate the soil water and salts transport by improving soil physical properties, but also affect the transformation, migration and distribution of nitrogen in salt-affected soil. The research result provided a theoretical basis for water-saving, salt-control and fertilizer-reduction management in saline farmland under water-fertilizer integration and drip irrigation. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 33

Main heading: Infiltration

Controlled terms: Biomass? - ?Hydraulic conductivity? - ?Irrigation? - ?Nitrification? - ?Nitrogen fertilizers? - ?Organic acids? - ?Saline water? - ?Salts? - ?Soil moisture? - ?Urea ? - ?Water conservation

Uncontrolled terms: Nitrification process? - ?Redistribution process? - ?Saturated hydraulic conductivity? - ?Soil physical property? - ?Soil water holdings? - ?Spatio-temporal character? - ?Spatiotemporal distributions? - ?Water infiltration

Classification code: 444 Water Resources? - ?483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics? - ?632.1 Hydraulics? - ?802.2 Chemical Reactions? - ?804 Chemical Products Generally? - ?804.1 Organic Compounds? - ?821.3 Agricultural Methods

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.031

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

13. Influence of Ventilation Modes on Ammonia Emission and Nitrogen Conversion in Cattle Manure Composting

Accession number: 20205009619843

Title of translation:

Authors: Wang, Youling (1, 2); Qiu, Huizhen (1, 2); Philip, Ghanney (1); Li, Mengchan (1); Zhang, Chunhong (1)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou; 730070, China; (2) Engineering Research Center for the Resource Utilization of Livestock and Poultry Wastes in Gansu Province, Lanzhou; 730070, China

Corresponding author: Qiu, Huizhen(hzqiu@gsau.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 313-320

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: To reveal the influence of different ventilation modes on nitrogen conversion and loss during the aerobic composting process, the experiment with cattle manure and corn stalk was conducted in the reactor under two different treatments of ventilation modes (continuous ventilation T1 and intermittent ventilation T2). The results showed that the losses of total nitrogen in T1 and T2 accounted for 23.25% and 21.12% of the initial total nitrogen, respectively. Total nitrogen loss was dominated by NH3 volatilization. The nitrogen loss of T1 and T2 treatment from NH3 volatilization accounted for 74.76% and 61.84% and from N2O emission accounted for 1.12% and 1.37% of the total nitrogen loss. NH3 volatilization mainly occurred in the early stage of composting. The cumulative NH3 emissions of T2 treatment was 24.37% less than that in T1 treatment. Different ventilation modes also had significant influences on the content of NH4+-N and NO3--N during composting. At the end of composting, compared with T1 treatment, the content of NH4+-N in T2 treatment was 11% lower, while the content of NO3--N in T2 treatment was 6.7% higher and the content of total acid-hydrolyzed organic nitrogen was 12.4% higher than that in T1 treatment. T2 treatment could promote the nitration reaction and ammonia assimilation. Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that the total effects of different types of organic nitrogen on the content of NH4+-N during composting was decreased as follows: amine nitrogen (1.006), amino sugar nitrogen (0.485), hydrolyzable unknown nitrogen (0.034), and amino acid nitrogen (-0.852). Amino sugar nitrogen, hydrolyzable unknown nitrogen and amine nitrogen were most easily converted into NH4+-N, while amino acid nitrogen was synthesized from NH4+-N during composting. T2 treatment could facilitate the transformations from NH4+-N to amino acid nitrogen. Intermittent ventilation could stimulate the growth and activity of microorganisms, and so increasing the accumulation of amino sugar nitrogen. Intermittent ventilation should inhibit the conversion of organic nitrogen to NH4+-N, thus reducing the nitrogen loss caused by NH3 emission in the composting process. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 33

Main heading: Nitrogen

Controlled terms: Amino acids? - ?Amino sugars? - ?Ammonia? - ?Fertilizers? - ?Manures? - ?Nitration? - ?Ventilation

Uncontrolled terms: Aerobic composting? - ?Ammonia assimilations? - ?Ammonia emissions? - ?Composting process? - ?Different treatments? - ?Nitration reactions? - ?Nitrogen conversion? - ?Structural equation modeling

Classification code: 643.5 Ventilation? - ?802.2 Chemical Reactions? - ?804 Chemical Products Generally? - ?821.5 Agricultural Wastes

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 1.10e+01%, Percentage 1.12e+00%, Percentage 1.24e+01%, Percentage 1.37e+00%, Percentage 2.11e+01%, Percentage 2.32e+01%, Percentage 2.44e+01%, Percentage 6.18e+01%, Percentage 6.70e+00%, Percentage 7.48e+01%

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.034

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

14. Design and Test of Drying System for Desiccant Wheel Dehumidification

Accession number: 20205009619757

Title of translation:

Authors: Wang, Jiaoling (1); Jin, Chengqian (1); Song, Weidong (1); Ding, Tianhang (1); Wang, Mingyou (1); Wu, Jinji (1)

Author affiliation: (1) Nanjing Institute of Agricultural Mechanization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Nanjing; 210014, China

Corresponding author: Song, Weidong(songwd@163.com)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 374-384

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: In order to solve the problem of high energy consumption of desiccant wheel dehumidification and realize the energy-saving, high-quality and drying of agricultural products, the desiccant wheel dehumidification system was designed and optimized. And a middle and low temperature switchable integrated dryer was developed, and a fractional condensation mode was built. Fractional condensation and shii-take drying experiments were carried out. To test and improve the performance of fractional condensation, with the goal of increasing the regeneration heating temperature, Q1 and Q2, the Box-Benhnken response surface test was performed on three factors that affecting the classification performance: evaporating inlet air temperature, condensing air temperature, and damper opening. Through data analysis, a response surface model was established, and the influence mechanism of the above three inspection indicators affected by changes in the value of the three experimental factors was analyzed in combination with the contour map. At the same time, comprehensive optimization and experimental verification of each influencing factor were performed. The results showed that the RSq of the three models were all greater than 99%. The test factors had a great impact on the drying quality and energy consumption. When the inlet air temperature was 34.2, the condensing air temperature was 34.1, the damper opening was 82.3%, the heating temperature was 67.1, Q1 was 11 030 kJ, Q2 was 21 449 kJ, and the prediction error were less than 6%. At room temperature, as much as possible to promote the evaporation temperature and regeneration inlet air temperature was conducive to improving the effect of classification regeneration. It can reduce energy consumption by 29.6% compared with pure electric heating regeneration. The test of shii-take drying for desiccant wheel dehumidification showed that at the same drying temperature, it was better than the shii-take mushroom dried by the heat pump, the drying rate was increased by more than 2 times, and the energy consumption was higher than 5.9%. The research result can provide a reference for the design of energy saving drying system for desiccant wheel dehumidification. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 33

Main heading: Drying

Controlled terms: Agricultural products? - ?Agricultural robots? - ?Atmospheric temperature? - ?Condensation? - ?Driers (materials)? - ?Energy conservation? - ?Energy utilization? - ?Humidity control? - ?Surface properties? - ?Thermal load ? - ?Wheels

Uncontrolled terms: Classification performance? - ?Comprehensive optimizations? - ?Dehumidification system? - ?Evaporation temperature? - ?Experimental verification? - ?High energy consumption? - ?Reduce energy consumption? - ?Response surface modeling

Classification code: 443.1 Atmospheric Properties? - ?525.2 Energy Conservation? - ?525.3 Energy Utilization? - ?601.2 Machine Components? - ?802.3 Chemical Operations? - ?803 Chemical Agents and Basic Industrial Chemicals? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products? - ?951 Materials Science

Numerical data indexing: Energy 1.10e+07J, Energy 2.14e+07J, Percentage 2.96e+01%, Percentage 5.90e+00%, Percentage 6.00e+00%, Percentage 8.23e+01%, Percentage 9.90e+01%

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.041

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

15. Orchard Trunk Detection Algorithm for Agricultural Robot Based on Laser Radar

Accession number: 20205009619726

Title of translation:

Authors: Niu, Runxin (1, 2); Zhang, Xiangyang (1, 2); Wang, Jie (1); Zhu, Hui (1); Huang, Jian (1); Chen, Zhengwei (1, 2)

Author affiliation: (1) Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei; 230088, China; (2) University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei; 230026, China

Corresponding author: Zhu, Hui(hzhu@iim.ac.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 21-27

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: In the view of the influence of slopes and weeds in orchard on the detection accuracy of fruit trees in hilly areas, a tree trunk detection algorithm based on adaptive density clustering was proposed. Firstly, the single line LiDAR was used to obtain the environmental information. That was through data preprocessing, the noise points and the unusable data points were filtered out, the clustering radius was set with the trunk as the target, and the clustering threshold was set adaptively according to the distance from the data points to the LiDAR, and then the preliminary clustering was completed. As following, the features of the preliminary clustering results and the data points in the ground class that huge also roughly in a straight line were used. After this, the class which was over the certain number of data point were used in the second curve fitting. Also, the class that fitting radius was greater than a certain threshold value was regarded as ground interference and needed to be eliminated. Finally, the class which data points were more than a certain number of adjacent data points were regarded as weed branches and leaves and eliminated by using the feature of discontinuous distance between data points in weed branches and leaves, thus the detection of tree trunks or orchard was completed. The experimental results showed that with no interference, the false detection rate was 0.76%, the missed detection rate was 1.90%, and the average accuracy rate was 97.3%, respectively; the average accuracy rate of tree detection was 96.1% when there was only ground interference; the average accuracy rate of tree detection was 91.4% when there was only weed interference, and the average accuracy rate of tree detection was 91.9% when there was both ground and weed interference. The overall average accuracy from all situations was 95.5%. This method could be used to detect trunk in arborization orchard with obvious tree trunk in hilly area and provide environmental understanding for the navigation of precision agricultural equipment in the orchard in hilly area. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 26

Main heading: Trees (mathematics)

Controlled terms: Agricultural robots? - ?Clustering algorithms? - ?Curve fitting? - ?Optical radar? - ?Orchards? - ?Robots? - ?Signal detection

Uncontrolled terms: Agricultural equipment? - ?Clustering results? - ?Clustering threshold? - ?Data preprocessing? - ?Density clustering? - ?Detection accuracy? - ?Detection algorithm? - ?Environmental information

Classification code: 716.1 Information Theory and Signal Processing? - ?716.2 Radar Systems and Equipment? - ?731.5 Robotics? - ?821.3 Agricultural Methods? - ?903.1 Information Sources and Analysis? - ?921.4 Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory? - ?921.6 Numerical Methods

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 1.90e+00%, Percentage 7.60e-01%, Percentage 9.14e+01%, Percentage 9.19e+01%, Percentage 9.55e+01%, Percentage 9.61e+01%, Percentage 9.73e+01%

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.002

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

16. Early Detection of Cucumber Downy Mildew in Greenhouse by Hyperspectral Disease Differential Feature Extraction

Accession number: 20205009619805

Title of translation:

Authors: Qin, Lifeng (1, 2); Zhang, Xi (1, 2); Zhang, Xiaoqian (1, 3)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; 712100, China; (2) Key Laboratory of Agricultural Internet of Things, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangling; 712100, China; (3) Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Agricultural Information Perception and Intelligent Service, Yangling; 712100, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 212-220

