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 2015年第46卷第7期共收录53篇

1. Accession number:  20153401188161
  Title:  Nondestructive rapid detection system for water content of beef 
  Authors:  Shi, Li'an1, 2 ; Guo, Hui1, 3 ; Peng, Yankun1, 2 ; Jiang, Fachao1, 2 ; Lin, Wan1, 2  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  National R&D Center for Agro-Processing Equipment, Beijing, China
 3  College of Mechanical and Traffic, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, China 
  Corresponding author:  Peng, Yankun 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  203-209 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Moisture content is considered as an important evaluation index for beef quality. This study focused on development of nondestructive rapid detection system device for assessing beef quality based on VIS/NIR spectroscopy. Working principal and process of the system, hardware composition, and software were introduced. Hardware of detecting system included two spectrometers, handheld probe, control instrument, bifurcated optical fiber, power unit and container. Two spectrometers in the spectral region of 400~960 nm and 900~2600 nm were coupled together for spectral acquisition. The wavelength range of visible and near infrared spectroscopy was covered and the characteristic wavelengths in VIS/NIR band of moisture, protein, fat and other main components of beef were detected by the two spectrometers. Another important part was probe. The handheld probe was designed with two optical channels in order to reduce the effect of light source on fiber probe. One channel was designed with angle of 45° for light source and the other one was designed to be vertical for the fiber probe. Inner surface of the two channels was covered by white barium sulfate to make the light distribution even. The handheld probe was designed to ensure the same distance between the end of fiber probe and the surface of sample. Experiment showed that different samples could be detected by adjusting distance between the end of fiber probe and the bottom surface of handheld probe. One end of the bifurcated fiber was connected with handheld probe and the other two were connected with two spectrometers. Software of spectral data collecting and rapid detection was developed by using VC++, and can be run in Windows environment. Main modules of the software included parameter setting module, sample information management module, trigger control module, spectral information acquisition module, quality evaluation module and results display and storage module. The system could collect spectral data, process the data, detect the quality of sample and display the results. First, the system was used to acquire optical data from 57 beef samples of M. longissimus dorsi, and build the prediction model of beef moisture content by visible spectra, NIR spectra, full spectra, respectively. The results showed that the prediction model developed by full spectra had the highest accuracy. The correlation coefficient of calibration (R<inf>c</inf>) and the correlation coefficient of prediction (R<inf>p</inf>) of the prediction model were 0.96 and 0.88, respectively. Then, experiment on the system was done to detect moisture content of beef on the processing line in two beef slaughtering enterprises. In this test, 84 beef ridge samples were extracted for moisture content detection. The detection results from the experiment yielded satisfactory results. Correct rate of non-destructive rapid detection system device testing on moisture content was 92.8%. The result shows that the system can be used for nondestructive rapid detection of beef quality with high accuracy and reliability as well as repeatability. ?, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved. 
  Number of references:  26 
  Main heading:  Information management 
  Controlled terms:  Beef  -  Data acquisition  -  Digital storage  -  Fibers  -  Forecasting  -  Hardware  -  Infrared devices  -  Light sources  -  Meats  -  Moisture   -  Moisture determination  -  Near infrared spectroscopy  -  Optical fibers  -  Probes  -  Quality control  -  Spectrometers  -  Water content 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Control instruments  -  Correlation coefficient  -  Nondestructive detection  -  Rapid detection systems  -  Spectral acquisition  -  Spectral information  -  Vis/NIR spectroscopy  -  Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy 
  Classification code:  444 Water Resources  -  605 Small Tools and Hardware  -  722.1 Data Storage, Equipment and Techniques  -  723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing  -  741.1.2 Fiber Optics  -  741.3 Optical Devices and Systems  -  801.4 Physical Chemistry  -  812 Ceramics, Refractories and Glass  -  817 Plastics and Other Polymers: Products and Applications  -  822.3 Food Products  -  903.2 Information Dissemination  -  913.3 Quality Assurance and Control  -  921 Mathematics  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments  -  944.2 Moisture Measurements 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.029 
  Database:  Compendex
 
2.  Accession number:  20153401188135
  Title:  Expert decision system of precision fertilizer for winter wheat 
  Authors:  Chen, Man1 ; Shi, Yinyan1 ; Wang, Xiaochan1, 2 ; Sun, Guoxiang1, 2 ; Li, Xue1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China
 2  Jiangsu Province Engineering Laboratory for Modern Facilities Agricultural Technology and Equipment, Nanjing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Wang, Xiaochan 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  17-22 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to achieve real-time variable dressing in wheat jointing stage, spectral data processing strategy and expected fertilizer quantity calculation model were studied. The variable rate fertilization expert decision system was developed based on crop canopy real-time spectral information (Normalized differential vegetation index, NDVI). Combined with NDVI information, actual traveling speed of dressing machine and feedback amount of fertilizer, the dual-channel independently controlled the speed and the opening of institutions to real-time adjust the amount of fertilization. The comparative experiments of ratio fertilization and traditional fertilization for winter wheat with different base fertilizer rates in Jiangsu Huanghai Farm were carried out. In order to improve the efficiency of expert decision system, the optimal data processing strategy was analyzed. Results showed that the best data processing frequency of the expert decision system was 1 Hz. Using more fertilizers was beneficial to promote the winter wheat individual growth, but it was not conducive to the structure of the group. The variation coefficient of NDVI in control area was the largest, as high as 11.32%. Variable fertilizer could effectively reduce the variation coefficient of NDVI, decreased by up to 3.57% and the average of 1.46%. The fertilization precision can reach above 90%. Variable rate fertilizer applied more nitrogen (28 kg/hm<sup>2</sup>) than quantitative fertilization. Variable rate fertilization would help to improve wheat population structure and reduce the yield differences. Therefore, the expert decision system was favorable, and could achieve precise fertilization in the precision agriculture. 
  Number of references:  17 
  Main heading:  Nitrogen fertilizers 
  Controlled terms:  Crops  -  Data handling  -  Fertilizers  -  Real time control  -  Vegetation 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Comparative experiments  -  Decision systems  -  Normalized differential vegetation indices  -  Precision Agriculture  -  Spectral data processing  -  Variable rate fertilization  -  Variable rate fertilizers  -  Winter wheat 
  Classification code:  723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing  -  731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications  -  732 Control Devices  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  821.4 Agricultural Products 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.003 
  Database:  Compendex
 
3. Accession number:  20153401188146
  Title:  Modeling algorithm for yield monitor system of grain combine harvester 
  Authors:  Li, Xincheng1, 2 ; Sun, Maozhen3 ; Li, Minzan1 ; Zheng, Lihua1 ; Zhang, Man4 ; Wang, Xijiu3  
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory of Modern Precision Agriculture System Integration Research, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China
 3  Huantai County Agriculture Bureau of Shandong Province, Zibo, China
 4  Key Laboratory of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Li, Minzan 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  91-96 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Based on the research of working condition and speed variation of elevator on the grain combine harvester, the kinematics and physical mechanics of grain movement on the momentum sensor were analyzed, and then a model of the mass flow sensor named voltage/elevator rotating speed model was put forward to improve the estimation accuracy of grain yield, so that the relationship between grain mass flow and impact force was described deeply by the proposed model. In the harvesting experiments, there existed many vibration noises. In order to eliminate those noises and ensure the accuracy of yield prediction, the impact voltage signals needed to be further processed. Firstly, a regression difference method was used to reduce vibration interference. Secondly, a dual threshold de-noising method and two kinds of interpolation methods were proposed to eliminate the singular value of the difference voltages. One of the interpolation methods was threshold replacement and the other was former-value replacement. The former-value replacement method could relatively keep the real yield data, and its estimation error was smaller. Furthermore, the rotating speed was normalized to eliminate the influence of dimension and simplify calculation. Consequently, a standardized processing method of impulse voltage was put forward. The verification results showed that the proposed voltage/elevator rotating speed had a high accuracy and the RMSE was 2.03%, which could really characterize the actual situation of grain movement. 
 Number of references:  20 
  Main heading:  Harvesters 
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  Interference suppression  -  Interpolation  -  Mass transfer  -  Rotating machinery  -  Speed 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Combine harvesters  -  Interpolation method  -  Rotational speed  -  Threshold de-noising  -  Verification results  -  Yield modeling  -  Yield monitor  -  Yield monitor systems 
  Classification code:  601.1 Mechanical Devices  -  641.3 Mass Transfer  -  711 Electromagnetic Waves  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.014 
  Database:  Compendex
 
4. Accession number:  20153401188140
  Title:  Design and test of SYJ-2 type liquid variable fertilizer 
  Authors:  Wang, Jinwu1 ; Pan, Zhenwei1 ; Zhou, Wenqi1 ; Wang, Jinfeng1 ; He, Jiannan1 ; Lang, Chunling1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  53-58 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Variable fertilization technology is an important part of precision agriculture. According to the requirements of agricultural production, the SYJ-2 type three-point suspension liquid variable fertilizer machine was designed which was matched with wheeled tractor. Taking the single chip microcomputer as the core processor and the electromagnetic proportional adjusting valve as the execution unit, the control system for liquid variable fertilizer and the upper computer software works in concert with hardware were designed and programmed for collecting data and sending the command. The key components, which called rotary pricking hole mechanism, used five congruent oval gears to drive. The liquid fertilizer flew in the cavity of rotary pricking hole mechanism. This agency reduced the external connecting hoses at the same time and prevented the pipe twine. The function of the liquid fertilizer distributor was opened and closed timely. The mechanism could achieve discontinuous injection of liquid fertilizer, then complete the injection operation of liquid fertilizer. The structures for distributor and intracavity rotary pricking hole mechanism were designed at the same time. The field experiment results showed that the fertilization depth was 12~15 cm below the soil surface, and the fertilization accuracy was 99.1%, which meets requirements of liquid fertilizer for variable fertilization. 
  Number of references:  14 
  Main heading:  Fertilizers 
  Controlled terms:  Agricultural machinery  -  Agriculture  -  Computer control systems  -  Computer hardware  -  Design  -  Digital storage  -  Liquids  -  Testing  -  Tractors (agricultural) 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Agricultural productions  -  Deep-placement  -  Design and tests  -  Liquid fertilizers  -  Precision Agriculture  -  Single chip microcomputers  -  Variable  -  Variable fertilizations 
  Classification code:  408 Structural Design  -  423.2 Non Mechanical Properties of Building Materials: Test Methods  -  722 Computer Systems and Equipment  -  722.1 Data Storage, Equipment and Techniques  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.008 
  Database:  Compendex
 