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: For the early hyperspectral images of cucumber downy mildew in greenhouses collected in field, it is influenced by environmental illumination and difficult to extract effective features from them. To solve these problems, a novel method of extracting feature bands based on disease difference information was proposed, which improved competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA). Besides, an early detection model was built for cucumber downy mildew. Firstly, hyperspectral images were collected for leaves of healthy cucumber and leaves after infection in 12 consecutive days, which were divided into seven categories based on the degree of infection. Then, spectral data was calculated as the average spectrum of region of interest, the difference bands of downy mildew disease were determined by envelope elimination method and feature bands were extracted via CARS for seven different stages of it. SPA was used to perform secondary dimensionality reduction and optimization. Finally, all feature bands were combined to obtain 47 feature bands data. Based on this, a least square support vector machine (LSSVM) was established for disease detection. The disease detection test was performed on a test set of 94 leaf samples. The results showed that Dis-CARS-SPA-LSSVM fused disease difference information can obtain 100% detection rate after 2~12 days infection of disease. The detection rate of the test set infected with disease for 1 day reached 95.83%, the recall rate of infected samples reached 100%, and it avoided the randomness of CARS-SPA feature extraction method which did not fuse the disease difference information due to the interference bands of the non-downy mildew disease feature bands, and the recognition rate was 4.16 percentage points higher than that of CARS-SPA feature extraction model. The experiment results demonstrated that the proposed Dis-CARS-SPA-LSSVM model can effectively achieve early detection of downy mildew disease in greenhouse with a higher accuracy rate. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 31

Main heading: Feature extraction

Controlled terms: Coherent scattering? - ?Dimensionality reduction? - ?Extraction? - ?Fungi? - ?Greenhouses? - ?Image segmentation? - ?Spectroscopy? - ?Support vector machines

Uncontrolled terms: Cucumber downy mildews? - ?Envelope elimination? - ?Extracting features? - ?Feature extraction methods? - ?Interference bands? - ?Least square support vector machines? - ?Region of interest? - ?Successive projections algorithms (SPA)

Classification code: 711 Electromagnetic Waves? - ?723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications? - ?802.3 Chemical Operations? - ?821.6 Farm Buildings and Other Structures

Numerical data indexing: Age 2.74e-03yr, Age 5.48e-03yr to 3.29e-02yr, Percentage 1.00e+02%, Percentage 9.58e+01%

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.023

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

17. Path Planning Approach Based on Improved Ant Colony Optimization for Sprayer UAV

Accession number: 20205009619789

Title of translation:

Authors: Wang, Yu (1); Wang, Wenhao (1); Xu, Fan (1); Wang, Jinghan (1); Chen, Haitao (1)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin; 150030, China

Corresponding author: Chen, Haitao(htchen@neau.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 103-112 and 92

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: In order to obtain a reasonable and efficient sprayer UAV’s path in geometrically complex farmland, a new path planning approach was proposed based on the improved ant colony optimization. The 3D spray paths were first built up by discretizing the parallel scan lines inside the boundary and interpolating on the 3D terrain surface. A spray path generation algorithm was then designed to find a set of shortest and least spray paths with the optimized heading. Secondly, the ant colony optimization was improved to sort the 3D spray with the objective of getting the shortest transfer paths after adding the new function of recording starting point of each spray path. Furthermore, the prospered path planning approach was tested with the example. Different headings were calculated in the same farmland depending on whether the 3D terrain was considered, which illustrated the necessity of the 3D terrain in path planning problems of sprayer UAV. The improved ant colony optimization was compared with the greedy algorithm. Aiming at the shortest transfer paths, the two algorithms were used to sort the same set of spray paths. The total lengths of the transfer paths calculated by the improved ant colony optimization were 3% to 28% shorter than those results calculated by the greedy algorithm under the conditions of the same selected starting point. The minimum values obtained by the improved ant colony optimization and the greedy algorithm were 1 661 m and 1 763 m, respectively. The actual application was basically consistent with the trends and situations shown by the example, which showed the better optimization performance of the improved ant colony optimization. In addition, the boundaries and terrain of the two farmlands in the example and practical application were complex enough to indicate that the proposed path planning approach had practicality. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 25

Main heading: Ant colony optimization

Controlled terms: Agricultural machinery? - ?Farms? - ?Landforms? - ?Planning? - ?Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)

Uncontrolled terms: Greedy algorithms? - ?Improved ant colony optimization? - ?Minimum value? - ?New functions? - ?Path generation? - ?Path planning problems? - ?Total length? - ?Transfer paths

Classification code: 481.1 Geology? - ?652.1 Aircraft, General? - ?821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control? - ?821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment? - ?912.2 Management? - ?921.5 Optimization Techniques

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 3.00e+00% to 2.80e+01%, Size 1.66e+03m, Size 1.76e+03m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.011

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

18. Design and Simulation of Modular Automatic Lifting Deep-sea Cage

Accession number: 20205009619846

Title of translation:

Authors: Tan, Yongming (1); Lou, Shangyou (1); Yuan, Shipeng (2); Chu, Shupo (2); Wang, Zhiyong (3); Chen, Zhixin (3)

Author affiliation: (1) Machine Development of Science and Technology Co., Ltd., China Academy of Machinery Science and Technology (CAM), Beijing; 100044, China; (2) Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao; 266237, China; (3) Fishery Machinery and Instrument Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai; 200092, China

Corresponding author: Lou, Shangyou(qdheshuo@126.com)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 196-203

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: A modularized automatic lifting type intelligent deep-sea cage was presented. The objective was to improve the deep-sea cages cultivation volume and its ability to resist strong storm attacks. The cage was facilitated a high-efficiency assembly process and a convenient replacement of old components, in particular in the absence of large-scale installation equipment. A 1.5×104 m3 cage was taken as a research example. Based on theoretical prediction, modeling and simulation, the lifting states of cages in sea storm conditions were compared, the force and fluid analysis of the main components were carried out, and the cage’s balancing during the lifting process was realized. The simulation result showed that when the cage kept its normal position near the water surface during sea storm, the highest pressure (from the storm) on the cage would be up to 2.58×108 N/m2, which exceeded the yield strength of the cage’s steel, leading to a cage deformation and even damage. On the other hand, when the cage was dropped to 10 m below the sea surface, the pressure would be decreased to 13% of its peak value. The lifting method can greatly reduce the forces on the cages and their deformation. The balanced lifting of the cage can be realized through multi-layer and multi-section intelligent control. This cage overcame several problems of traditional counterparts, including poor resistance to wind and wave, inconvenient production and transportation, limited cage volumes, insufficient stability in use, and low degree of intelligence. Therefore, it can meet the needs of large-scale deep-sea aquaculture in terms of production cost, transportation, assembly, maintenance and other aspects. The research result provided a theoretical basis for the design of different demand, high-sea conditions, and large-scale deep-water cages, leading to a reasonable solution for large-scale deep-sea aquaculture projects, and showing certain values in engineering applications. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 26

Main heading: Aquaculture

Controlled terms: Balancing? - ?Costs? - ?Deformation? - ?Predictive analytics? - ?Storms? - ?Subsea engineering? - ?Surface waters

Uncontrolled terms: Assembly process? - ?Design and simulation? - ?Engineering applications? - ?Lifting process? - ?Model and simulation? - ?Production and transportations? - ?Production cost? - ?Research results

Classification code: 443.3 Precipitation? - ?444.1 Surface Water? - ?472 Ocean Engineering? - ?601 Mechanical Design? - ?821.3 Agricultural Methods? - ?911 Cost and Value Engineering; Industrial Economics

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 1.30e+01%, Size 1.00e+01m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.021

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

19. Design and Experiment on Pick-up Device for Rapeseed Substrate Seedling Transplanter

Accession number: 20205009619815

Title of translation:

Authors: Liao, Qingxi (1, 2); Wang, Yang (1, 2); Hu, Qiaolei (1, 2); Zhang, Qingsong (1, 2); He, Kun (1, 2); Xiao, Wenli (1, 2)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan; 430070, China; (2) Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment in Mid-lower Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan; 430070, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 93-102

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Rapeseed seedling transplanting is an innovative and efficient transplanting technique. However, falling off and high substrate loss have become the common problem facing rapeseed seedling transplanting fields and causing the transplanting quality of rapeseed seedling decrease. A clipping type seedling pick-up device was developed. According to the position requirements of the pick-up arm, the size relationship between the components of pick-up device was determined. The displacement equation and motion trajectory of pick-up arm were obtained by dynamic analysis. The optimal parameter combination was obtained based on Matlab optimization analysis, so as to reduce the horizontal spacing (ΔxE) and the height (ΔyE) of trajectory, which were as follows: the length of active side-stick was 75.10 mm, the length of pick-up arm was 335.26 mm, the length of negative side-stick was 100.42 mm, and the length of frame was 171.32 mm. And the optimization results were as follows: the horizontal spacing of trajectory was 173.20 mm, and the height of trajectory was 29.56 mm. The critical falling off equations of seedling block was established by dynamic analysis. The mechanical and physical properties of seedling block were obtained by experiment. The following conclusions were obtained through analysis: the minimum clamping force for pick-up device was 7.07 N, and the diameter of the finger cylinder was 20 mm. The virtual trajectory was obtained by ADAMS, and the actual trajectory was obtained by high-speed photography technology. After comparison and analysis, the error between the actual value, optimization result and simulation result were less than 3%, which verified the correctness of the mechanism design. The seedling pick-up was tested through the bench experiment, and the results were as follows: the success rate of seedling pick-up was 93.33%, the rate of seedling falling off was 2.86%, and the rate of substrate loss was 3.75%, which met the requirements of rapeseed substrate seedling pick-up and verified the feasibility of the mechanism design. The research result provided a reference for the design of pick-up device for rape substrate seedling transplanter. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 30

Main heading: Pickups

Controlled terms: Agricultural machinery? - ?Equations of motion? - ?High speed photography? - ?Machine design? - ?MATLAB? - ?Oilseeds? - ?Trajectories

Uncontrolled terms: Comparison and analysis? - ?Displacement equation? - ?Horizontal spacing? - ?MATLAB optimizations? - ?Mechanical and physical properties? - ?Motion trajectories? - ?Optimal parameter combinations? - ?Seedling transplanting

Classification code: 601 Mechanical Design? - ?742.1 Photography? - ?821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products? - ?921 Mathematics? - ?921.2 Calculus

Numerical data indexing: Force 7.07e+00N, Percentage 2.86e+00%, Percentage 3.00e+00%, Percentage 3.75e+00%, Percentage 9.33e+01%, Size 1.00e-01m, Size 1.71e-01m, Size 1.73e-01m, Size 2.00e-02m, Size 2.96e-02m, Size 3.35e-01m, Size 7.51e-02m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.010

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

20. Delignification Kinetics of Corn Stover with Urea Pretreatment

Accession number: 20205009619803

Title of translation:

Authors: Wang, Zhongjiang (1, 2); Zou, Jianyang (1); Cao, Zhen (1); Wang, Lili (1); Liu, Zhuo (1); Li, Yibo (1)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin; 150030, China; (2) Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Technology and Equipment for the Utilization of Agricultural Renewable Resources, Harbin; 150030, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 321-328

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Urea is easily dissolved in water and converted into gaseous ammonia or ammonium and bicarbonate ions under the catalysis of urease. The effects of total solids (10%, 30%, 50% and 70%) and ratios of urea to corn stover (1:100, 1:20, 1:10, 1:2 and 7:10) on residual lignin content of corn stover were studied systematically at 75 to achieve the delignification kinetics of urea-pretreated corn stover, and the urea pretreatment characteristics of corn stover at different total solids were compared. The delignification kinetics characteristics of corn stover during urea pretreatment were fitted based on three first-order reactions. The first, second and third terms were based on the initial, bulk and residual phases of delignification, respectively. The results showed that the residual lignin content of urea-pretreated corn stover was decreased as the ratio of urea to corn stover was increased firstly, reached minimum and then increased as the ratio of urea to corn stover was increased when total solids was less than 50%. In comparison, the residual lignin content of urea-pretreated corn stover was decreased as the ratio of urea to corn stover was increased during pretreatment with total solids of 70%. The two optimal lignin removal rates of 71.05% and 68.69% were achieved at total solids of 10% and 70% with urea to corn stover ratios of 1:20 and 7:10, respectively. A good linear relationship between the residual lignin content of urea-pretreated corn stover and the solid recovery yield was obtained under different pretreatment conditions. The delignification selectivity of urea-pretreated corn stover was stable at 0.32~0.48 g/g during pretreatment process. The delignification kinetics of urea-pretreated corn stover conformed to the three first-order models of initial, bulk and residual phases. The maximum delignification fraction of the bulk-phase reached up to 0.71. Therefore, the aqueous or gaseous ammonia converted from urea at low or high total solids were equally favorable for the delignification of corn stover. The results provided good insights into the urea pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 30

Main heading: Urea

Controlled terms: Ammonia? - ?Ammonium bicarbonate? - ?Delignification? - ?Kinetics? - ?Lignin? - ?Lignocellulosic biomass? - ?Metabolism

Uncontrolled terms: Bicarbonate ions? - ?Delignification selectivities? - ?First order reactions? - ?First-order models? - ?Kinetics characteristics? - ?Linear relationships? - ?Pretreatment conditions? - ?Pretreatment process

Classification code: 804 Chemical Products Generally? - ?811.1.1 Papermaking Processes? - ?811.3 Cellulose, Lignin and Derivatives? - ?931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 1.00e+01%, Percentage 3.00e+01%, Percentage 5.00e+01%, Percentage 6.87e+01%, Percentage 7.00e+01%, Percentage 7.10e+01%

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.035

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

21. Design and Experiment of Shaking-branch Fruit Picking Machine for Camellia Fruit

Accession number: 20205009619802

Title of translation:

Authors: Wu, Delin (1); Fu, Liqiang (1); Cao, Chengmao (1); Li, Chao (1); Xu, Yanping (1); Ding, Da (1)

Author affiliation: (1) School of Engineering, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei; 230036, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 176-182 and 195

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Aiming at the problem of high leakage rate and large damage rate in mechanized picking of camellia fruit, a shaking-branch picker for camellia fruit was designed. According to the working principle of shaking-branch picking, the structural design of the key component crank connecting rod slider was completed. According to the working principle of the picking machine, the pressure when the picking head clamped the camellia branch was calculated and analyzed, and the vibration process of the camellia branch and fruit was analyzed and the equation was established. The results showed that the maximum pressure during clamping camellia branch was 2 826 N, and the radial force generated by the vibration on the branches was about 57.5 N, and the normal force was about 78.2 N. Clamping and vibration would not cause damage to the branches, verifying the feasibility of the shaking branch picking method. In order to ensure the safety of the picking machine, the statics analysis of the beam frame showed that its bending deformation was 0.000 5 mm, which was far less than the maximum allowable bending deflection, verified the safety and feasibility of the picking machine. According to the factors affecting the shedding of camellia fruit, a four-factor three-level orthogonal experiment was designed, and the combination of operating parameters with the highest net extraction rate was obtained. The picking time of the picking device was 10 s, the output frequency of the motor was 35 Hz, the amplitude of the picking head was 5 cm, and the clamping position of the picking claw (the distance between the blessing center of the camellia branches and the canopy of the camellia tree) was between 10 cm and 20 cm. At this time, the net harvest rate of camellia fruit was 95.2%, and the flower bud damage rate was 17.2%. In addition, a field experiment was carried out on the shaking-branch camellia fruit picking machine, and the damage to the branches basically met the picking requirements. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 20

Main heading: Fruits

Controlled terms: Bending (forming)? - ?Structural design? - ?Vibration analysis

Uncontrolled terms: Bending deflection? - ?Clamping positions? - ?Maximum pressure? - ?Operating parameters? - ?Orthogonal experiment? - ?Output frequency? - ?Picking machines? - ?Vibration process

Classification code: 408.1 Structural Design, General? - ?535.2 Metal Forming? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products

Numerical data indexing: Force 5.75e+01N, Force 7.82e+01N, Frequency 3.50e+01Hz, Percentage 1.72e+01%, Percentage 9.52e+01%, Size 1.00e-01m to 2.00e-01m, Size 5.00e-02m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.019

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

22. Design and Test of Soil Cutting and Digging Device Based on Ultrasonic Vibration

Accession number: 20205009619830

Title of translation:

Authors: Wang, Dongwei (1); Wang, Jiasheng (1)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao; 266109, China

Corresponding author: Wang, Jiasheng(jiasheng0813@163.com)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 85-92

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Aiming to solve the problems of high working resistance and high energy consumption of soil touching parts of agricultural production equipment, a technical scheme of reducing resistance was proposed by using ultrasonic high frequency vibration assisted soil cutting excavation, and the ultrasonic vibration soil cutting and digging device was designed. 20 kHz was selected as the excitation frequency, and the structural parameters of the key components such as sandwich transducer and conical horn were analyzed and designed based on the target of coupling resonance effect. The finite element model of the horn was established, and the modal analysis and harmonic response analysis were carried out by using the simulation method. The simulation results showed that the natural frequency of the horn axis expansion was close to 20 kHz, which was consistent with the design value. The test platform of ultrasonic vibration soil excavation resistance was set up, and the soil trench test of cutting resistance of soil with and without ultrasonic vibration was carried out. The test results showed that compared with the rigid digging shovel without vibration, the ultrasonic vibration digging shovel can effectively reduce the soil digging resistance. Under the conditions of soil hardness of 1.5 MPa, 2.5 MPa and 3.5 MPa, the corresponding soil digging resistance of ultrasonic vibration digging shovel can be effectively reduced. The resistance reduction rates were 35.1%, 40.7% and 44.3%, respectively. The greater the soil hardness was, the more obvious the drag reduction effect of ultrasonic vibration digging shovel was. With the increase of soil moisture content, the soil cutting resistance was decreased rapidly and then increased slowly. Due to the additional energy consumption of ultrasonic vibration excitation, the total energy consumption of vibration excavation was not effectively reduced. The experimental results verified the feasibility of the resistance reduction scheme and the rationality of the design parameters of the ultrasonic vibration soil cutting and digging device. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 20

Main heading: Ultrasonic effects

Controlled terms: Agricultural robots? - ?Agriculture? - ?Cutting equipment? - ?Energy utilization? - ?Excavation? - ?Hardness? - ?Modal analysis? - ?Shovels? - ?Soil moisture? - ?Ultrasonic waves

Uncontrolled terms: Agricultural productions? - ?Excitation frequency? - ?Harmonic response analysis? - ?High energy consumption? - ?High frequency vibration? - ?Resistance reduction? - ?Sandwich transducers? - ?Total energy consumption

Classification code: 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics? - ?525.3 Energy Utilization? - ?753.1 Ultrasonic Waves? - ?821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control? - ?921 Mathematics? - ?951 Materials Science

Numerical data indexing: Frequency 2.00e+04Hz, Percentage 3.51e+01%, Percentage 4.07e+01%, Percentage 4.43e+01%, Pressure 1.50e+06Pa, Pressure 2.50e+06Pa, Pressure 3.50e+06Pa

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.009

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

23. Design and Experiment of High-frequency Intermittent Fertilizer Supply System Based on PID Algorithm

Accession number: 20205009619812

Title of translation: PID

Authors: Yu, Changchang (1, 2); Li, Hongwen (1, 2); He, Jin (1, 2); Chen, Guibin (1, 2); Lu, Caiyun (1, 2); Wang, Qingjie (1, 2)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) Beijing Key Laboratory of Design and Optimization in Modern Agricultural Equipment, Beijing; 100083, China

Corresponding author: Wang, Qingjie(wangqingjie@cau.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 45-53 and 63

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Liquid fertilizer has the advantages of easy absorption, high efficiency and low environmental pollution compared with granular fertilizer. To achieve precise application of liquid fertilizer, a detecting seeds and target-spot application system of liquid fertilizer was proposed. The system needed liquid fertilizer to meet the requirements of small pressure fluctuations during high-frequency intermittent spraying, and ensure pressure stability when the intermittent spraying frequency was changed. Thus, a high-frequency intermittent fertilizer supply system was designed based on PID algorithm. Through the study of the hardware circuit and software program of the fertilizer supply system, the collection and control of the pressure for the fertilizer supply system was realized. And the interactive interface was designed to facilitate the setting of operating parameters and the display of real-time operating conditions. In order to get the best parameters of the PID algorithm, the critical proportion method for parameters tuning was used. After actual experimental adjustment, the proportional, integral and differential coefficients of the PID algorithm were determined to be 4, 0.079 and 0.012. A comparative test was implemented to compare the pressure change of the fertilizer supply system with and without the PID algorithm. The results showed that the pressure of the fertilizer supply system with the PID algorithm was more stable. To evaluate the stability of the fertilizer supply system based on PID algorithm at the operating speeds of 3 km/h, 4 km/h and 5 km/h and the setting pressure of 0.10 MPa, 0.15 MPa, 0.20 MPa, 0.25 MPa and 0.30 MPa, a bench test was carried out. The test indicators were maximum deviation, average deviation and standard deviation of the pressure for the fertilizer supply system pressure. The test results indicated that the maximum deviation, average deviation and standard deviation were not more than 6.49%, 1.54% and 0.40 MPa, which satisfied the requirements of detecting seeds and target-spot application system of liquid fertilizer for pressure stability. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 26

Main heading: Fertilizers

Controlled terms: Liquids? - ?Proportional control systems? - ?Statistics? - ?System stability

Uncontrolled terms: Differential coefficient? - ?Environmental pollutions? - ?Granular fertilizers? - ?Interactive interfaces? - ?Intermittent spraying? - ?Operating condition? - ?Operating parameters? - ?Pressure fluctuation

Classification code: 731.1 Control Systems? - ?804 Chemical Products Generally? - ?922.2 Mathematical Statistics? - ?961 Systems Science

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 1.54e+00%, Percentage 6.49e+00%, Pressure 1.00e+05Pa, Pressure 1.50e+05Pa, Pressure 2.00e+05Pa, Pressure 2.50e+05Pa, Pressure 3.00e+05Pa, Pressure 4.00e+05Pa, Velocity 1.11e+00m/s, Velocity 1.39e+00m/s, Velocity 8.33e-01m/s