5. Accession number:  20153401188157
  Title:  Effect of planting years on jujube transpiration in semi-arid hilly areas of loess plateau 
  Authors:  Wei, Xinguang1 ; Wang, Tieliang1 ; Liu, Shouyang2 ; Li, Bo1 ; Nie, Zhenyi3, 4 ; Wang, Youke3, 4   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Water Conservancy, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, China
 2  Unite of Modelling Agricultural and Hydrological Systems in Mediterranean Environment, French National Institute of Agronomic Research (INRA), Avignon, France
 3  National Engineering Research Center for Water Saving Irrigation, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 4  Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Ministry of Water Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:  Wang, Youke 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  171-180 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to study the transpiration characteristics of matured jujube tree and their transpiration difference of different tree-ages, the transpiration of jujube tree were monitored continuously for three years with TDP sap flow monitoring system. The results indicated that the change of daily jujube transpiration showed a single peak trend, and the trend of narrow peak-wide peak-narrow peak appeared with the change of growth periods. Time-lag phenomenon and threshold existed distinctly in jujube transpiration influenced by VPD and PAR. The upper thresholds of VPD and PAR responding to the transpiration were 3.5 kPa and 1000~1200 μmol/(m<sup>2</sup>·s). Daily jujube transpiration showed a single peak trend obviously during the whole growth period, the proportion of nighttime transpiration was about 5%~33% of the full-day transpiration. The order of jujube transpiration from large to small was 3 a, 5 a and 12 a during 2012-2014. The significant differences were found between transpiration (p?0.01), and the interannual variations (C<inf>v</inf>) of transpiration were different. The transpirations of 12 a jujube were not significantly different among years (p>0.05), annual water consumption was basically stable at 293~334 mm. Thus, the jujube transpiration scale gradually expanded with the increase of ages, but it could remain stable relatively by taking reasonable pruning measures. 
  Number of references:  32 
  Main heading:  Transpiration 
  Controlled terms:  Forestry 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Annual water consumption  -  Divergence  -  Growth period  -  Interannual variation  -  Jujube tree  -  Loess Plateau  -  Single peak  -  Tree age 
  Classification code:  643 Space Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning  -  821.0 Woodlands and Forestry 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.025 
  Database:  Compendex
 
6. Accession number:  20153401188149
  Title:  Experimental design and principle analysis on paddle-wheel total mixed ration mixer 
  Authors:  Yu, Keqiang1, 2 ; Li, Liqiao1 ; He, Xun3 ; Wang, Defu1 ; Zhang, Quanchao1 ; Na, Mingjun1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China
 2  College of Mechanical Engineering, Heilongjiang Science and Technology University, Harbin, China
 3  College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:  Wang, Defu 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  109-117 and 170 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  On the basis of the development status of total mixed ration mixer in China, the paddle-wheel total mixed ration mixer was developed. To reveal mixing principle of the mixer, the mixing chamber was divided into four districts, and research of the mixing process was conducted by using high-speed cameras (1200 frames/s, 4G). This study showed that shear mixing, convective mixing and diffusion mixing were the main modes in the mixing process, and accompanied by gliding motion, waterfall movement and eddy motion. It could be obtained that the rotor speed, angle of the mixing paddle, mixing time and fullness coefficient had greater influences on the mixing performance of the paddle-wheel total mixed ration mixer. Then, the above four parameters were decided as experimental factors, and variation coefficient was chosen as the evaluation index, experiments were done by design method of quadratic regression orthogonal rotational combination. Through the experimental study on paddle-wheel total mixed ration mixer, the main parameters in structure and motion of the mixer were optimized and determined as follows: rotor speed of 29~31 r/min, the angle of mixing paddle of 16°~26°, mixing time of 10~12 min, fullness coefficient of 48%~53%. The research of paddle-wheel total mixed ration mixer could provide a theoretical support for the optimum design and performance forecast of the mixer. 
  Number of references:  17 
  Main heading:  Time and motion study 
  Controlled terms:  Design of experiments  -  High speed cameras  -  Mixers (machinery)  -  Mixing  -  Wheels 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Experimental factors  -  Mixing principle  -  Paddle wheels  -  Principle analysis  -  Quadratic regression  -  Structure and motions  -  Total mixed ration  -  Variation coefficient 
  Classification code:  461.4 Ergonomics and Human Factors Engineering  -  601.1 Mechanical Devices  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  742.2 Photographic Equipment  -  802.1 Chemical Plants and Equipment  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  901.3 Engineering Research 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.017 
  Database:  Compendex
 
7. Accession number:  20153401188173
  Title:  Influence of port timing on flow field and combustion process of natural gas-fueled rotary engines 
  Authors:  Fan, Baowei1 ; Pan, Jianfeng1 ; Tang, Aikun1 ; Pan, Zhenhua1 ; Xue, Hong2  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
 2  School of Mechanical Engineering, California State Polytechnic University, Los Angeles; CA, United States 
  Corresponding author:  Pan, Jianfeng 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  286-293 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  For rotary engine, the changes in port timing can bring change, not just to admission efficiency, but to the the flow field and turbulence energy in cylinder. On the basis of the Fluent simulation software, a three-dimensional dynamic simulation model was established through the secondary development to write dynamic mesh programs and choose the reasonable turbulent model, combustion model and CHEMKIN mechanism. The three-dimensional dynamic simulation model based on the chemical reaction kinetics was also validated by using the experimental data. On this basis, the working process of peripherally ported natural gas-fueled rotary engines under different port timings was simulated. The results show that with the intake duration angle unchanged, as the intake opening angle was brought forward, the intensity of the swirls and the vortex blobs, the volumetric coefficient all increased, and the turbulence intensity near the ignition position also increased. The increase of the turbulence intensity near the ignition position can significantly increase combustion rate, but the whole combustion rate in combustion stage did not always increase with advanced intake opening angle. With the intake duration angle unchanged, when the intake opening angle was 407°, the flame propagation speed reached the maximum value, the indicator diagram was the best and the emission of NO was the biggest. 
  Number of references:  18 
  Main heading:  Rotary engines 
  Controlled terms:  Combustion  -  Computer software  -  Engine cylinders  -  Engines  -  Flow fields  -  Ignition  -  Ionization of gases  -  Natural gas  -  Natural gas fields  -  Reaction kinetics   -  Turbulence 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Combustion pro-cess  -  Flame propagation speed  -  Ignition position  -  Port timing  -  Secondary development  -  Three-dimensional dynamics  -  Turbulence intensity  -  Volumetric coefficients 
  Classification code:  512.2.1 Natural Gas Fields  -  521.1 Fuel Combustion  -  522 Gas Fuels  -  612 Engines  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  801.4 Physical Chemistry  -  802.2 Chemical Reactions 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.041 
  Database:  Compendex 
 
8. Accession number:  20153401188178
  Title:  Optimization analysis of pumping performance for valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment 
  Authors:  Hu, Caiqi1 ; Ji, Jing1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  325-332 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The arrangement, number and spacing of hemisphere-segments directly influence the pumping performance of pump. By deducing theoretical pumping flow rate, the essential reason of pumping fluid was revealed. Flow field and simulation flow rate of pump were studied with different numbers and spacings of hemisphere-segments respectively arranged in longitudinal and transverse directions. And the result shows that the changes of arrangement, number and spacing of hemisphere-segments mean that the flow resistance differences between reverse and forward flows were changed. The rules were proved that reducing the transverse spacing, appropriately increasing the longitudinal spacing and increasing hemisphere-segment quantity in proper spacing range could all enhance the pump flow rate. Finally, the simulation conclusion was verified by using pump flow rate test. The experiments were carried out by valve-less pumps installed in four hemisphere-segments with the same spacings of 10 mm arranged in longitudinal and transverse directions, and the experimental flow rates were respectively 48.29 mL/min and 50.29 mL/min; the deviations between experimental and simulation flow rates were respectively 34.6% and 34.0%. The conclusion is further validated that under the same conditions, the better pumping effect can be obtained by increasing the number of hemisphere-segments in transverse arrangement than that in longitudinal arrangement. 
  Number of references:  16 
  Main heading:  Pumps 
  Controlled terms:  Flow rate  -  Piezoelectric devices  -  Piezoelectricity 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Hemisphere-segment  -  Longitudinal direction  -  Performance analysis  -  Piezoelectric pump  -  Transverse 
  Classification code:  618.2 Pumps  -  631 Fluid Flow  -  701.1 Electricity: Basic Concepts and Phenomena  -  704 Electric Components and Equipment  -  714 Electronic Components and Tubes 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.046 
  Database:  Compendex
 
9. Accession number:  20153401188147
  Title:  Design and test of corn seed bionic thresher 
  Authors:  Li, Xinping1 ; Ma, Yidong1 ; Jin, Xin1 ; Gao, Lianxing2  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Agricultural Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China
 2  College of Engineering, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  97-101 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to issue the problem of heavy damage of kernels during threshing corn ear, the bionic thresher was designed according to the excellent ability of beak inserting chink among kernels with low damage and the low cracked rate of differential thresh with bare hand. The thresher mainly includes discrete rod, threshing rod and differential rod. The correlative experiment of the bionic thresher and TY-4.5 thresher was done. As for the Zhengdan958 corn ear, the unthreshed grains rate of the bionic thresher was 0.30%, the cracked grains rate was 0.31%, and the corn cob was unbroken; the unthreshed grains rate of the TY-4.5 thresher was 0.29%, the cracked grains rate was 0.90%, and the corn cob was broken heavily. As for the Xianyu335 corn ear, the unthreshed grains rate of the bionic thresher was 0.05%, the cracked grains rate was 0.35%, and the corn cob was unbroken; the unthreshed grains rate of the TY-4.5 thresher was 0.09%, the cracked grains rate was 0.95%, and the corn cob was broken heavily. The results showed that the cracked grains rate of the bionic thresher was less than that of the TY-4.5 thresher under the similar unthreshed grains rate, and the corn cob was unbroken. The bionic thresher was suitable for threshing the seed corn ear. 
  Number of references:  11 
  Main heading:  Bionics 
  Controlled terms:  Agriculture  -  Cracks 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Corn  -  Corn seeds  -  Design and tests  -  Heavy damage  -  Kernel  -  Low damages  -  Seed corns  -  Thresher 
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.015 
  Database:  Compendex
 
10. Accession number:  20153401188160
  Title:  Substrate operating parameters optimization on hydrogen production within groove-type flat-panel photobioreactor 
  Authors:  Zhang, Chuan1 ; Zhang, Liping1 ; Cheng, Min2 ; Zhang, Quanguo3   
  Author affiliation:  1  Institute of Electric Power, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Low-Grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
 3  Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomass Energy in Henan Province, Zhengzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, Quanguo 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  197-202 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  To realize photo-biological hydrogen production under continuous flow mode, a groove-type flat-panel photobioreactor (GFBR) with high specific surface area was developed by carving groove on the surface of high-light transparent medium. With photosynthetic bacteria attached on the groove-type surface and the generated mature biofilm, cell-immobilization was finished within GFBR. To improve the performance of hydrogen production in GFBR, operating parameters related to substrate were comprehensively investigated using response surface methodology of Box-Behnken with three factors and three levels. The results showed that the significant degree of single factor on hydrogen production rate of GFBR was followed as hydraulic retention time, initial pH value and initial substrate concentration. While, interaction effect between initial pH value and initial substrate concentration on hydrogen production rate of GFBR was also significant. The optimum hydrogen production rate of 2.242 mmol/(L·h) was attained with operating parameters of initial substrate concentration of 54.3 mmol/L, hydraulic retention time of 21.5 h and initial pH value of 7.1. 
  Number of references:  17 
  Main heading:  Hydrogen production 
  Controlled terms:  Bacteria  -  Biofilms  -  Cell immobilization  -  Mass transfer  -  pH  -  Photobiological hydrogen production  -  Photobioreactors  -  Substrates 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Biological hydrogen production  -  Flat panel  -  High specific surface area  -  Hydraulic retention time  -  Mass transfer enhancement  -  Operating parameters  -  Photosynthetic bacterias  -  Response surface methodology 
  Classification code:  461 Bioengineering and Biology  -  462.1 Biomedical Equipment, General  -  462.5 Biomaterials (including synthetics)  -  522 Gas Fuels  -  641.3 Mass Transfer  -  801 Chemistry 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.028 
  Database:  Compendex
 
11. Accession number:  20153401188169
  Title:  Research status and development trends of information technologies in aquacultures 
  Authors:  Hu, Jinyou1 ; Wang, Jingjie1 ; Zhang, Xiaoshuan2, 3 ; Fu, Zetian1, 2   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 3  College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Fu, Zetian 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  251-263 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Informationization has become one of the essential emerging technologies, which supports the innovation and sustainable development of modern fishery. In order to promote the application level in aquaculture, the knowledge mining technology, parameter identification and organization forms of perception network, research status of acqusition and monitoring for information of regional water environment, and change of breeding area and its spatial and temporal characteristics were summarised according to the attributes and scale of the information, the flow of farming activities and the hierarchy of modeling and applications. And models of prediciton and early warning of water quality, methodologies of knowledge representation and inference in aquatic desease diagnosis, quantitative and analytic methods of aquatic products' behaviors, establishments of nutrition formula and feeding decision-making system, perception contents and constructions of platform in traceability, and control strategies and methods in aquaculture system were analyzed and compared by systematically summarising and clarifing the literature. The results indicated that the aquaculture industry has been penetrated profoundly by information technologies for comprehensive perception and decision support; the information acquisiton has been transformed from artificial to digital intelligence, such as perception networks and remote sensing; information processing was developing towards the process of modeling: the expert systems, management systems, decision support systems, traceability systems and precision control systems, which were based on artificial intelligence, information fusion and intelligent information system; and the applications of information has also paid more attention to mutual adaptation, promotion and optimization between the thoughts of information and management and aquacultures' operational efficiency and benefits. 
  Number of references:  82 
  Main heading:  Information management 
  Controlled terms:  Aquaculture  -  Artificial intelligence  -  Data mining  -  Decision making  -  Decision support systems  -  Expert systems  -  Information systems  -  Knowledge representation  -  Management information systems  -  Quality control   -  Remote sensing  -  Sustainable development  -  Water quality 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Aquaculture industry  -  Decision-making systems  -  Digital intelligence  -  Emerging technologies  -  Informationization  -  Intelligent information systems  -  Operational efficiencies  -  Temporal characteristics 
  Classification code:  453.2 Water Pollution Control  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  903.2 Information Dissemination  -  911.2 Industrial Economics  -  912.2 Management  -  913.3 Quality Assurance and Control 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.037 
  Database:  Compendex
 
12. Accession number:  20153401188138
  Title:  Optimization design and test of large spacing planetary gear train for vegetable pot-seedling planting mechanism 
  Authors:  Yu, Gaohong1, 2 ; Liao, Zhenpiao1, 2 ; Xu, Lehui1, 2 ; Zhao, Peng1, 2 ; Wu, Chuanyu1, 2  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China
 2  Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Transplanting Equipment and Technology, Hangzhou, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  38-44 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Existing rotary planting mechanism perform is not well in planting large spacing vegetable pot-seedling (plants spacing above 450 mm) in the practical transplanting work. A new planting mechanism with planetary gear train, which is suitable for planting pot-seedling with large plants spacing, was designed. By constructing a transmission ratio function of the non-circular gears and calculating the center coordinates of each parts, the kinematic model of the planting mechanism was established, including the equations of (angular) displacement, (angular) velocity for the end point of planting mouth. According to the established mathematical model, computer-aided analysis and optimization software of the mechanism based on Visual Basic 6.0 was developed. Then through analyzing the planting trajectory, which was influenced by several key parameters including center distance of the non-circular gears, angular displacement coefficients, initial installation angle of the planetary carrier, the planting mouth and the middle non-circular gear, etc., and also using the human-computer conversation optimization method, a set of mechanism parameters were found to meet the requirements of vegetable pot-seedling planting. Based on the optimized parameters, 3D model was established and simulation analysis was proceeded. Then, physical prototype of the planting mechanism was made and field planting experiments were conducted. Land planting tests were carried out and the different opening and closing time of the planting mouth impacting on the upright degree and success rate of the planted vegetables pot-seedling were researched. It is proved that the best opening time is when the planting mouth arrives at 10 mm distance above its lowest position, in this case, the rate of seedling perpendicularity reaches 85%, planting efficiency is 100 plants/(min· row) and plants spacing is 450 mm. Thus the mechanism was verified suitable for large spacing planting of vegetable pot-seedling. 
  Number of references:  14 
  Main heading:  Epicyclic gears 
  Controlled terms:  Computer aided analysis  -  Gears  -  Kinematics  -  Plant shutdowns  -  Vegetables  -  Visual BASIC 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Human-computer conversations  -  Large spacing  -  Mechanism-parameters  -  Non-circular gears  -  Optimization software  -  Parameter optimization  -  Planetary gear train  -  Planting experiments 
  Classification code:  402.1 Industrial and Agricultural Buildings  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  723.1.1 Computer Programming Languages  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.006 
  Database:  Compendex
 
13. Accession number:  20153401188144
  Title:  Experiment on spraying performance of air-assisted boom sprayer in corn field 
  Authors:  Wang, Jun1 ; Dong, Xiang1 ; Yan, Herong1 ; Wang, Jinjiang1 ; Zhang, Tie2 ; Zeng, Yahui2  
  Author affiliation:  1  Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences, Beijing, China
 2  Modern Agricultural Equipment Co., Ltd., Beijing, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  79-84 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Air-assisted spraying technique research was carried out to increase pesticide efficiency and decrease pesticide loss. The spraying performance was experimentally studied on model 3WQ-3000 trailed air-assisted boom sprayer in small bell stage of corn fields. The effects of four sizes of flat fan nozzles (ST110-02, ST110-04, ST110-05, ST110-06) with air curtain on pesticide efficacy, coverage rate and loss rate were carried out. The experiment results showed that the deposition amount was large at upper part of corn canopy and small at lower part. Air curtain enhanced penetrability, deposited property of droplets and improved the uniformity of distribution at corn canopies. Air-assisted sprayer had significant influence on small size droplets VMD that the pesticide efficacy of ST110-02 flat fan nozzle with air curtain was 83% more than that without air curtain. The optimum pesticide efficacy of ST110-06 flat fan nozzle with air curtain was 41.93%. Air curtain could increase pesticide loss rate on the ground. The best loss rate of ST110-02 flat fan nozzle without air curtain was 13.05%. Compared with the conventional sprayer, the new air-assisted sprayer had better droplet coverage rate and higher penetrability, the average pesticide efficacy was improved by 144.17%, and pesticide loss rate on the ground was reduced by 14.46%. 
  Number of references:  14 
  Main heading:  Spray nozzles 
  Controlled terms:  Air curtains  -  Drops  -  Nozzles  -  Pesticides 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Air-assisted sprayer  -  Air-assisted spraying  -  Boom sprayer  -  Corn  -  Coverage rate  -  Field test  -  Flat fan nozzle  -  Size droplets 
  Classification code:  402 Buildings and Towers  -  443.1 Atmospheric Properties  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  803 Chemical Agents and Basic Industrial Chemicals 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.012 
  Database:  Compendex
 
14. Accession number:  20153401188153
  Title:  Soil phosphorus and potassium estimation using visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy with direct orthogonal signal correction 
  Authors:  Hu, Guotian1 ; He, Dongjian1 ; Sudduth, Kenneth A2  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research Unit, USDA-ARS, MO, United States 
  Corresponding author:  He, Dongjian 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  139-145 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Visible-near infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has low accuracy in estimating soil phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). We used database of 1582 soil samples from 8 soils to investigate P and K content. All samples were oven dried, ground, and sieved with a 2 mm screen. Each sample was divided into two subsamples. One subsample was tested by chemical method. Another subsample was scanned by an ASD FieldSpec Pro FR spectrometer. Data were collected using FieldSpec RS<sup>3</sup> software. All spectra were recorded between 350 nm and 2 500 nm and output at a 1 nm interval. Each soil sample was scanned 3 times with the sample cup rotated within the sample holder to angles of 0°, 45° and 90°. The three spectra of each sample were averaged. Spectral data at the lower visible wavelengths were removed due to their low signal-to-noise ratio; and the last 50 nm at the high near infrared wavelengths were also deleted for the same reason. Then spectra from 401 nm to 2450 nm with 1 nm interval were reduced by averaging five successive wavelengths. Thus, the number of spectral variables was 410. Pretreatments of log<inf>10</inf> (1/reflectance) plus mean normalization plus median filter smoothing with or without direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC) were investigated. Results from partial least squares regression (PLSR) with leave-one-out cross-validation were: the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), the determination coefficient of prediction (R<sup>2</sup>) and the ratio of standard deviation to RMSEP (RPD) were respectively 27.343 mg/kg, 0.309, 1.202 for P, and 70.975 mg/kg, 0.421, 1.313 for K when DOSC was not used. The value of RMSEP, R<sup>2</sup> and RPD were respectively 21.464 mg/kg, 0.574, 1.531 for P, and 53.485 mg/kg, 0.671, 1.743 for K when DOSC was used. Additionally, calibrations using only those samples within the approximate range of interest for fertilizer application to field crops (P from 0 to 27 mg/kg and K from 0 to 192 mg/kg) were investigated. Value of RMSEP of calibration models by PLSR with DOSC decreased by 26.93% (P(0, 27)) and 27.67% (K(0, 192)), but R<sup>2</sup> and RPD increased respectively by 108.31%, 36.90% (P(0, 27)) and 87.01%, 38.29% (K(0,192)) comparing with models by PLSR without DOSC. The results of this research showed DOSC algorithm can eliminate spectral signal noise might be caused by soil type, texture, etc. for estimating soil P and K using VNIR. DOSC might be a good pretreatment method of spectra for testing soils P and K by VNIR. 
  Number of references:  38 
  Main heading:  Soils 
  Controlled terms:  Calibration  -  Crops  -  Forecasting  -  Forestry  -  Infrared devices  -  Least squares approximations  -  Mean square error  -  Median filters  -  Near infrared spectroscopy  -  Phosphorus   -  Potassium  -  Reflection  -  Signal to noise ratio  -  Soil surveys  -  Soil testing  -  Spectrometers  -  Spectroscopy  -  Statistical methods 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  -  Direct orthogonal signal corrections  -  Orthogonal signals  -  Partial least squares regressions (PLSR)  -  Prediction model  -  Root-mean-square error of predictions  -  Soil nutrients  -  Visible near-infrared spectrum 
  Classification code:  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  549.1 Alkali Metals  -  711 Electromagnetic Waves  -  716.1 Information Theory and Signal Processing  -  741.3 Optical Devices and Systems  -  801 Chemistry  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  821.0 Woodlands and Forestry  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.021 
  Database:  Compendex
 