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.005

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

24. Feature Selection and Model Construction of Wheat Stripe Rust Based on GA and SVR Algorithm

Accession number: 20205009619831

Title of translation: GASVR

Authors: Jing, Xia (1); Zhang, Teng (1); Bai, Zongfan (1); Huang, Wenjiang (2)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Geomatics Science and Technology, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an; 710054, China; (2) Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; 100094, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 253-263

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Scientific and accurate prediction of the incidence of wheat stripe rust is of great significance for its precise control. Reflectance data can detect crop biochemical parameters, while chlorophyll fluorescence has obvious advantages in photosynthetic physiological diagnosis. In order to improve the detection accuracy of wheat stripe rust and determine the sensitive factors and suitable algorithms for detecting the severity of wheat stripe rust by remote sensing, two feature selection algorithms, filters and wrappers were used to select solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and visible light absorption features of wheat stripe rust of different severity. Firstly, the absorption features and SIF data were calculated. Then, the genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector regression (SVR) wrapping method were used to select sensitive features of wheat stripe rust. For comparison, the correlation coefficient method of filter method for feature selection was also used. Finally, GA-SVR model and CC-SVR model for predicting the severity of wheat stripe rust were established by using the characteristics selected by the two methods. The results showed that the GA-SVR model constructed with the combined features of GA and SVR algorithms had better accuracy than that of the CC-SVR model. The verification results of the plot experiment data showed that the determination coefficient between the predicted disease index (DI) and the measured DI of the GA-SVR model in the three sample groups was at least 2.7% higher than that of the CC-SVR model, and the root mean square error was at least 10.1% lower than that of the CC-SVR model. The field survey data verification results also confirmed that using GA-SVR algorithm to optimize the sensitive factors for wheat stripe rust remote sensing detection and model construction can improve the accuracy of wheat stripe rust remote sensing detection. The research results provided a new idea for further realizing large-scale high-precision remote sensing monitoring of crop health status. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 58

Main heading: Genetic algorithms

Controlled terms: Chlorophyll? - ?Crops? - ?Diagnosis? - ?Feature extraction? - ?Fluorescence? - ?Light absorption? - ?Mean square error? - ?Physiological models? - ?Plants (botany)? - ?Remote sensing ? - ?Support vector regression

Uncontrolled terms: Chlorophyll fluorescence? - ?Correlation coefficient method? - ?Determination coefficients? - ?Feature selection algorithm? - ?Remote sensing monitoring? - ?Root mean square errors? - ?Support vector regression (SVR)? - ?Visible light absorption

Classification code: 461.6 Medicine and Pharmacology? - ?741.1 Light/Optics? - ?804.1 Organic Compounds? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products? - ?922.2 Mathematical Statistics

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 1.01e+01%, Percentage 2.70e+00%

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.028

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

25. Tracking and Measuring Method of Tomato Main-stem Based on Visual Servo

Accession number: 20205009619794

Title of translation:

Authors: Feng, Qingchun (1, 2); Wang, Xiu (2, 3); Liu, Jizhan (4); Cheng, Wei (2, 3); Chen, Jian (1)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing; 100097, China; (3) Beijing Key Laboratory of Intelligent Equipment Technology for Agriculture, Beijing; 100097, China; (4) School of Agricultural Equipment Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang; 212013, China

Corresponding author: Chen, Jian(jchen@cau.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 221-228

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Aiming at target’s visual information acquisition for robotic management in tomato greenhouse, the method of tracking and measuring the plant’s main-stem was researched, which was supposed to improve the detection efficiency on the object, such as fruit, leaf and flower. According to the tomato’s factory-planted condition in greenhouse, a binocular vision system with two-freedom pan-tilt mechanism was adopted to capture plant’s image and the calibration on the relationship between camera and pan-tilt coordinates data was introduced. The pan-tilt’s servo control method for tracking the plant’s main-stem was proposed, so that the camera could automatically capture the plants bottom-up images. The image matching method for splicing the discrete main-stem in the adjacent view-fields was researched, so as to recover the plant’s image morphology. Based on the 3D coordinate data of a series of tracking reference points, the main-stem’s length, vertical height, and inclination angle could be estimated. Finally, the method for tracking and measuring tomato’s main-stem was tested in greenhouse. As the result showed, in the working area from 600 mm to 1 500 mm high from the ground, the vision system could capture three images of various view-fields, and the main-stem’s average splicing deviation was 3.77°. Compared with manual measurement results, the results of the automatic measurement method on main-stem’s length, vertical height and inclination angle, respectively had the determination coefficients of 0.993 3, 0.842 6 and 0.979 3, and the average deviations of 46.20 mm, 18.60 mm and 4.33°, respectively. In view of the performance on tracking and measuring target, the method was expected to be a support for researching on tomato’s automatic pruning, harvesting and pollinating. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 26

Main heading: Object tracking

Controlled terms: Binocular vision? - ?Cameras? - ?Fruits? - ?Greenhouses? - ?Object detection? - ?Stereo image processing? - ?Target tracking

Uncontrolled terms: Automatic measurement methods? - ?Average deviation? - ?Binocular vision systems? - ?Detection efficiency? - ?Determination coefficients? - ?Inclination angles? - ?Manual measurements? - ?Visual information

Classification code: 723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing? - ?741.2 Vision? - ?742.2 Photographic Equipment? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products? - ?821.6 Farm Buildings and Other Structures

Numerical data indexing: Size 1.86e-02m, Size 4.62e-02m, Size 6.00e-01m to 1.50e+00m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.024

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

26. Image Color Correction Method for Greenhouse Tomato Plant Based on HDR Imaging

Accession number: 20205009619819

Title of translation:

Authors: Feng, Qingchun (1, 2); Wang, Xiu (2, 3); Li, Junhui (4); Li, Xiaoming (4); Cheng, Wei (2, 3); Chen, Jian (1)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing; 100097, China; (3) Beijing Key Laboratory of Intelligent Equipment Technology for Agriculture, Beijing; 100097, China; (4) Beijing Vocational College of Agriculture, Beijing; 102208, China

Corresponding author: Chen, Jian(jchen@cau.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 235-242

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: In order to accurately acquire the tomato plants’ image information under the complex illumination in greenhouse, the method of correcting image color based on high dynamic range (HDR) imaging was researched, which was urgently needed for robotic production in greenhouse. Focused at the color distortion caused from sunlight’s continuous variation and background object’s radiation saltation, the color image’s brightness data was extracted from CIE XYZ color mode. And the camera’s response function was recovered, according to the brightness images with various exposure time of 0.01 ms, 0.05 ms, 0.08 ms and 0.10 ms. As the HDR image data, the radiation intensity of the view field was estimated based on the response function, referring to the underexposed image’s brightness. The HDR brightness data was compressed into brightness image with grey value range of (0, 255), by the S-shaped mapping function, and then the brightness data was integrated into the underexposed image to reconstruct the image color data. Finally, the color correction method was verified by field test in greenhouse. As the result showed, the method was applicative for improving color quality of images, captured from different scenes under the various sunlight at different time. Specifically, the image’s entropy, standard deviation, and average gradient were averagely raised by 16.87%, 9.81% and 19.49%, respectively, after the original images captured with the serial exposure time were fused, and the color of image captured at different time could keep stable. The research result was supposed as the reference for acquiring object image information under the complex agricultural environment. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 25

Main heading: Color image processing

Controlled terms: Agricultural robots? - ?Color? - ?Electromagnetic wave attenuation? - ?Fruits? - ?Greenhouses? - ?Image enhancement? - ?Luminance

Uncontrolled terms: Agricultural environments? - ?Background objects? - ?Color distortions? - ?Greenhouse tomatoes? - ?High dynamic range? - ?Radiation intensity? - ?Response functions? - ?Standard deviation

Classification code: 711 Electromagnetic Waves? - ?741.1 Light/Optics? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products? - ?821.6 Farm Buildings and Other Structures

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 1.69e+01%, Percentage 1.95e+01%, Percentage 9.81e+00%, Time 1.00e-04s, Time 1.00e-05s, Time 5.00e-05s, Time 8.00e-05s

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.026

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

27. Mechanical Performance Analysis of MR Damper Based on Magnetic Field FE and CFD

Accession number: 20205009619852

Title of translation: FECFD

Authors: Liu, Xinyun (1); Wu, Dalin (1); Ma, Jisheng (2)

Author affiliation: (1) Department of Artillery Engineering, Army Engineering University, Shijiazhuang; 050001, China; (2) College of Mechanical Engineering, Xijing University, Xi’an; 710123, China

Corresponding author: Wu, Dalin(dalinwu@163.com)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 411-417 and 337

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Magnetorheological (MR) damper is widely used due to its excellent damping and controllability. A resettable magnetorheological damper with double-ended and double coils was installed in a heavy machinery. In order to study the mechanical performance of the damper under a specific impact, experimental and simulation methods were used for analysis. Through the one-way coupling numerical simulation method of magnetic field finite element (FE) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a numerical model with implicit dynamic mesh boundaries was established in ANSYS/Fluent based on six DOF module. A user-defined function (UDF) based on C language was used to define the constitutive model of MR fluid and capture the magnetic field. The model considered the non-Newtonian region overflowing on both sides of annular gap, the compressibility of liquid and the polytropic process of air spring. In addition, the CFD model was verified by a uniform quasi-static experiment. The results showed that under the condition of continuous power-on, the damper velocity after impact was dropped to zero within 80 ms, but the piston was stopped at a displacement of 1.3 mm during the reset process, and the power can be completely reset after being disconnected. During the impact, a number of different vortices were generated in the fluid domain, and the larger vortices appeared on the back side of the piston movement direction. The heat that caused temperature rise was mainly generated in the annular gap, and the temperature distribution in fluid domain was uneven. The research mainly provided research methods and theoretical support for MR dampers under impact. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 26

Main heading: Computational fluid dynamics

Controlled terms: Compressibility of liquids? - ?Damping? - ?Finite element method? - ?Magnetic fields? - ?Non Newtonian flow? - ?Numerical methods? - ?Numerical models? - ?Pistons? - ?Vortex flow

Uncontrolled terms: Implicit dynamics? - ?Magneto-rheological dampers? - ?Mechanical performance? - ?Numerical simulation method? - ?One-way couplings? - ?Polytropic process? - ?Quasi-static experiments? - ?User-defined functions

Classification code: 612.1.1 Internal Combustion Engine Components? - ?631.1 Fluid Flow, General? - ?701.2 Magnetism: Basic Concepts and Phenomena? - ?921 Mathematics? - ?921.6 Numerical Methods? - ?931.1 Mechanics? - ?931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids

Numerical data indexing: Size 1.30e-03m, Time 8.00e-02s

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.045

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

28. Multi-objective Optimization of Dimensional Synthesis for 2-PUR-PSR Parallel Manipulator

Accession number: 20205009619725

Title of translation: 2-PUR-PSR

Authors: Zhang, Weizhong (1, 2); Li, Jinping (3); Ye, Min (4); Yang, Chao (5)

Author affiliation: (1) Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou; 310018, China; (2) Faculty of Automation, Zhejiang Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hangzhou; 310058, China; (3) School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney; NSW; 2052, Australia; (4) School of Construction Machinery, Chang’an University, Xi’an; 710064, China; (5) College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing; 314001, China

Corresponding author: Yang, Chao(yangchaox@163.com)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 403-410