15. Accession number:  20153401188145
  Title:  Spatial variation of application rate and droplet kinetic energy for fixed spray plate sprinkler 
  Authors:  Zhang, Yisheng1 ; Zhu, Delan1, 2 ; Zhang, Lin2 ; Gong, Xinghui1 ; Yang, Wen1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  Institute of Water-Saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zhu, Delan 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  85-90 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Data logging rain gauges and two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) were applied to measure its water application rate, droplet diameter and velocity in radial direction of Nelson D3000 blue spray plate sprinkler with 4.76 mm nozzle. The equations of peak application, peak kinetic energy rate about working pressure and mounting height were regressed based on the diffusion of water application and kinetic energy under different working conditions. The result indicates that the diffusion of water application rate and droplet kinetic energy are facilitated by increasing the working pressure and mounting height. This is due to that the jet flow speed is higher when the operating pressure increased, and with the air turbulence enhanced, it is easy to smash. The water drops to pieces. At the same time, the duration of landing increased when the mounting height is high. That seems to have the same effect. The low nozzle height which presents high peak application and kinetic energy rate leads to the generation of runoff. The peak water application and droplet kinetic energy rate varied from 166.4 mm/h to 196.4 mm/h, and 0.607 W/m<sup>2</sup> to 0.821 W/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively. The equation of peak rate can be helpful to design the working pressure and mounting height in sprinkler systems to prevent high peak application rate and kinetic energy rate which leading to occurrence of runoff. 
  Number of references:  18 
  Main heading:  Kinetics 
  Controlled terms:  Drops  -  Fighter aircraft  -  Gages  -  Kinetic energy  -  Mountings  -  Nozzles  -  Rain gages  -  Runoff  -  Spray nozzles  -  Sprinkler systems (irrigation) 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Application rates  -  Diffusion of water  -  Droplet diameters  -  Fixed spray plate sprinkler  -  Operating pressure  -  Peak values  -  Spatial variations  -  Water application rate 
  Classification code:  444.1 Surface Water  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  652.1.2 Military Aircraft  -  821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment  -  931.1 Mechanics  -  943.3 Special Purpose Instruments 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.013 
  Database:  Compendex
 
16. Accession number:  20153401188142
  Title:  Design and application of rotary round soil-bin test bed driven by tyre friction 
  Authors:  Chen, Jianneng1, 2 ; Ye, Jun1 ; Xia, Xudong1, 2 ; Zhao, Yun1, 2  
  Author affiliation:  1  Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China
 2  Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Transplanting Equipment and Technology, Hangzhou, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  66-71 and 58 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional linear soil-bin test bed, a kind of rotary round soil-bin test bed was proposed. To compensate the processing and assembly errors of the large-size round soil-bin test bed and provide convenience for the following simulating field trials of agricultural machinery, a driving scheme of rotary round soil-bin test bed driven by tire friction was optimized. Mechanical adjusting device for initial installation position of the rotary round soil-bin test bed driven by tire friction was designed, and the soil-bin roundness compensation capability was calculated. The control system for the proposed rotary round soil-bin test bed was designed, and the closed-loop system was established with PLC as controlling unit and servomotor as executive device. All of these made the soil-bin test bed run at a steady speed; it was found that the test bed can compensate for roundness of soil-bin, it can smoothly run at the speed of 0~3.8 r/min, the maximum standard deviation of speed fluctuation was 0.038 r/min, the longest time required from the start to smooth running was 9.8 s. Transplant experiment with planting mechanism was carried out; the spacing coefficient of variation was 4.46% which means good uniformity and can well meet the transplanting agronomic requirements. 
  Number of references:  10 
  Main heading:  Soils 
  Controlled terms:  Agricultural machinery  -  Closed loop systems  -  Equipment testing  -  Friction  -  Tires  -  Tribology 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Coefficient of variation  -  Compensation capability  -  Design and application  -  Installation position  -  Loop systems  -  Speed fluctuations  -  Standard deviation  -  Tire friction 
  Classification code:  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  818.5 Rubber Products  -  821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment  -  931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity  -  931.1 Mechanics  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments  -  961 Systems Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.010 
  Database:  Compendex
 
17. Accession number:  20153401188139
  Title:  Design and test on transplanting arm of rotary transplanting mechanism for rice pot-seedling 
  Authors:  Ye, Bingliang1, 2 ; Wu, Guohuan1, 2 ; Yu, Gaohong1, 2 ; Li, Li1, 2  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China
 2  Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Transplanting Equipment and Technology, Hangzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:  Yu, Gaohong 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  45-52 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The planting arm of rotary transplanting mechanism for rice pot-seedling is the operation component which is used for seedling picking-up. The motion of seedling control and pushing will affect the success rate of seedling picking-up and seedling pushing directly. Aiming to solve the problems such as the long time of seedling picking-up, low success rate, no pushing device and poor pushing seedlings of the original pot-seedling transplanting mechanism, the transplanting mechanism was redesigned. The main work is to redesign cam mechanism in transplanting arms using optimization design method, decrease cam-drive angle and add the seedling pushing device. With the development of virtual prototype and physical prototype, the virtual kinematics simulation and the kinematics test with high-speed digital video camera and image processing technology were carried out. The basic consistency of the shortening time in two test was demonstrated which showed the feasibility and availability of the developed design of planting arms. The seedling picking-up tests of transplanting mechanism with different cam mechanisms as well as the transplanting mechanisms with and without seedling pushing device were developed. The success rate of seedling picking-up and seedling pushing of the developed mechanism were 94.3% and 98.6%, which were 82.9% and 88.6% higher than those of the product by original pot-seedling transplanting mechanism, respectively. It was proved that the improved mechanism can meet the requirements of rice pot-seedling transplanting. 
  Number of references:  13 
  Main heading:  Availability 
  Controlled terms:  Cams  -  Computer graphics  -  Design  -  High speed cameras  -  Image processing  -  Kinematics  -  Multimedia systems  -  Testing  -  Video cameras  -  Video signal processing 
  Uncontrolled terms:  High-speed digital video cameras  -  Image processing technology  -  Kinematics simulation  -  Rotary transplanting mechanisms  -  Seedling pushing device  -  Seedling transplanting  -  Transplanting arm  -  Transplanting mechanisms 
  Classification code:  408 Structural Design  -  423.2 Non Mechanical Properties of Building Materials: Test Methods  -  601.3 Mechanisms  -  716.4 Television Systems and Equipment  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  742.2 Photographic Equipment  -  913.5 Maintenance  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.007 
  Database:  Compendex
 
18. Accession number:  20153401188155
  Title:  Soil thermal regime under snow cover and its response to meteorological factors 
  Authors:  Fu, Qiang1 ; Hou, Renjie1 ; Wang, Zilong1 ; Li, Tianxiao1 ; Wang, Xianghao1  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  154-161 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  This paper discovers the soil temperature and meteorological factors' impact on soil thermal status in seasonal frozen under the condition of snow cover. We measured the soil temperature in the depth of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 100, 140 cm under the condition of bare land, nature snow cover, snow compressed and snow thickened. Based on field experimental data, grey correlation analysis was used to select the main meteorological factors affecting the soil thermal conditions and then we calculated the correlation between soil temperature and meteorological factors. Results shows that the existence of snow hampers the energy exchange between soil and environment, causes the difference between the soil temperature and freezed-thawing process, and with the increase of depth of the snow cover, soil freezing and thawing date will be delayed, the soil temperature will be relatively stable at a high level. Meanwhile, the difference of temperature between soil and atmosphere will enlarge. In the process of freezing and thawing, environment temperature is the main controlling factor of soil temperature; snow cover makes the correlation between meteorological factors and soil temperature weaker. 
  Number of references:  12 
  Main heading:  Atmospheric temperature 
  Controlled terms:  Balloons  -  Freezing  -  Snow  -  Soil mechanics  -  Soils  -  Temperature  -  Thawing 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Energy exchanges  -  Meteorological factors  -  Snow covers  -  Soil temperature  -  Thermal regimes 
  Classification code:  443 Meteorology  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  641.1 Thermodynamics  -  822.2 Food Processing Operations 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.023 
  Database:  Compendex
 
19. Accession number:  20153401188182
  Title:  Registration method based on composite weighting parameters of measured data and regional accuracy 
  Authors:  Tan, Gaoshan1, 2 ; Liu, Shenglan1 ; Zhang, Liyan1   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China
 2  School of Mathematics and Physics, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, Liyan 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  354-358 and 378 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Model registration is widely used in localization and inspection of parts. It remains a challenging problem in some situations. The density of the measured points of the parts depended on the surface curvature in 3D optical scan measurement technology. The local surface in small curvature was to enable more accurate representation with comparatively sparse measured points. Thus the area authorized by each point was different. So each point should be endowed with different status in registration progress. In addition, for a complex part with multiple free form surfaces, different precision requirements were often specified to different regional surfaces in design, and manufacturing process might make the precision difference in regions. Without consideration of the difference, the existing registration methods were prone to obtain the result which balanced the surface error. In the case, the error of the surface with high precision became larger than the physical truth, and the error of low precision regions turned out to be just the opposite. Based on the two aspects, a registration method based on composite weighting parameters of measured point area and regional geometric accuracy was proposed. Composite weighting parameters were constituted by estimating regional precision iteratively and calculating the area of the Voronoi diagram of each measured points. They controlled the influence of different data on the registration. As a result, the registration conformed more to the real engineering. Both theoretical and experimental results verified the efficiency and availability. 
  Number of references:  20 
  Main heading:  Iterative methods 
  Controlled terms:  Errors 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Free-form surface  -  Geometric accuracy  -  Manufacturing process  -  Model registrations  -  Registration methods  -  Scan measurement  -  Surface curvatures  -  Weighting parameter 
  Classification code:  731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.050 
  Database:  Compendex
 
20. Accession number:  20153401188177
  Title:  Modelling and experiment of strong bias giant magnetostrictive actuator's semi-static displacement 
  Authors:  Xue, Guangming1 ; Zhang, Peilin1 ; He, Zhongbo1 ; Zeng, Wei2 ; Li, Dongwei1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Department of Vehicles and Electrical Engineering, Ordnance Engineering College, Shijiazhuang, China
 2  The Third Brigade Comprehensive-Training-Base, Guangzhou Military Region, Hengyang, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  318-324 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Giant magnetostrictive actuator characterized with strong bias magnetic field was designed to control the injector bullet valve opening and closing. Working principle of the actuator was described and suitable sinusoidal signals were analyzed by its bias characteristics. Semi-static model of the actuator displacement was established through reluctance theory, J-A model, quadratic domain-transfer model and linear system theory. Based on the model, the relationship between displacement and current amplitude under square signal was achieved, so did the displacement-current curve under sinusoidal signal and the displacement-time curve under square signal with the amplitude of 3 A. Experimental system for the actuator was established, and the signal directions were recognized by testing under square signals with the same value while opposite directions. The testing displacements under sinusoidal and square signals were acquired. From the results, the displacement amplitudes under square signals and displacement-current curves under sinusoidal signals, calculated through the model, were similar to the testing results. Then the validation of the semi-static model was verified. The simulation of the actuator with an ordinary electrical injector input was done. With the square signal input in the amplitude of 3 A, the steady-state displacement of the actuator was above 30 μm, responding time was about 10 μs, and overshoot was 0. The simulating results showed good performance of the actuator. 
  Number of references:  16 
  Main heading:  Magnetic actuators 
  Controlled terms:  Actuators  -  Linear systems  -  Magnetic fields  -  Magnetostrictive devices 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Bias magnetic field  -  Electrical injector  -  Giant magnetostrictive actuator  -  Sinusoidal response  -  Square response  -  Static displacement 
  Classification code:  632 Hydraulics, Pneumatics and Related Equipment, and Fluidics  -  701.2 Magnetism: Basic Concepts and Phenomena  -  704 Electric Components and Equipment  -  714 Electronic Components and Tubes  -  921 Mathematics  -  961 Systems Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.045 
  Database:  Compendex
 
21. Accession number:  20153401188141
  Title:  Design and experiment of roots-soil separating device of knotweeds 
  Authors:  Chen, Xueshen1 ; Ma, Xu1, 2 ; Wu, Tao1 ; Chen, Guorui1 ; Zeng, Lingchao1 ; Li, Rongchao1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Key Technology on Agricultural Machine and Equipment, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:  Ma, Xu 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  59-65 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Knotweeds are important medicinal materials in China, which have good effect in restoring circulation, dispersing stasis and relieving cough. During the knotweeds root processing, they are hit many times omnidirectionally to separate it from the soil. In order to separate knotweeds from the soil in a mechanical way, a roots-soil separating device of knotweeds was designed, which consists of hitting roller, turning-throwing roller, grille, etc. In the experiment, it was found that finger length had influence on soil-divorcing. The range of spiral angle of turning-throwing roller finger pole which is 180~275 mm, was set through velocity vector projection theorem. On the other hand, the relationship between the horizontal distance about axle centers of two rollers and the size of knotweeds was developed by fitting tool of Matlab software. The result showed that rate of soil-divorcing and efficiency were 91.2% and 1.35 t/h, on condition that speed of hitting roller, turning-throwing roller and horizontal distance of two roller were 500 r/min, 240 r/min and 230 mm, respectively, and therefore the device met the manufacturing requirements. It provided reference for research of soil-divorcing of crops. 
  Number of references:  21 
  Main heading:  Soils 
  Controlled terms:  Design  -  Experiments  -  MATLAB  -  Rollers (machine components) 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Fitting tools  -  Knotweeds  -  Matlab- software  -  Medicinal materials  -  Roots-soil separating device  -  Spiral angle  -  Velocity vectors 
  Classification code:  408 Structural Design  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  901.3 Engineering Research  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.009 
  Database:  Compendex 
 
22. Accession number:  20153401188137
  Title:  Design and experiment of precision seeder for rice paddy field seedling 
  Authors:  Ma, Xu1, 2 ; Kuang, Jianxia1 ; Qi, Long1, 2 ; Liang, Zhongwei1 ; Tan, Yongxin1 ; Jiang, Likai1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
 2  Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Production of Multiple Cropping System Southern Paddy Area, Changsha, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  31-37 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Considering that the existing seedling seeder for rice paddy field adopts manual push and pull, and has large differences in sowing performance, a precision seeder which was suitable for seeding in southern rice paddy fields was designed so as to reduce the intensity of labor and to improve the sowing qualified rate, uniformity and stability. A control system of the walking seeder was developed, which used STC12C5608AD single-chip microcomputer as the core control unit, PWM (Pulse width modulation) as control output of motor speed. The whole system has realized speed feedback with pure P proportional closed control algorithm, so that sowing performance of the seeder was stable and sowing qualified rate was about 5% higher than manual push and pull. Based on further analysis of sowing mechanism of spiral grooved wheel device, as well as control system of the walking seeder, the orthogonal tests were conducted to further investigate the effects of these parameters on sowing performance: depth groove (h), lead angle (α) of spiral grooved wheel and seeder speed (v). The results showed that the best operational parameter combination was that h of 3 mm, α of 81.73°, v of 0.35 m/s. Sowing performance tests based on the best parameter combination were done. After the control system was installed, the sowing qualified rate of hybrid rice (2~6 grains per grid) was improved from 87.14% to 93.21%, and the inbred rice (3~8 grains per grid) was 92.14%. Meanwhile, the empty rate of inbred rice was 0%, and the breakage rate was less than 0.20%. The control system has achieved automatic control of sowing process for seedling precision seeder, and the sowing performance can greatly meet the agronomic requirements of precision seedling in rice paddy field for hybrid rice and inbred rice. This study lays research foundation of precision seeding technology for rice paddy field seedling. 
  Number of references:  17 
  Main heading:  Grain (agricultural product) 
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  Automation  -  Control systems  -  Counting circuits  -  Experiments  -  Pulse width modulation  -  Voltage control  -  Wheels 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Operational parameters  -  Paddy fields  -  Parameter combination  -  Performance tests  -  Precision seeder  -  Precision seeding  -  Rice  -  Single chip microcomputers 
  Classification code:  601.2 Machine Components  -  713.4 Pulse Circuits  -  716 Telecommunication; Radar, Radio and Television  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications  -  732 Control Devices  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  901.3 Engineering Research  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.005 
  Database:  Compendex
 
23. Accession number:  20153401187687
  Title:  Detection of tiny detect in radiographic images based on visual saliency 
  Authors:  Yu, Yongwei1 ; Yin, Guofu2 ; Yin, Ying2 ; Du, Liuqing1   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, China
 2  School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China 
  Corresponding author:  Du, Liuqing 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  365-371 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  To achieve detection of tiny defect in radiographic images with complex background, the segmentation method of tiny defects was studied under the conditions of strong noise and large gray gradient background. The visual attention model for radiographic testing image was proposed, and its realization method was analyzed in detail. The human visual attention mechanism was simulated. The line scanning strategy and self-adapting central-peripheral difference strategy was adopted. Based on the vision saliency, the feature map and the saliency map were achieved, and visual attention region was segmented from radiographic images with complex background. Each visual attention region was marked and ordered with visual saliency competition. According to the saliency threshold, the suspicious region was identified. So the image data to be processed was reduced and the interference was discharged from other parts of radiographic testing image. Then attention focuses of the suspicious region was used as the seed point. Based on region growing and visual saliency, a segmentation method for tiny target was introduced to accurately extract tiny defects in suspicious region image. In the experiment about complex radiographic testing image with more tiny target objects, each area containing unknown defect was accurately extracted. Segmentation for tiny target achieved good results. The accuracy rate was 96.1%, and it was 8% higher than that of the traditional method. The results prove the effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed method. 
  Number of references:  11 
  Main heading:  Image segmentation 
  Controlled terms:  Behavioral research  -  Defects  -  Image processing  -  Interference suppression  -  Nondestructive examination  -  Visualization 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Defect detection  -  Human visual attention  -  Radiographic images  -  Radiographic testing  -  Segmentation methods  -  Visual attention mechanisms  -  Visual attention model  -  Visual saliency 
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  423 Non Mechanical Properties and Tests of Building Materials  -  711 Electromagnetic Waves  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  902.1 Engineering Graphics  -  951 Materials Science  -  971 Social Sciences 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.052 
  Database:  Compendex
 
24. Accession number:  20153401188167
  Title:  Design and experiment of tilted tray air-impingement dryer 
  Authors:  Dai, Jianwu1 ; Xiao, Hongwei1 ; Xie, Long1 ; Wang, Dong1 ; Li, Xiaoming1 ; Gao, Zhenjiang1   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Gao, Zhenjiang 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  238-244 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to solve the problems of conventional air-impingement dryer such as small loading capacity, no uniformity of drying and crustation, a tilted tray air-impingement dryer was designed. This apparatus was composed of tilted tray skip, drying chamber, hot air recycling system, humidifying system and control system. The technological and structural parameters of the dryer, for instance, drying temperature, absolute humidity, airflow velocity, inclination angle, separation distance and nozzle arrangement can be adjusted according to different material properties and products requirement. The experimental results of Hami melon slices demonstrated that the drying uniformity coefficient can reach to 0.97. The carrying capacity and the dehydration intensity of the dryer were increased by 1.7 times and 3.65 times, respectively, compared with the conventional air-impingement dryer at the same temperature. And the drying time was shortened by 11.1% at the same time. The unit energy consumption of Hami melon slices treated by tilted tray air-impingement dryer was about 67.9% lower than that by the conventional way. Both the browning degree and shrinkage level were better than that of the latter. This research improves the loading capacity and adaptability of materials, which provide significance in enlarging applied range of air-impingement technology. 
  Number of references:  26 
  Main heading:  Drying 
  Controlled terms:  Air  -  Dryers (equipment)  -  Energy utilization 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Drying temperature  -  Inclination angles  -  Loading capacities  -  Performance experiment  -  Separation distances  -  Structural parameter  -  Structure design  -  Tilted tray 
  Classification code:  525.3 Energy Utilization  -  642.1 Process Heating  -  802.1 Chemical Plants and Equipment  -  804 Chemical Products Generally 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.035 
  Database:  Compendex
 