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Aiming at the problem of kinematic performance optimization of three degree of freedom (3-DOF) two rotations and one translations parallel mechanism driven by outer pair, a multi-objective optimization design method of the dimension synthesis was proposed. The Screw theory was used to analyze the kinematics performance and obtain the inverse solution of the position for the parallel mechanism. The reachable workspace was divided into n layers, the polar coordinate method was used to calculate the maximum inscribed circle at each layer, and the numerical method was adopted to calculate the volume of the regular workspace of the frustum of a cone formed by the maximum inscribed circle of each layer. Considering the volume of the regular workspace and global motion/force transmission index as the objective functions, driving range and rotation angle of joints as the constraint conditions, and the mechanism parameters as the design variables, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to find the Pareto optimal front of the objective functions, the results showed that the two objective functions conflicted with each other. The optimal value of GTI at the front of Pareto was increased by 57.57% compared with that before optimization, and the optimal value of Vr was increased by 37.59% compared with that before optimization. The comparison results before and after optimization showed effectiveness of the optimization algorithm. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 37

Main heading: Multiobjective optimization

Controlled terms: Data handling? - ?Degrees of freedom (mechanics)? - ?Inverse problems? - ?Kinematics? - ?Manipulators? - ?Mechanisms? - ?Numerical methods? - ?Optimal systems? - ?Pareto principle? - ?Particle swarm optimization (PSO)

Uncontrolled terms: Constraint conditions? - ?Dimensional synthesis? - ?Kinematic performance? - ?Kinematics performance? - ?Multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithms? - ?Optimization algorithms? - ?Parallel manipulators? - ?Three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF)

Classification code: 601.3 Mechanisms? - ?723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing? - ?921.5 Optimization Techniques? - ?921.6 Numerical Methods? - ?931.1 Mechanics? - ?961 Systems Science

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 3.76e+01%, Percentage 5.76e+01%

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.044

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

29. Performance of Mixed Flow Pump under Condition of Non-linear Distribution of Impeller Exit Circulation

Accession number: 20205009619798

Title of translation:

Authors: Wang, Mengcheng (1); Li, Yanjun (1); Yuan, Jianping (1); Chen, Jiaqi (1); Zheng, Yunhao (1); Yang, Pinghui (2)

Author affiliation: (1) National Research Center of Pumps, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang; 212013, China; (2) Wuhan Special Industrial Pump Factory, Wuhan; 430058, China

Corresponding author: Li, Yanjun(lyj782900@ujs.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 204-211

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: In order to study the influence of impeller outlet span-wise circulation nonlinear distribution on external characteristics and internal flow field of the mixed flow pump in the inverse design, expand the optimization space, on the basis of the accuracy of numerical simulation verified by experiments, totally 17 different circulation distribution forms were constructed by inserting five control points into the span-wise of impeller exit to control the circulation distribution. Keeping other design parameters unchanged, the inverse design method was used to carry out three-dimensional modeling, and simulation calculation was carried out by commercial software CFX, the external characteristics and inner flow field were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the circulation distribution form had less influence of impeller efficiency on design points and small flow points. When the circulation value was small at the shroud and large at the 0.75ra, the pump efficiency under the condition of large flow would be greatly improved. In addition, compared with the circulation at the shroud, the circulation at 0.75ra played a leading role in improving the pump efficiency under the condition of large flow. The circulation distribution form had a greater impact on the cavitation performance of the impeller under every flow condition. The cavitation performance under small flow conditions and design flow conditions can be effectively improved when the circulation value was bigger at shroud and small at 0.75ra, but the cavitation performance under large flow conditions would be decreased accordingly. The circulation distribution form can significantly change the internal flow field of the impeller and affect the work capacity of the blade at different blade heights. Therefore, to further improve the comprehensive performance of mixed flow pump when using inverse design method, researching the nonlinear distribution of impeller outlet circulation had an important significance. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 27

Main heading: Impellers

Controlled terms: Cavitation? - ?Computer software? - ?Design? - ?Efficiency? - ?Flow fields? - ?Flow measurement? - ?Inverse problems? - ?Pumps

Uncontrolled terms: Cavitation performance? - ?Circulation distribution? - ?Comprehensive performance? - ?External characteristic? - ?Inverse design methods? - ?Non-linear distribution? - ?Simulation calculation? - ?Three-dimensional model

Classification code: 601.2 Machine Components? - ?618.2 Pumps? - ?631.1 Fluid Flow, General? - ?631.1.1 Liquid Dynamics? - ?723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications? - ?913.1 Production Engineering

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.022

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

30. Header Height Control Strategy of Harvester Based on Robust Feedback Linearization

Accession number: 20205009619765

Title of translation:

Authors: Zhuang, Xiaobo (1); Li, Yaoming (1)

Author affiliation: (1) Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Ministry of Education, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang; 212013, China

Corresponding author: Li, Yaoming(ymli@ujs.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 123-130

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: In the operation of grain combine harvester, the height control of header is particularly important. Effective header height control helps to improve the stability of feeding amount and reduce the working load fluctuation of each link of the whole machine. A kind of header height control strategy based on robust feedback linearization was introduced, which made the header follow the ground fluctuation to adjust the pitch control, so as to achieve the purpose of consistent stubble height. Firstly, the mathematical model of the system was established based on the analysis of the structure and dynamics of the header, and the approximate condition of sinusoidal angle reduction was selected to linearize the multi-variable complex nonlinear system into a typical nonlinear system. The traditional feedback linearization control was analyzed, and the controllable affine model building method was studied. The reason that it lacked of robustness due to its high dependence on the identification accuracy of the system was obtained. Furthermore, based on the integrated robust optimal design (IROD) controller, the robust feedback linearization (RFL) was proposed, which stabilized the system by constructing the sensitivity equation and selecting the gain; furthermore, the robust feedback linearization was proposed according to the current parameters of hydraulic output, the controller was designed for the output of robust feedback linearization control system. In the contrast simulation experiment, the traditional PID control was compared with the proposed robust feedback linearization control. The height error under the robust feedback linearization control was smaller than that of the traditional PID control under the conditions of different driving speeds, sinusoidal amplitude and terrain period; and the robust feedback linearization was realized under the measured conditions of three different driving speeds on rolling ground. Therefore, compared with the traditional PID control, the robust feedback linearization controller had higher steady-state accuracy and improved the consistency of stubble. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 22

Main heading: Feedback linearization

Controlled terms: Controllers? - ?Harvesters? - ?Nonlinear systems? - ?Optimization? - ?Spatial variables control? - ?Structural design? - ?Three term control systems

Uncontrolled terms: Feedback linearization control? - ?Identification accuracy? - ?Robust feedback linearizations? - ?Robust Optimal Design? - ?Sensitivity equations? - ?Sinusoidal amplitudes? - ?Steady state accuracy? - ?Structure and dynamics

Classification code: 408.1 Structural Design, General? - ?731.1 Control Systems? - ?731.3 Specific Variables Control? - ?732.1 Control Equipment? - ?821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment? - ?921.5 Optimization Techniques? - ?961 Systems Science

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.013

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

31. Separation and Characterization of Starch Granule Outer Shells

Accession number: 20205009619858

Title of translation:

Authors: Yang, Qi (1); Huang, Junrong (1); Yan, Qing (1); Ma, Yun (1); Fang, Chenlu (1); Zong, Wei (2)

Author affiliation: (1) School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an; 710021, China; (2) School of Food and Biological Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou; 450001, China

Corresponding author: Huang, Junrong(huangjunrong@sust.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 366-373

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: The structure of starch can be divided into four levels: molecule, blocklet, shell and granule. Based on the starch gelatinization characteristics determination program of six kind of starches (sweet potato, cassava, pea, mung bean, corn and wheat), outer shells from different starches were obtained by using insufficient gelatinization method (treatment temperature from 95 to 73~89, pH value from 7 to 1.5 in acetic acid solution of 7.1 mol/L). The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) showed that the outer shells were hollow, distorted, rough and had openings or holes, compared with the native starch granules. Acetic acid can affect the morphology of starch, during the gelatinization process almost all the internal substances of starch granules were dissolved into the solution, and the molecular distribution of outer shells became loose or partially dissolved with the expansion of particles. Starch outer shells can maintain its own structure better in the treatment process, which was quite different from the internal structure. The thickness of outer shells was ranged from 50 nm to 470 nm, the amylose content and relative crystallinity were lower than those of the native starch, and the molecular weight ranges was 4.3×107~5.2×107 g/mol, which was close to the molecular weight of native starch (3.8×107~4.7×107 g/mol). There were no significant correlations between the thickness of outer shells and the particle size, amylose content and relative crystallinity of starch. The outer shell of corn starch was relatively complete, which can be used as a type of biomacromolecule slow-release self-assembly coating material and had a broad application prospect. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 39

Main heading: Starch

Controlled terms: Acetic acid? - ?Crystallinity? - ?Cyclodextrins? - ?Gelation? - ?Granulation? - ?Molecular weight? - ?Particle size? - ?pH? - ?Plants (botany)? - ?Scanning electron microscopy ? - ?Shells (structures)

Uncontrolled terms: Internal structure? - ?Laser scanning confocal microscopy? - ?Molecular distribution? - ?Relative crystallinity? - ?Separation and characterizations? - ?Starch gelatinization? - ?Treatment process? - ?Treatment temperature

Classification code: 408.2 Structural Members and Shapes? - ?801.1 Chemistry, General? - ?802.3 Chemical Operations? - ?804.1 Organic Compounds? - ?931.3 Atomic and Molecular Physics

Numerical data indexing: Molar_Concentration 7.10e+03mol/m3, Size 5.00e-08m to 4.70e-07m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.040

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

32. Development of Driven Plow-Rotary Combined Tillage Machine for Construction of Rational Tillage in Rape Seedbeds

Accession number: 20205009619781

Title of translation:

Authors: Liao, Qingxi (1, 2); Bu, Xiangli (1); Sun, Wencheng (1); Wei, Guoliang (1); Zhang, Qingsong (1, 2); Wang, Pengcheng (1)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan; 430070, China; (2) Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment in Mid-lower Yangtze Rive, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan; 430070, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 74-84

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: A rational ploughing method of “deep turning and stubble, tightly lifting and lowering loose” suitable for rapeseed seedbed was proposed to solve the problems caused by the traditional mechanical plowing in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the use of traditional mechanical plowing resulted in thinning of the plough layer, hickening of the plough bottom layer and soil compaction affecting rape root growth. Combined the requirements for the construction of a reasonable plow layer of rapeseed and the up-and-down rotation tillage operation, combined farming operation scheme combining active opposed plowing and rotary tillage was designed. A driven plough-rotor with a function of cutting and turning stubble (grass), rotary ploughing, and levelling trenches was developed. The structural layout of the driven disc plough and the type and row of rotary ploughs were determined. And the imitated boot-shaped acute-angle groove opener was developed for the middle groove. Field experiments showed that the driving plough-rotary tiller had a tillage depth of 150~230 mm, and the stability of the tillage depth was 90.4%. The imitated boot-shaped acute angle opener could open a trapezoidal groove that met the requirements in the middle open trench area. The groove width was 200~400 mm and the groove depth was 205.6~250.0 mm. The flatness of the cabin surface was 15.25~18.60 mm, the soil crushing rate was 80.52%~88.43%, the rate of vegetation coverage was 92.3% and the single width of the cabin surface was 852~956 mm after the prototype machine operation, which met the requirements for the reasonable cultivation layer construction of the rapeseed bed and the water and dry rotation cultivation. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 30