25. Accession number:  20153401188181
  Title:  Dynamic model of parallel robot with compliant joints 
  Authors:  Li, Yuan1, 2 ; Yu, Yueqing1   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China
 2  College of Coal Engineering, Datong University, Datong, China 
  Corresponding author:  Yu, Yueqing 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  345-353 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The double 1R pseudo-rigid body model of the compliant joint was put forward for the first time based on the pseudo-rigid-body model of the initial bending beam. And a dynamic equation of parallel robot system with compliant joints was proposed based on Lagrange method and the virtual cutting method. The dynamic response was obtained numerically. It is shown that there were low-amplitude high-frequency vibrations on the basis of the desired results in the theoretical results, while there was no apparent high-frequency vibration in the results of the simplified model. It indicated that the theoretical model was better than the simple model to reflect the characteristics of such rigid-flexible coupling system. Simultaneously, ADAMS-ANSYS united simulation model and the experimental system were accomplished. And the theoretical trajectory was compared with simulation and the experimental trajectory, respectively. The maximum relative errors were 2.41% and 4.69%, respectively, which proved the correctness and validity of the theoretical model. 
  Number of references:  22 
  Main heading:  Robots 
  Controlled terms:  Beams and girders  -  Dynamics  -  Flexible couplings  -  Rigid structures  -  Universal joints 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Compliant joints  -  High frequency vibration  -  Maximum relative errors  -  Parallel robot systems  -  Parallel robots  -  Pseudo-rigid body models  -  Rigid-flexible-coupling system  -  Theoretical trajectory 
  Classification code:  408 Structural Design  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  602.2 Mechanical Transmissions  -  731.5 Robotics  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.049 
  Database:  Compendex
 
26. Accession number:  20153401188180
  Title:  Forward kinematics of 3-PPR parallel mechanism based on improved ant colony algorithm 
  Authors:  Wu, Xiaoyong1 ; Xie, Zhijiang1 ; Song, Daiping1 ; Liu, Fei1 ; Luo, Jiufei1 ; Mao, Bingyan1  
  Author affiliation:  1  State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Xie, Zhijiang 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  339-344 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Based on the screw theory, the degree of freedom of the 3-PPR parallel mechanism was computed, also the kinetic characteristic was analyzed according to its structural features, and the integrated inverse kinematics was established based on the analytic method. In order to solve the problem of parallel mechanism forward kinematics, this paper proposed a method that translated this problem into objective function optimization, and also built its mathematical model. By improving the basic ant colony algorithm effectively, an ACA was developed for solving the continuous optimization problem. Then this method was used to solve the forward kinematics problem of the 3-PPR parallel mechanism, and it was put into simulation by Matlab. Compared with traditional numerical method, this improved ACA was better at global optimization, and it could avoid the unfavorable effects caused by initial values, so did the local optimal values, also the calculation process will be much simpler without solving the Jacobian matrix and its inverse matrix. Then it is proved that this method is useful for solving the forward kinematics of common parallel mechanisms. 
  Number of references:  20 
  Main heading:  Algorithms 
  Controlled terms:  Ant colony optimization  -  Degrees of freedom (mechanics)  -  Functions  -  Global optimization  -  Inverse kinematics  -  Inverse problems  -  Jacobian matrices  -  Kinematics  -  MATLAB  -  Matrix algebra   -  Mechanisms  -  Numerical methods  -  Optimization  -  Problem solving  -  Screws 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Ant colony algorithms  -  Continuous optimization problems  -  Forward kinematics  -  Forward kinematics problem  -  Improved ant colony algorithm  -  Kinetic characteristics  -  Parallel mechanisms  -  Screw theory 
  Classification code:  601.3 Mechanisms  -  605 Small Tools and Hardware  -  921 Mathematics  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.048 
  Database:  Compendex
 
27. Accession number:  20153401188179
  Title:  Research on actuation control of dielectric electroactive polymer rotary joint 
  Authors:  Zhu, Yinlong1 ; Zhang, Xinyan1 ; Wang, Huaming2 ; Zhou, Hongping1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China
 2  College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Wang, Huaming 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  333-338 and 332 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Dielectric electroactive polymers have wide application prospects in research field of biomimetic robots due to the advantages such as large strain, high efficiency, high energy density, etc. 1-DOF rotary joint was designed based on the actuation principle of bionic joint and the characteristic of cylinder actuator. The electromechanical coupling model of DEAP (Dielectric electroactive polymer) of actuator was constructed based on the large elastic deformation theory, then the nonlinear relationship between input voltage and output angle of joint could be obtained by solving the equations iteratively, but this process of computing was time-consuming. To avoid the complicated calculation, CMAC (Cerebellar model articulation controller) neural network and PD controller were combined to realize the nonlinear mapping between the output angle of joint and input voltage. Tracking control experiments were performed in tracking step and sinusoidal reference signals, which showed the feasibility of CMAC neural network control method, while reasons for long response time and phase difference were discussed in details. 
  Number of references:  23 
  Main heading:  Electroactive polymer actuators 
  Controlled terms:  Actuators  -  Biomimetics  -  Computation theory  -  Conducting polymers  -  Controllers  -  Electromechanical coupling  -  Functional polymers  -  Iterative methods  -  Navigation  -  Neural networks   -  Nonlinear equations  -  Organic polymers  -  Polymers 
  Uncontrolled terms:  CMAC neural network  -  Dielectric electroactive polymers  -  PD controllers  -  Rotary joint  -  Tracking controls 
  Classification code:  461.9 Biology  -  701.1 Electricity: Basic Concepts and Phenomena  -  716.3 Radio Systems and Equipment  -  723.4 Artificial Intelligence  -  732.1 Control Equipment  -  815.1 Polymeric Materials  -  815.1.1 Organic Polymers  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.047 
  Database:  Compendex
 
28. Accession number:  20153401188176
  Title:  Symbolic description of parallel mechanism for computer aided analysis 
  Authors:  Liao, Ming1 ; Liu, Anxin1 ; Shen, Huiping2 ; Hang, Lubin3 ; Yang, Chengsong1 ; Yang, Tingli2  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Field Engineering, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
 2  College of Mechanical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, China
 3  College of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai, China 
  Corresponding author:  Liu, Anxin 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  310-317 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Kinematic and dynamic performance of a parallel mechanism is, to some extent, determined by its topological structure, so topological structure analysis and synthesis is very important to research and application of parallel mechanisms, especially the parallel robot mechanisms. In order to achieve computer aided topological structure analysis and synthesis of parallel mechanisms, the topological structure of parallel mechanism must first be represented symbolically. An algebraic symbolic description system was proposed for parallel mechanisms on the basis of SOC-based mechanism composition principle. With this symbolic description system, topological structure of any parallel mechanism can be expressed as a symbolic polynomial, each item of the polynomial represents a branch of the parallel mechanism. The transitivity of kinematic pair orientation relations was discussed and symbolic representations of different kinematic pair relations were introduced. Based on this symbolic description system, position and orientation characteristic (POC) set of parallel mechanisms can be derived easily with the help of a computer program, i.e. POC set of a branch was sum of the POC set of each kinematic pair in this branch and POC set of the complete parallel mechanism was product of the POC set of each branch. The proposed symbolic description system features the algebraic property of a symbolic computer language, so it can be used reliably in computer aided mechanism studies. Work in this paper provided a theoretic basis and an effective method for computer aided analysis and automatic generation of parallel mechanisms. 
  Number of references:  14 
  Main heading:  Computer aided analysis 
  Controlled terms:  Algebra  -  Kinematics  -  Mechanisms  -  Polynomials  -  Topology 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Characteristic set  -  Parallel mechanisms  -  Parallel robot mechanisms  -  Position and orientations  -  Research and application  -  Symbolic description  -  Topological structure  -  Topological structure analysis 
  Classification code:  601.3 Mechanisms  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  921.1 Algebra  -  921.4 Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.044 
  Database:  Compendex
 
29. Accession number:  20153401188165
  Title:  Intensity correction of visualized prediction for sugar content in apple using hyperspectral imaging 
  Authors:  Guo, Zhiming1, 2 ; Zhao, Chunjiang1, 3 ; Huang, Wenqian1, 3 ; Peng, Yankun2 ; Li, Jiangbo1, 3 ; Wang, Qingyan1, 3  
  Author affiliation:  1  Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing, China
 2  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 3  National Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Huang, Wenqian 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  227-232 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Hyperspectral imaging which integrating both spectroscopic and imaging techniques with higher spatial and spectral resolution, has been developed to study the physical characteristics, chemical constituents and distributions of different quality attributes. It's difficult to further analyze because of the adverse effects produced by the curvature of spherical objects in the process of hyperspectral images acquirement. Its suitability was illustrated in a specific case of apple fruits. This study proposes a method for correcting the light intensity of radiation non-uniform on the apple fruits. Firstly, the original hyperspectral images were corrected into the reflectance hyperspectral images based on black and white reference images, resulting in reducing the influence of illumination and the dark current of the camera. Then, the mean spectra extracted from roundness region of interest (ROI) in centre area of hyperspectral image were used to develop calibration models by using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The correlation coefficient and root mean square errors of calibration were found to be 0.9305 and 0.4331, respectively. After applying the proposed correction, the spectra of the pixels in hyperspectral image were performed to calculate the sugar content of corresponding pixels. Finally, the visualization of sugar content distribution in apple was achieved by using pseudo-color mapping. The results demonstrated that the correction method was proved to be effective for eliminating the adverse effects produced by the curvature of the fruit on the intensity of the radiation. The hyperspectral imaging has a great potential to be a nondestructive and rapid tool for the quantitative measurement of sugar content distribution for apple. 
  Number of references:  32 
  Main heading:  Image processing 
  Controlled terms:  Calibration  -  Flow visualization  -  Fruits  -  Image segmentation  -  Imaging techniques  -  Independent component analysis  -  Least squares approximations  -  Mean square error  -  Nondestructive examination  -  Pixels   -  Radiation effects  -  Spectroscopy  -  Visualization 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Apple  -  Hyper-spectral images  -  Nondestructive determination  -  Partial least-squares regression  -  Physical characteristics  -  Quantitative measurement  -  Root mean square errors  -  Sugar content 
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  711 Electromagnetic Waves  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  744 Lasers  -  746 Imaging Techniques  -  801 Chemistry  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  902.1 Engineering Graphics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.033 
  Database:  Compendex
 