Main heading: Agricultural machinery

Controlled terms: Cultivation? - ?Oilseeds? - ?Soil mechanics

Uncontrolled terms: Field experiment? - ?Middle and lower reaches of the yangtze rivers? - ?Operation schemes? - ?Prototype machine? - ?Rotary tillages? - ?Soil compaction? - ?Structural layout? - ?Vegetation coverage

Classification code: 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics? - ?821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 9.04e+01%, Percentage 9.23e+01%, Size 1.50e-01m to 2.30e-01m, Size 1.52e-02m to 1.86e-02m, Size 2.00e-01m to 4.00e-01m, Size 2.06e-01m to 2.50e-01m, Size 8.52e-01m to 9.56e-01m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.008

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

33. Design Optimization and Experiment of Tooth-plate Topping Device of Sugar Beet Harvester

Accession number: 20205009619779

Title of translation:

Authors: Wang, Fangyan (1); Zhang, Zhenyu (1); Zhang, Qin (1); Wang, Xin (2)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao; 266109, China; (2) College of Architectural Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao; 266109, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 168-175

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Aiming at the problems that the existing topping device has high requirements on the shape of green head, tassel leaf state and plant spacing, and poor adaptability, etc., a tooth-plate beet topping device was studied. Through the analysis of the motion characteristics of the beet topping device, the stochastic characteristics of the motion of topping device and key influencing factors of the stress of sugar beet were clarified. Combining the working principle and movement space of the topping device, the key structure and parameters were determined to ensure the smooth top surface and low resistance. The connecting rod of the profiler was determined to be 300 mm, the connecting rod was 220 mm, the pitch of tooth plate was 40 mm, the height of limit plate was 80 mm, the lead distance was 25 mm and the installation angle was 45°. According to the special position of the top cutter, the contour curve of the tooth plate was determined, and the working adaptability of the topping device was improved. With the help of Design-Expert software, a mathematical regression model of the key factors and evaluation indicators was obtained, and the influence law of forward speed and spring force on the pass rate and multi-cut rate was determined. Through parameter index optimization, the optimal parameter combination was determined: the forward speed was 1.0 m/s, and the spring force was 23 N. Field tests showed that tooth-plate topping device was better than the flat cutting device, the pass rate was 99.6%, and the multi-cutting rate was 0.95%, which met the requirements of the beet topping harvest index. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 26

Main heading: Plates (structural components)

Controlled terms: Clarification? - ?Connecting rods? - ?Harvesters? - ?Regression analysis? - ?Stochastic systems? - ?Sugar beets

Uncontrolled terms: Design optimization? - ?Evaluation indicators? - ?Installation angle? - ?Key influencing factors? - ?Motion characteristics? - ?Optimal parameter combinations? - ?Stochastic characteristic? - ?Sugar beet harvesters

Classification code: 408.2 Structural Members and Shapes? - ?802.3 Chemical Operations? - ?821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products? - ?922.2 Mathematical Statistics? - ?961 Systems Science

Numerical data indexing: Force 2.30e+01N, Percentage 9.50e-01%, Percentage 9.96e+01%, Size 2.20e-01m, Size 2.50e-02m, Size 3.00e-01m, Size 4.00e-02m, Size 8.00e-02m, Velocity 1.00e+00m/s

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.018

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

34. Simulation of Vibration Response of Flexible Crop Stem Based on Discrete Element Method

Accession number: 20205009619840

Title of translation:

Authors: Wang, Qirui (1); Mao, Hanping (1, 2); Li, Qinglin (1)

Author affiliation: (1) Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Ministry of Education, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang; 212013, China; (2) High-tech Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment and Intelligentization of Jiangsu Province, Zhenjiang; 212013, China

Corresponding author: Mao, Hanping(maohp@ujs.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 131-137

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: In the field of harvesting machinery, it is advantageous to consider the characteristics of crops in the design stage rather than through actual mechanical tests especially in terms of reducing costs and shortening the development cycle. By establishing a dynamic model that considered the vibration response characteristics of flexible crop stems, it was of great significance to explore the separation mechanism of grains and grass, analyze the grains separation process and optimize the parameters of the combine harvester. A dynamic simulation method for flexible crop stem was proposed, and the dynamic response characteristics of crop stem were studied. Firstly, the dynamic model and dynamic simulation method of crop flexible stem were given. Taking the third internode of the mature wheat as an example, important parameters such as the inner and outer diameter, unit mass density and elastic modulus of the stem were measured. Then, by simulating the lateral and longitudinal vibration characteristics of the stem, the basic dynamic response characteristics of the stem were studied, and the reliability of the simulation was verified by comparing with the theoretical calculation results. The lateral vibration frequency and longitudinal vibration frequency of the wheat stems with a length of 108 mm, an outer diameter of 3.7 mm, an inner diameter of 1.9 mm, and a Young’s modulus of 5.27 GPa obtained by simulation were 164.28 Hz and 7 633.59 Hz, respectively. The relative errors of the theoretical calculation results were 0.28% and 0.12%, respectively. Finally, the practicability of the flexible stem model was verified by simulating the separation experiment. The simulation results were in good agreement with the theoretical calculation results. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 25

Main heading: Vibration analysis

Controlled terms: Crops? - ?Dynamic models? - ?Dynamic response? - ?Elastic moduli? - ?Grain (agricultural product)? - ?Machine design? - ?Machinery? - ?Separation

Uncontrolled terms: Combine harvesters? - ?Dynamic response characteristics? - ?Lateral vibrations? - ?Longitudinal vibrations? - ?Separation mechanism? - ?Separation process? - ?Theoretical calculations? - ?Vibration response

Classification code: 601 Mechanical Design? - ?802.3 Chemical Operations? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products? - ?921 Mathematics? - ?951 Materials Science

Numerical data indexing: Frequency 1.64e+02Hz, Frequency 6.34e+02Hz, Percentage 1.20e-01%, Percentage 2.80e-01%, Pressure 5.27e+09Pa, Size 1.08e-01m, Size 1.90e-03m, Size 3.70e-03m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.014

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

35. Proportional Fluorescence Sensing Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Environment

Accession number: 20205009619788

Title of translation:

Authors: Xu, Xiahong (1); Quan, Haoran (1); He, Kaiyu (1); Wang, Liu (1); Wang, Xinquan (1); Wang, Qiang (1)

Author affiliation: (1) Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou; 310021, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 229-234

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Monitoring organophosphorus pesticide residues in agricultural environment is of great significance for the safety control of agricultural products from the source of breeding and planting. Based on zirconium ions and 1, 2, 4, 5-tetramine (4-carboxyphenyl) benzene (H4TCPB), a kind of blue fluorescent Zr-TCPB metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) materials was synthesized. And the Zr-TCPB MOFs and quantum dots (QDs, emission at 625 nm) was employed to develop a proportional fluorescent sensor using the QDs@MOFs complex. Based on the specific fluorescence quenching response of Zr-TCPB MOFs to some kinds of organophosphorus pesticides, a proportional fluorescence chemical sensing technology was constructed to realize the rapid, sensitive and visual detection of organophosphorus pesticides such as methyl-parathion and parathion in agricultural environment. The limits of detection (LOD) for methyl-parathion and parathion were 1.9 μg/L and 4.9 μg/L, respectively, and the linear detection range was 0.005~2 mg/L. Based on the sensitive fluorescence quenching effect, it had a good specific detection ability for methyl-parathion and parathion. In addition, the fluorescence analysis method can be effectively applied to the rapid field determination of methyl-parathion and parathion in water samples of agricultural environment. The recovery rate of methyl-parathion was 93.23%~116.46%, with an average RSD of 5.29%, and the recovery rate of parathion was 92.52%~107.83%, with an average RSD of 5.74%. The results showed that the developed method had great application value in the rapid monitoring of pesticides residue in agricultural environmental samples. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 24

Main heading: Pesticides

Controlled terms: Agricultural products? - ?Agricultural robots? - ?Chemical detection? - ?Chemical sensors? - ?Fluorescence? - ?Fluorescence quenching? - ?Metal-Organic Frameworks? - ?Organometallics? - ?Quenching? - ?Semiconductor quantum dots

Uncontrolled terms: Agricultural environments? - ?Chemical sensing technology? - ?Fluorescence analysis? - ?Fluorescence quenching effect? - ?Fluorescence sensing? - ?Linear detection ranges? - ?Metalorganic frameworks (MOFs)? - ?Organophos-phorus pesticides

Classification code: 537.1 Heat Treatment Processes? - ?714.2 Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits? - ?741.1 Light/Optics? - ?801 Chemistry? - ?803 Chemical Agents and Basic Industrial Chemicals? - ?804.1 Organic Compounds? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products

Numerical data indexing: Mass_Density 1.90e-06kg/m3, Mass_Density 4.90e-06kg/m3, Mass_Density 5.00e-06kg/m3 to 2.00e-03kg/m3, Percentage 5.29e+00%, Percentage 5.74e+00%, Size 6.25e-07m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.025

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

36. Pressure Dependent Friction Model of Hydraulic Cylinder

Accession number: 20205009619745

Title of translation:

Authors: Li, Yibo (1); Zeng, Yunlong (1); Pan, Qing (1, 2); Jiang, Xuepeng (1)

Author affiliation: (1) Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha; 410083, China; (2) State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou; 310027, China

Corresponding author: Pan, Qing(panqing0905@gmail.com)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 418-426

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: The friction force cannot be predicted accurately by using the classical friction model without considering hydraulic fluid pressure effects. In order to solve this problem, the modified steady-state friction model (P-Stribeck) and dynamic friction model (P-GMS) based on Stribeck and generalized Maxwell slip model (GMS) were proposed by introducing pressure influence coefficient dynamic friction time constant. To validate the effectiveness of those proposed friction models, a hydraulic cylinder test platform was developed to study the friction characteristics of hydraulic cylinders. Therefore, the friction behaviors of hydraulic cylinders for different seal types, different cylinder bores, different loads, different velocity and frequencies were investigated. The intelligent genetic algorithm was adopted to identify the friction parameters of the proposed steady friction model and dynamic friction model. The identification and validation procedures of the developed friction models were conducted with the data of inlet and outlet pressure, displacement/velocity, friction force and other data collected from the hydraulic cylinder test bench. The experimental results were compared with that of predicted by the classic friction models and proposed friction models. Also, an error analysis procedure of the proposed friction models was conducted under different operation conditions. The results showed that the predicting accuracy of steady state friction force of the P-Stribeck model was better than that of the Stribeck model; in addition, the precision of friction estimation of the proposed P-GMS model was higher than that of the GMS model. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 26

Main heading: Friction

Controlled terms: Cylinders (shapes)? - ?Genetic algorithms? - ?Mechanical actuators? - ?Pressure effects

Uncontrolled terms: Dynamic friction models? - ?Fluid pressure effect? - ?Friction characteristics? - ?Generalized Maxwell-slip model? - ?Influence coefficient? - ?Intelligent genetic algorithm? - ?Operation conditions? - ?Steady-state friction forces