30. Accession number:  20153401187688
  Title:  Orthogonal experiment on resistance reduction by soil-engaging surfaces of bulldozer blade 
  Authors:  Guo, Zhijun1 ; Du, Gan2 ; Li, Zhongli1 ; Li, Xinping1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Vehicle and Transportation Engineering Institute, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China
 2  Department of Logistics Command and Engineering, Navy University of Engineering, Tianjin, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  372-378 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The power consumed by bulldozer's main working parts-bulldozer blade accounts for about 40% of the total power of the bulldozer in working process. It has great significance to optimize the structure and working methods of bulldozer blade's macroscopic soil-engaging surface, thus decreasing working resistance and increasing energy efficiency. Combined with the classic design theories and research achievements of bulldozer blades, the modular design of directrix form and cutting angle shall be conducted for macroscopic soil-engaging surfaces structure of bulldozer blades. Nine bulldozer blade models with the cutting angles of 50°, 55° and 60°, respectively, whose soil-engaging surface directrix consists of arc, parabolic and bionic curve respectively, were fabricated and designed with scale model. The resistance features of nine bulldozer blades were studied through indoor soil bin and orthogonal experiment model. The result shows that the interaction between directrix form and cutting angle, and the directrix form has great influence on working resistance with significance level of 0.25. Compared with the traditional circular arc surface bulldozing plate, the paraboloid can relatively reduce the horizontal working resistance by 4.6%, the bionic surface reduced by 16.0%. The vertical resistance is reduced by 4.8% and 51.4%, respectively. The research result has important reference value for the high-efficient and energy-saving design of bulldozer blades and wide tine soil cutting components related. 
  Number of references:  15 
  Main heading:  Surface resistance 
  Controlled terms:  Energy conservation  -  Energy efficiency  -  Geometry  -  Semiconductor junctions  -  Soils  -  Structural design 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Bulldozer blade  -  Energy-saving design  -  Orthogonal experiment  -  Reference values  -  Research achievements  -  Research results  -  Significance levels  -  Vertical resistance 
  Classification code:  408.1 Structural Design, General  -  423 Non Mechanical Properties and Tests of Building Materials  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  525.2 Energy Conservation  -  714.2 Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits  -  921 Mathematics  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.053 
  Database:  Compendex 
 
31. Accession number:  20153401188143
  Title:  Dynamics simulation of stability of spraying vehicles based on virtual prototype 
  Authors:  Tang, Yue1 ; Zhao, Jin1 ; Qiu, Zhipeng2 ; Peng, Tao2  
  Author affiliation:  1  Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
 2  Jiangsu Huayuan Irrigation and Drainage Co., Ltd., Xuzhou, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  72-78 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Truss type sprinkler cart is one of the main parts of traveller irrigation machine, which plays an important role in modern agricultural irrigation. However, the sprinkler cart may get overturned or broken in the fields because of its large spraying arm span, unreasonable span setting between wheels and/or excessive moisture of the fields. Thus, a parameterized dynamics simulation model was established for type JP75 sprinkler cart in the software ADAMS to improve its abilities of slope-climbing and anti-overturning. Qualitative performances of the sprinkler cart were analyzed based on the proposed model. The slope angle was taken as an evaluation index of slope-climbing and anti-overturning abilities. Several key factors affecting the climbing abilities greatly were optimized, such as attachment coefficient, wheel spacing and centroid height. The bisection method was firstly brought into the simulation of sprinkler cart to accelerate the algorithm convergence. Compared with the current machine, simulation results show that the optimized sprinkler cart improves its stability by increasing the slope angle with 21.48%. Moreover, a physical prototype was developed and a field test was conducted to confirm both the accuracy of the simulation and the validity of the methods adopted. Test results show that both the number of overturn and torsion extent of the cart were decreased greatly with the water distribution uniformity increased dramatically. The abilities of slope-climbing and anti-overturning of truss type sprinkler cart were improved significantly. This paper provides a new method for the design of truss type sprinkler cart. 
  Number of references:  10 
  Main heading:  Sprinkler systems (irrigation) 
  Controlled terms:  Agricultural machinery  -  Amphibious vehicles  -  Computer software  -  Dynamics  -  Irrigation  -  Slope stability  -  Trusses  -  Virtual prototyping  -  Water supply systems  -  Wheels 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Agricultural irrigation  -  Algorithm convergence  -  Attachment coefficient  -  Bisection method  -  Dynamics simulation  -  Evaluation index  -  Terramechanics  -  Water distribution uniformities 
  Classification code:  406.2 Roads and Streets  -  408.2 Structural Members and Shapes  -  446.1 Water Supply Systems  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  674.1 Small Marine Craft  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.011 
  Database:  Compendex 
 
32. Accession number:  20153401188175
  Title:  Navigation path planning of unmanned underground LHD based on improved A<sup>*</sup> algorithm 
  Authors:  Ma, Fei1 ; Yang, Haoshen1 ; Gu, Qing1 ; Meng, Yu1  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  303-309 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  An improved A<sup>*</sup> algorithm based path planning method for unmanned underground load-haul-dump (LHD) was proposed and verified. According to the articulated structure of the underground LHD, the nodes were expanded by the articulated angle, which makes the expended nodes match the trajectory characteristic of the LHD. In order to avoid collision, collision threat cost was designed and added into the evaluation function, which makes the navigation path exclude against the walls. Simulation and comparison results between the improved A<sup>*</sup> algorithm and tranditional one show that the improved A<sup>*</sup> algorithm is more efficient, and the shortest path without collision can be obtained when the weighting coefficient is 0.2. Moreover, a path planning and tracking test is carried out in lab environment. It is shown that the tracking precision can keep in a small range and the LHD can run without collision when the navigation path is given by the proposed algorithm, which proves the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm. 
  Number of references:  18 
  Main heading:  Algorithms 
  Controlled terms:  Motion planning  -  Navigation 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Articulated structures  -  Comparison result  -  Evaluation function  -  Navigation path planning  -  Path planning method  -  Tracking precision  -  Unmanned underground LHD  -  Weighting coefficient 
  Classification code:  716.3 Radio Systems and Equipment  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.4 Artificial Intelligence  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.043 
  Database:  Compendex
 
33. Accession number:  20153401188154
  Title:  Temporal stability of soil salinity in root zone of cotton under drip irrigation with plastic mulch 
  Authors:  Xing, Xuguang1, 2 ; Zhao, Wengang1, 2 ; Ma, Xiaoyi1, 2 ; Zhao, Wei3 ; Shi, Wenjuan4  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  Key Laboratory for Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid Area, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 3  Water Conservancy and Hydropower Construction Survey and Design Institute, Hanzhong, China
 4  Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-Electric Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, China 
  Corresponding author:  Ma, Xiaoyi 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  146-153 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  To explore the spatial variability of soil salinity at root zone in cotton field under plastic drip irrigation, we conducted field experiments in 2013 and 2014 and employed the coefficient of variation, mean relative deviation and standard deviation to investigate the spatial variability of soil salinity for 0~5 cm, 5~10 cm, 10~15 cm, 15~20 cm, 20~30 cm and 30~40 cm layers, and further confirmed representative points that well reflected average soil salinity for each layer. Results showed that for 0~40 cm depth, variation degree of soil salinity of only a few points were strong, and most points were medium. Furthermore, in this main root zone, temporal stability of soil salinity first obviously increased and then slightly decreased with increasing of depth. Its stability was the strongest in 30 cm depth under surface, with the smallest floating range of mean relative deviation and the smallest mean standard deviation. Based on these findings, some representative points could be selected to estimate average soil salinity for 0~5 cm, 5~10 cm, 10~15 cm, 15~20 cm, 20~30 cm and 30~40 cm layers, and the spatial distribution of the selected points was concentrated. Besides, the relationship between the salinity of representative points and that of the whole area showed a good linear correlation, with high accuracy and determination coefficient from 0.7912 to 0.9171. This research on temporal stability of soil salinity in main root zone can help to guide the field irrigation. And selecting as few representative points as possible can provide a theoretical basis for observation points of soil salinity in this region. 
  Number of references:  21 
  Main heading:  Soil surveys 
  Controlled terms:  Cotton  -  Irrigation  -  Soils  -  Stability  -  Statistics 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Coefficient of variation  -  Plastic mulch  -  Relative deviations  -  Soil salinity  -  Temporal stability 
  Classification code:  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  801 Chemistry  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics  -  931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity  -  951 Materials Science  -  961 Systems Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.022 
  Database:  Compendex
 
34. Accession number:  20153401188152
  Title:  Horizontal distribution characteristics of preferential flow paths in farmland based on quantitative ecology 
  Authors:  Chen, Xiaobing1, 2 ; Zhang, Hongjiang1, 2 ; Cheng, Jinhua1, 2 ; Zhang, Fuming3 ; Zhang, Xin1, 2 ; Ruan, Xinzhu1, 2  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China
 2  Soil and Water Conservation of Beijing Engineering Research Center, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China
 3  Chongqing Forest Resource Management Bureau of Simian Mountain, Chongqing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, Hongjiang 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  130-138 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to analyze the horizontal distribution characteristics of different influence radius preferential flow paths and the spatial associations of biological activity in purple sandstone regions of farmland (vertical soil depths of 10~50 cm) in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, the spatial point pattern analysis method (g(r) function) of quantitative ecology was used. After the Monte-Carlo stochastic simulation test, the results showed that the number of preferential flow paths with the same influence radius decreased with the soil depth's decreasing, while the number of preferential flow paths with different influence radii decreased in the same soil layer. The preferential flow paths with lower influence radii only displayed an aggregated distribution at a small scale (0~20 mm). But the aggregated distribution was obviously as the increase of influence radius and scales. The preferential flow paths with different influence radii also displayed an aggregated distribution in deeper soil layer. The preferential flow paths with higher influence radius were more significantly aggregated distribution than those with lower influence radius. The distribution and formation of preferential flow paths were not only influenced by the soil swelling and shrinkage, but also exhibited a positive correlation with animal activity in spatial associations, especially the preferential flow paths with larger influence radius (R≥1.0 mm). The spatial point pattern analysis method is simpler than CT and soil water breakthrough curves methods to estimate the preferential flow paths. This proposed method can quantitatively analyze horizontal distribution characteristics of the preferential flow paths with morphology and it is better to reveal the underlying formation process. 
  Number of references:  27 
  Main heading:  Soil surveys 
  Controlled terms:  Aggregates  -  Bioactivity  -  Ecology  -  Farms  -  Groundwater flow  -  Monte Carlo methods  -  Reservoirs (water)  -  Soil moisture  -  Soils  -  Spatial distribution   -  Spatial variables measurement  -  Stochastic models  -  Stochastic systems 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Distribution characteristics  -  Farmland  -  Preferential flows  -  Spatial associations  -  Spatial point pattern analysis 
  Classification code:  406 Highway Engineering  -  441.2 Reservoirs  -  444.2 Groundwater  -  454.3 Ecology and Ecosystems  -  461.6 Medicine and Pharmacology  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  921 Mathematics  -  922.1 Probability Theory  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics  -  943.2 Mechanical Variables Measurements  -  961 Systems Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.020 
  Database:  Compendex
 