Classification code: 732.1 Control Equipment? - ?931.1 Mechanics

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.046

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

37. Design and Experiment of Flexible Gripper for Mushroom Non-destructive Picking

Accession number: 20205009619738

Title of translation:

Authors: Lu, Wei (1, 2); Wang, Peng (1); Wang, Ling (1, 2); Deng, Yiming (3)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing; 210031, China; (2) Jiangsu Province Engineering Laboratory of Modern Facility Agriculture Technology and Equipment, Nanjing; 210031, China; (3) College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing; MI; 48824, United States

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 28-36

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: For the automatic and non-destructive picking of the delicate and fragile brown mushroom, the biological and mechanical characteristics of the brown mushroom were firstly analyzed, the constraint equations of grasping force at pulling-off and twisting-off modes were given, and then the twisting-off picking mode was selected as an optimal method. Secondly, by using ANSYS, a finite element analysis software, the static analysis of the flexible finger grasping mushroom was carried out to give the relationships between the grasp force and the flexible finger knots, the diameter of brown mushroom, air pressure. The genetic algorithm was used based on the established evaluation function to obtain the optimal structure of the flexible gripper with three fingers and four knuckles, and the optimal air pressure of 18.65 kPa for grasping. A flexible gripper with three fingers and four knuckles was developed based on the above study. And the brown mushroom picking experiment was carried out, and the results showed that the successful grasping force was reduced to(2.4±0.3)N compared with that of the rigid gripper with (5.6±0.7)N. Moreover, the surface and interior of the grasped mushroom by the developed flexible gripper were intact, while the surface and interior within 5 mm depth of the grasped mushroom were damaged by using a rigid gripper. The research result showed that the designed flexible gripper with three fingers and four knuckles was feasible for brown mushroom picking automatically and non-destructively. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 39

Main heading: Grippers

Controlled terms: Atmospheric pressure? - ?Genetic algorithms? - ?Static analysis? - ?Structural optimization

Uncontrolled terms: Constraint equation? - ?Evaluation function? - ?Finite element analysis software? - ?Flexible grippers? - ?Mechanical characteristics? - ?Non destructive? - ?Optimal structures? - ?Research results

Classification code: 443.1 Atmospheric Properties? - ?723.5 Computer Applications? - ?731.5 Robotics? - ?921.5 Optimization Techniques

Numerical data indexing: Pressure 1.86e+04Pa, Size 5.00e-03m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.003

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

38. Screening for Potential Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Based on α-glucosidase Inhibitory Activity

Accession number: 20205009619827

Title of translation: α-

Authors: Zeng, Zhu (1, 2); Chen, Yanling (1, 2); Chen, Shangwu (3)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Sericulture, Textile and Biomass Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing; 400715, China; (2) Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Chongqing; 400715, China; (3) College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China

Corresponding author: Chen, Shangwu(Swchen@cau.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 349-356

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria strains (LAB) are regarded as safe food-grade microorganism and have been used in fermented food production and preservation for a long history. Some of the LAB strains are considered as probiotics and have the potential to regulate diabetes. In order to screen potential hypoglycemic probiotic strains in vitro, 10 Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional dairy products were determined for the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase from porcine intestine. The basic features of probiotics, including gastrointestinal fluid tolerance and cell adhesion, were also investigated. Some strains were selected for further study of their effects on α-glucosidase activity and gene expression level by Transwell model established by Caco-2 cells. The results showed that all the 10 strains showed different degrees of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, which peaked at the logarithmic or stationary phase of the strains growth, and then decreased. The evaluation of the basic features of probiotics suggested that three strains with higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity showed tolerance to the simulated gastrointestinal fluid and strong HT-29 cell adhesion. The Caco-2 cells model showed that Lactobacillus strains could both inhibit α-glucosidase activity and its mRNA expression. The selected three Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus paracasei strains L14 and Z3-11, and Lactobacillus plantarum strain NL42 displayed high α-glucosidase activity and good probiotic properties and may serve as potential probiotics for the auxiliary management of diabetes. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 41

Main heading: Probiotics

Controlled terms: Bacilli? - ?Cell adhesion? - ?Dairies? - ?Gene expression? - ?Lactic acid? - ?Strain

Uncontrolled terms: Alpha glucosidase? - ?Gene expression levels? - ?Inhibitory activity? - ?Lactic acid bacteria? - ?Lactobacillus plantarum? - ?Lactobacillus strains? - ?Probiotic strain? - ?Stationary phase

Classification code: 461.9 Biology? - ?804.1 Organic Compounds? - ?822.1 Food Products Plants and Equipment? - ?951 Materials Science

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.038

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

39. Design and Experiment of Roller Hole Fertilizer Application between Corn Rows

Accession number: 20205009619747

Title of translation:

Authors: Wan, Ling (1, 2); Xie, Dongbo (1, 2); Li, Yang (1, 2); Chen, Liqing (1, 2)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei; 230036, China; (2) Anhui Province Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Agricultural Machinery and Equipment, Hefei; 230036, China

Corresponding author: Chen, Liqing(lqchen@ahau.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 64-73

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Aiming at the problems of low mechanization level of topdressing, high hardness of soil and fertilizer utilization in the period of large bell mouth of corn, on the basis of the agricultural requirements of row spacing and plant spacing of corn in the Huang-Huai-Hai area, a roller type hole fertilization device was designed. In order to meet the requirements of stable and deep application of hole fertilizer applicator, the dynamic model of the fertilizer applicator was established based on Abaqus, and the hole forming performance and hole pressure of hole fertilizer applicator were analyzed, the analysis results were used to design and select the hydraulic system. According to the requirement of stable performance of hole fertilizer applicator, a discrete element model of machine-soil-fertilizer was established by using EDEM, and its soil throwing characteristics and hole application amount were analyzed at three operating speeds. When the operating speed of roller hole fertilization device was 1.5 m/s, the effect of fertilizer discharge was the best. The results of experiment showed that the average hole discharge was 9.01 g, the deviation of fertilizer output was 11.2%, the coefficient of variation of fertilization uniformity was 4.17%; the qualified rate of fertilization depth was 92%, and the coefficient of variation was 6.75%, which conformed to the design requirements. The research result provided a method for solving the design of corn topdressing machinery. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 21

Main heading: Fertilizers

Controlled terms: Agricultural robots? - ?Agriculture? - ?Applicators? - ?Hydraulic equipment? - ?Machine design? - ?Rollers (machine components)? - ?Soils

Uncontrolled terms: Coefficient of variation? - ?Discrete element modeling? - ?Fertilizer applications? - ?Forming performance? - ?Hydraulic system? - ?Research results? - ?Soil fertilizers? - ?Stable performance

Classification code: 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics? - ?601 Mechanical Design? - ?601.2 Machine Components? - ?632.2 Hydraulic Equipment and Machinery? - ?804 Chemical Products Generally? - ?821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control

Numerical data indexing: Mass 9.01e-03kg, Percentage 1.12e+01%, Percentage 6.75e+00%, Percentage 9.20e+01%, Velocity 1.50e+00m/s

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.007

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

40. Efficient Degradation and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions of Actinomycetes from Corn Cob

Accession number: 20205009619801

Title of translation:

Authors: Liu, Xiaofei (1); Hou, Yan (1); Ma, Jingqiu (1); Guan, Hua’nan (1); Zhang, Na (1); Ma, Yongqiang (1)

Author affiliation: (1) School of Food Engineering, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin; 150076, China

Corresponding author: Zhang, Na(foodzhangna@163.com)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 329-337

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Corn cob is an important agricultural waste of lignocellulosic biomass, which contains a large amount of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. However, because of its degradation difficulty, it is not fully utilized, resulting in resource waste. A high efficient degradation of cellulose actinomycetes strains GS-3-39 was selected from the cold region and black glebe, its biological morphology and molecular biology of 16S rRNA were identified, the single factor experiment was done, significantly higher factors were selected by Plackett Burman, its fermentation conditions were optimized by response surface method (RSM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier IR characterization were determined before and after degradation of corn cob. The results showed that GS-3-39 was identified as streptomyces after morphological observation and molecular biological identification. After optimization by RSM, when the initial pH value of the medium was 5.06, the fermentation temperature was 28.22, the fermentation revolution was 163.98 r/min, and the inoculated-pathogen quantities was 3.09%, the maximum degradation rate of GS-3-39 pair of corn cob was 27.264%, and the degradation rates of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the corn cob were 39.84%, 38.33% and 47.38%, respectively. The results of SEM and IR on corn cob before and after degradation showed that actinomycetes GS-3-39 had significant degradation effect on corn cob cellulose. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 26

Main heading: Bacteria

Controlled terms: Agricultural robots? - ?Agricultural wastes? - ?Degradation? - ?Fermentation? - ?Lignin? - ?Lignocellulosic biomass? - ?Molecular biology? - ?Morphology? - ?RNA? - ?Scanning electron microscopy

Uncontrolled terms: Degradation effect? - ?Fermentation conditions? - ?Fermentation temperature? - ?IR characterization? - ?Molecular biological identification? - ?Morphological observations? - ?Response surface method? - ?Single-factor experiments

Classification code: 461.2 Biological Materials and Tissue Engineering? - ?461.9 Biology? - ?802.2 Chemical Reactions? - ?811.3 Cellulose, Lignin and Derivatives? - ?821.5 Agricultural Wastes? - ?951 Materials Science

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 2.73e+01%, Percentage 3.09e+00%, Percentage 3.83e+01%, Percentage 3.98e+01%, Percentage 4.74e+01%, Rotational_Speed 1.64e+02RPM

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.036

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

41. Design and Experiment on Prawn Single Separation Device

Accession number: 20205009619849

Title of translation:

Authors: Xiong, Shi (1); Zhao, Bo (2); Hu, Xiaolu (3); Li, Jia (2); Zhou, Liming (2); Fang, Xianfa (2)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) State Key Laboratory of Soil-Plant-Machine System Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences, Beijing; 100083, China; (3) China Rural Technology Development Center, Beijing; 100045, China

Corresponding author: Fang, Xianfa(fangxf@caams.org.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 357-365

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: The directional feeding of rotary prawn peeling machine depends on manual work, which has the problems of high labor intensity and low efficiency. Feeding one by one is the premise of realizing automatic orientation of prawn. Aiming to discharge deheading prawns one by one, a prawn single separation device was designed, which was mainly composed of clamper, guide spoon, roulette, back shell and transmission mechanism. Based on the geometric dimension of deheading prawn, the structural parameters of clamper, guide spoon and other key components and the speed range of the separation device were determined by analyzing the shape characteristics and pressure conditions of deheading prawn. Single factor experiment was carried out on the experimental platform of the prawn single separation device, treating the rotation speed of the device as experimental factor, and the repeated discharge rate, leakage rate, damage rate and discharge rate of prawn as indexes. The working process of the separation device was analyzed by using image capture system. The results showed that the optimal speed of the prawn single separation device was 20 r/min. At this speed, the repeated discharge rate, leakage rate, damage rate of prawn and discharge speed of prawn were 9.2%, 7.7%, 2.5% and 164 pieces/min, respectively. The structure design of the device was feasible, and it can turn disordered prawns into single output status. The design of the prawn single separation device can provide technical support for the mechanized feeding of rotary prawn peeling machine. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 21

Main heading: Shellfish

Controlled terms: Feeding? - ?Separation? - ?Speed

Uncontrolled terms: Experimental factors? - ?Experimental platform? - ?Geometric dimensions? - ?Pressure conditions? - ?Shape characteristics? - ?Single-factor experiments? - ?Structural parameter? - ?Transmission mechanisms

Classification code: 461.9 Biology? - ?691.2 Materials Handling Methods? - ?802.3 Chemical Operations

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 2.50e+00%, Percentage 7.70e+00%, Percentage 9.20e+00%, Rotational_Speed 2.00e+01RPM

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.039

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

42. Inversion of Apple Optical Feature Parameters Based on Model Migration

Accession number: 20205009619786

Title of translation:

Authors: Xu, Huanliang (1, 2); Zhou, Bingqing (1); Wang, Haoyun (1, 2); Li, Yibai (1); Hu, Huadong (1); Huang, Fen (1, 2)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing; 210095, China; (2) Postdoctoral Station of Agricultural Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing; 210031, China

Corresponding author: Huang, Fen(fenhuang@njau.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 264-271

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: The existing methods for inverting the optical characteristic parameter of fruit tissue are time-consuming and labor-intensive, and poor in generality. Aiming at these problems, an optical characteristic parameter inversion method based on model migration was proposed. Taking apple as an example, a simulated double-layer tissue model based on the Monte Carlo method was used to generate 1.5 million light distribution maps. The light distribution map was input as a data set to the 8-layer convolutional neural net (CNN)) for training, to obtain a pre-trained model. The trained model finally was transferred to the actual measured data set containing 4 000 apple hyperspectral point light source images, and fine-tuned to complete the inversion of optical parameters.The method was compared with the inversion results of several other algorithms. The results showed that when the measured data set was small, the inversion results of this method on apple optical characteristic were the peel absorption coefficient μa1 was 87.26%, the pulp absorption coefficient μa2 was 90.53%, the peel scattering coefficient μs1 was 86.66%, and the pulp scattering coefficient μs2 was 87.57%. The accuracy of the inversion was higher than other inversion methods. The pre-trained model was obtained by training a large number of light distribution maps based on the simulation model. The model was universal, and it can provide a solution to the problem of insufficient data amount in the inversion of fruit optical characteristic parameters. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 24

Main heading: Monte Carlo methods

Controlled terms: Convolutional neural networks? - ?Fruits? - ?Light sources? - ?Optical materials? - ?Tissue

Uncontrolled terms: Absorption co-efficient? - ?Inversion methods? - ?Inversion results? - ?Light distribution? - ?Optical characteristic parameters? - ?Optical characteristics? - ?Point light source? - ?Scattering co-efficient

Classification code: 461.2 Biological Materials and Tissue Engineering? - ?741.3 Optical Devices and Systems? - ?821.4 Agricultural Products? - ?922.2 Mathematical Statistics

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 8.67e+01%, Percentage 8.73e+01%, Percentage 8.76e+01%, Percentage 9.05e+01%

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.029

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

43. Effect of Malolactic Fermentation on Volatile Compounds of Merlot Low Alcohol Rose Wine

Accession number: 20205009619759

Title of translation: -

Authors: Zhu, Xia (1, 2); Wang, Shi (1); Zhao, Dandan (1); Han, Shunyu (1, 2); Yang, Xueshan (1, 2)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou; 730070, China; (2) Gansu Key Laboratory of Viticulture and Enology, Lanzhou; 730070, China

Corresponding author: Yang, Xueshan(yangxs@gsau.edu.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 338-348

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: To explore the effect of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the quality of Merlot low alcohol rose wine, the experiment was carried out according to the optimization of different inoculation methods. Merlot grapes were used as material for alcoholic fermentation (AF) and MLF induced by commercial yeast and Oenococcus oeni (O. oeni) inoculated simultaneously, then the inoculation amounts of mixed fermentation were optimized and the effect of MLF on wine aroma quality was analyzed by micro fermenting experiment. The results showed that the most kinds (28) and the highest content (3 229.52 μg/L) of esters were detected in the fermentation samples with MLF compared with the control group without MLF, and the content of esters, acids, aldehydes and ketones had significant differences with the other four treatment groups (P ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 44

Main heading: Wine

Controlled terms: Esters? - ?Fermentation? - ?Ketones? - ?Odors? - ?Quality control? - ?Sensory analysis? - ?Volatile organic compounds? - ?Yeast

Uncontrolled terms: Alcoholic fermentation? - ?Comprehensive analysis? - ?Inoculation method? - ?Malolactic fermentation? - ?Oenococcus oeni? - ?Sensory qualities? - ?Treatment group? - ?Volatile compounds

Classification code: 804.1 Organic Compounds? - ?822.3 Food Products? - ?913.3 Quality Assurance and Control

Numerical data indexing: Mass_Density 2.30e-04kg/m3, Mass_Density 2.50e-01kg/m3, Mass_Density 3.50e-01kg/m3, Percentage 7.00e+00%

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.037

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

44. Optimal Design and Experiment of Variable Topdressing Control System for Corn Based on Spectral Information

Accession number: 20205009619767

Title of translation:

Authors: Zhao, Xueguan (1, 2); Wang, Xiu (1, 2); He, Yakai (1, 2); Dou, Hanjie (1, 2); Zhai, Changyuan (1, 2)

Author affiliation: (1) Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing; 100097, China; (2) National Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing; 100097, China

Corresponding author: Zhai, Changyuan(zhaicy@nercita.org.cn)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 37-44

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: The technology of variable topdressing based on canopy spectral reflectance information is an effective way to realize the scientific and reasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer. In order to improve the precision of spectrum information and topdressing control system, the arrangement of spectrum sensor and the optimization of system control method were carried out. Finally, the field experiment of topdressing was carried out. The comparison test of upright mode and distributed arrangement mode showed that the distributed arrangement of spectrum sensor was better than that of upright mode. The average value of NDVI was increased by 6.4%, and the variance was reduced by 0.038. NDVI acquisition data was filtered by sliding window mean filtering algorithm. The sliding window size was 15 and the mean square error was 0.007 9. The system response test showed that the average response time of the system was 1.5 s, the absolute value of the average steady-state error was 0.775 r/min, and the average overshoot was 10.6%. The system had a high control accuracy in the range of working speed of fertilizer wheel. The results of field fertilization control showed that the average relative error between theoretical rotation speed and monitoring rotation speed was 3.35%, which could achieve the goal of precision fertilization. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 22

Main heading: Nitrogen fertilizers

Controlled terms: Control systems? - ?Errors? - ?Mean square error

Uncontrolled terms: Average relative error? - ?Canopy spectral reflectance? - ?Field experiment? - ?Filtering algorithm? - ?Precision fertilizations? - ?Spectral information? - ?Spectrum information? - ?Steady state errors

Classification code: 731.1 Control Systems? - ?804 Chemical Products Generally? - ?922.2 Mathematical Statistics

Numerical data indexing: Percentage 1.06e+01%, Percentage 3.35e+00%, Percentage 6.40e+00%, Rotational_Speed 7.75e-01RPM, Time 1.50e+00s

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.004

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

45. Design and Experiment of Vehicle-mounted Intelligent Soil Sampling System

Accession number: 20205009619787

Title of translation:

Authors: Jia, Honglei (1, 2); Fang, Dianhai (1); Liu, Huili (1, 2); Guo, Hui (1, 2); Zhang, Shengwei (1); Lu, Changgang (3)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun; 130022, China; (2) Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun; 130022, China; (3) College of Automotive Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun; 130022, China

Corresponding author: Liu, Huili(liuhuili@163.com)

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 292-301 and 312

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Aiming at the problems of complicated operation of traditional soil sample collection, high labor intensity, low collection accuracy and lack of information management, a vehicle-mounted intelligent soil sampling system was designed. The system was installed on an unmanned sampling vehicle and included an automatic soil sample collection device and an electrical control system. The key working parameters of each mechanism and control hardware were determined, and the entire working process of the system was analyzed: the electrical control system was controlled by a motion controller. The soil sample automatic collection device collected soil samples in different depth ranges and collected them according to geographic location information. The geographic information of longitude and latitude and sampling depth of the target sampling point calculated by the GPS system were written into the electronic tag at the bottom of the soil sampling cylinder through the RFID reader. Through performance tests, it was shown that the designed vehicle-mounted intelligent soil sampling system worked stably and reliably with the unmanned sampling vehicle. It can automatically layer samples of soil in any depth range of 0~200 mm in the agricultural layer with high efficiency and high accuracy, full-process automation and classified management according to location information, which satisfied the need for intelligent and high-quality soil sample collection. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 33

Main heading: Information management

Controlled terms: Agricultural robots? - ?Radio frequency identification (RFID)? - ?Soil surveys? - ?Soils? - ?Vehicles

Uncontrolled terms: Collection device? - ?Control hardwares? - ?Electrical control system? - ?Geographic information? - ?Geographic location? - ?Location information? - ?Process automation? - ?Working parameters

Classification code: 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics? - ?716.3 Radio Systems and Equipment

Numerical data indexing: Size 0.00e+00m to 2.00e-01m

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.032

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village

      

46. Review on Technology and Equipment of Mechanization in Hilly Orchard

Accession number: 20205009619735

Title of translation:

Authors: Zheng, Yongjun (1); Jiang, Shijie (1); Chen, Bingtai (1); Lü, Haotun (1); Wan, Chang (1, 2); Kang, Feng (3)

Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Tarim University, Alar; 843300, China; (3) School of Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing; 100083, China

Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery

Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao

Volume: 51

Issue: 11

Issue date: November 25, 2020

Publication year: 2020

Pages: 1-20

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 10001298

CODEN: NUYCA3

Document type: Journal article (JA)

Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Abstract: Orchards occupy large planting areas in China, which were mainly concentrated in hilly and mountainous regions. Due to the impact from topographical conditions and planting patterns, the mechanization in hilly orchards generally presented a low standard. With the adjustment of industrial structure, the mechanization level of orchard work would be directly related to economic benefits. The distribution and planting characteristics of the orchards in China were firstly analyzed. Current level of the mechanization in hilly orchards was introduced and the developing restrictions were analyzed. Then, the research status of the main orchard machinery, such as power chassis, operating platform, fruit tree pruning machinery, plant-protection machinery and picking-and-harvesting machinery, was demonstrated. Moreover, the production, application and promotion of some orchard machinery were investigated and analyzed. Based on the survey, the issues of the mechanization in hilly orchards were summarized, indicating that lack of adaptability to complex environment was the key to restrict the process of the mechanization in hilly orchards. Furthermore, the suggestions for both orchard reconstruction and the development of mechanical equipment were proposed. ? 2020, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Number of references: 129

Main heading: Orchards

Controlled terms: Machinery? - ?Mechanization

Uncontrolled terms: Complex environments? - ?Economic benefits? - ?Industrial structures? - ?Mechanical equipment? - ?Mountainous regions? - ?Operating platforms? - ?Plant protection? - ?Technology and equipments

Classification code: 601 Mechanical Design? - ?821.3 Agricultural Methods

DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2020.11.001

Compendex references: YES

Database: Compendex

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Data Provider: Engineering Village