35. Accession number:  20153401188174
  Title:  Numerical analysis of droplet impact on surfaces with different wettabilities 
  Authors:  Li, Dashu1 ; Qiu, Xingqi1 ; Zheng, Zhiwei1 ; Cui, Yunjing2 ; Ma, Peiyong3  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, China
 2  School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, China
 3  School of Mechanical and Automobile Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China 
  Corresponding author:  Cui, Yunjing 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  294-302 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to explore the mechanism of fuel droplet impact on surface in diesel engine small-size combustor, a numerical model was developed using coupled level set and volume of fluid method including heat transfer and contact resistance. This model was verified by using experiments. The effect of wettabilities and the mechanism of droplet fluid and heat transfer as well as splashing during spreading were obtained according to results analysis. The theoretical condition of splashing is developed based on energy conservation equation. The results show that when the droplet contacts with the surface, it presents surface oscillation, spread and splash as the impact velocity increases. Spreading factor is closely related to impact velocity, the higher the impact velocity is, the larger the spreading factor is. The dimensionless time of maximum spreading factor is uncorrelated to impact velocity, the higher impact velocity is, the larger contraction is. The effect of wettabilities on spreading factor decreases with increasing impact velocity. The pressure gradient inside droplet is the main factor resulting in droplet spreading, breakup and splashing. Rayleigh-Plateau instability and capillary wave results in the shrink, breakup and splash from the liquid sheet. The conclusions are significant to spray control technology. 
  Number of references:  20 
  Main heading:  Drop breakup 
  Controlled terms:  Diesel engines  -  Drops  -  Heat resistance  -  Heat transfer  -  Numerical methods  -  Velocity  -  Wetting 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Control technologies  -  Droplet breakup  -  Droplet impact  -  Energy conservation equations  -  Rayleigh-Plateau instability  -  Spreading factor  -  Surface wettability  -  Volume of fluid method 
  Classification code:  612.2 Diesel Engines  -  641.2 Heat Transfer  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  931.1 Mechanics  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.042 
  Database:  Compendex
 
36. Accession number:  20153401188172
  Title:  Effect of gas composition in exhaust gas recirculation on structural feature of particulates from diesel engine 
  Authors:  Zhao, Yang1 ; Wang, Zhong1 ; Liu, Shuai1 ; Li, Ruina1 ; Qu, Lei1  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Automobile and Traffic Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  280-285 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Morphology and microstructure of particulates with the application of different gas compositions in EGR were analyzed by using transmission electron microscope and image processing software (Digital Micrograph). The results show that the particulates with the application of CO<inf>2</inf> mainly have the chain structure. The disorder degree of carbon layer in elementary particulate is higher and the content of graphitic crystalline structure in shell is less than those particulates with the application of EGR. Besides, the fringe separation distance has a significant increase. The average fringe length has a significant decrease; the tortuosity is the biggest and the fractal dimension is the smallest. The particulates with the application of N<inf>2</inf> mainly have the stone clusters; the elementary particulate integrated more tightly; the core of elementary particulate is more obvious and the content of graphitic crystalline structure in shell is less than those particulates with the application of EGR. Besides that, the fringe separation distance has a significant decrease; the average fringe length has a significant increase; the tortuosity is the smallest and the fractal dimension is the biggest. Those indicate that the structure of particular with the application of N<inf>2</inf> is more tightness than those with the application of CO<inf>2</inf>, and increasing of the content of CO<inf>2</inf> in EGR can improve the oxidation ability of particulate and decrease the disorder degree of carbon layer. 
  Number of references:  21 
  Main heading:  Exhaust gas recirculation 
  Controlled terms:  Application programs  -  Crystalline materials  -  Diesel engines  -  Engines  -  Fractal dimension  -  Fractals  -  Gases  -  Image processing  -  Ionization of gases  -  Transmission electron microscopy 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Crystalline structure  -  Digital micrographs  -  Disorder degree  -  Fringe separation  -  Gas compositions  -  Image-processing software  -  Particulates  -  Structural feature 
  Classification code:  612 Engines  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  741.3 Optical Devices and Systems  -  921 Mathematics  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids  -  933.1 Crystalline Solids 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.040 
  Database:  Compendex
 
37. Accession number:  20153401188159
  Title:  Status analysis and development prospect of biogas engineering technology 
  Authors:  Li, Wei1 ; Wu, Shubiao1 ; Bah, Hamidou2 ; Pang, Changle1 ; Dong, Renjie1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  Department of Agricultural Extension, Institute Superior of Agronomy and Veterinary, Faranah, Guinea 
  Corresponding author:  Wu, Shubiao 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  187-196 and 202 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Current situation of biogas engineering technology was overviewed and its development prospect were analyzed. Generally, with the growing popularity in China, biogas engineering technology has made great progress. The technology for collection, storage and pretreatment of raw materials need urgent upgrading. More and more researches are required to develop key technology and equipment. It is significant for the efficient and stable operation of biogas project to realize effective monitoring and timely warning and develop appropriate trace element additives and functional microbial agents. Testing and development of new membrane materials and blending or modification of conventional materials were the primary means to improve the separation and purification capabilities of bio-methane from biogas. The resourceful utilization of biogas slurry is the key steps for the sustainable development of biogas engineering. Further development of biogas technology claims to realize the standardized integration of independent research and development, standardized engineering design, industrialized production of equipment, modular construction and installation, and professional installation and debugging along with full argumentation of technical bottleneck, rational allocation of resources of science and technology, and increased investment in scientific problem tackling based on the demand of biogas engineering industry development, besides, innovating the application mode of biogas engineering technology is also important and helpful. This paper can provide certain reference for biogas industry practioners and related researchers. 
  Number of references:  85 
  Main heading:  Biogas 
  Controlled terms:  Blending  -  Construction equipment  -  Materials testing  -  Modular construction  -  Monitoring  -  Trace elements 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Conventional materials  -  Digestate  -  Engineering industries  -  Industrialized production  -  Pre-Treatment  -  Pretreatment of raw materials  -  Science and Technology  -  Separation and purification 
  Classification code:  405.1 Construction Equipment  -  405.2 Construction Methods  -  422 Strength of Building Materials; Test Equipment and Methods  -  423 Non Mechanical Properties and Tests of Building Materials  -  522 Gas Fuels  -  801 Chemistry  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.027 
  Database:  Compendex
 
38. Accession number:  20153401188151
  Title:  Simulation analysis and experiment of profiling device of small self-propelled mower 
  Authors:  Wu, Bei1 ; Wang, Decheng1 ; Wang, Guanghui1 ; Fu, Zuoli1 ; Guo, Zhen1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
   Corresponding author:  Wang, Decheng 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  123-129 and 108 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In China, especially in the northwest region, alfalfa is often planted in mountains and hills, which makes mechanized harvesting become a big problem. The small self-propelled mower, which is flexible and easy to move, is regarded as a proper solution to the problem. Taking the adverse working condition and the harvest requirements of alfalfa into consideration, the profiling device is the key part of this kind of mower. The research theoretically analyzed the profiling device which consists of sliding palm, spring, linkages and elevating hydraulic cylinder. Building the virtual prototype and carrying out the orthogonal experiment by using the model, the best parameters of the device were as follows: the sliding palm length of 188 mm, the cutter bar tilt angle of 4.06°, the ratio of spring pull force to cutting table gravity of 0.85, and the advance speed of 2 m/s. By using the optimized mower conditioner test in the field, the result of test showed the validity of the simulation. Besides, under the same working condition, the height of stubble was 7% as low as which was cut by prototype without optimization, and what's more, the optimized mower worked 75% as fast as the prior machine. 
  Number of references:  7 
  Main heading:  Lawn mowers 
  Controlled terms:  Hydraulic machinery  -  Virtual prototyping 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Hydraulic cylinders  -  Mechanized harvesting  -  Mower conditioners  -  Northwest regions  -  Orthogonal experiment  -  Profiling device  -  Proper solutions  -  Simulation analysis 
  Classification code:  605 Small Tools and Hardware  -  632.2 Hydraulic Equipment and Machinery 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.019 
  Database:  Compendex
 
39. Accession number:  20153401188163
  Title:  Identification for guava mechanical damage based on combined hyper-spectrometer and electronic nose 
  Authors:  Xu, Sai1, 2 ; Lu, Huazhong1, 2 ; Zhou, Zhiyan1, 2 ; Lü, Enli1, 2 ; Jiang, Yanming1, 2  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Key Technology on Agricultural Machine and Equipment, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:  Lü, Enli 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  214-219 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  This paper proposed a method to identify the mechanical damage of fruit based on the combined hyper-spectrometer and electronic nose. We used hyper-spectrometer and electronic nose on no damage guava, light-level mechanical damage guava and heavy-level mechanical damage guava samples, respectively. After extracting the feature information, the principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Euclidean distance (ED) analysis and fuzzy C-mean cluster were used to compare the classification effect of three identification methods (hyperspectral identification, electronic nose identification, combined hyper-spectrometer and electronic nose identification) for guava mechanical damage. The results of PCA and LDA show that the hyper-spectrometer and electronic nose can identify the mechanical damage of guava, but both of the single method cannot identify the mechanical damage level of guava. When using the method of combined hyper-spectrometer and electronic nose identification, LDA result shows that it can classify the mechanical damage level of guava effectively. The identification effect of LDA for guava mechanical damage was better than that of PCA. According to PCA, LDA and ED results, we can also infer that the multi-source information fusion can not only gain more sample information which was useful for improving classification effect, but also keep the maximum distance of each group as large as possible. According to fuzzy C-mean cluster results, the identification accuracy of guava mechanical damage based on hyperspectral identification, electronic nose identification and combined hyper-spectrometer and electronic nose identification were 89.74%, 82.05% and 97.44%, respectively. This paper proved the feasibility of using multi-source information fusion to improve the identification effect of fruit mechanical damage. 
  Number of references:  15 
  Main heading:  Electronic nose 
  Controlled terms:  Classification (of information)  -  Damage detection  -  Discriminant analysis  -  Fruits  -  Information fusion  -  Principal component analysis  -  Spectrometers 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Feature information  -  Guava  -  Identification accuracy  -  Identification method  -  Linear discriminant analysis  -  Mechanical damages  -  Multi-source information fusion  -  Sample information 
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  422 Strength of Building Materials; Test Equipment and Methods  -  801 Chemistry  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  903.1 Information Sources and Analysis  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.031 
  Database:  Compendex
 
40. Accession number:  20153401188170
  Title:  Up-scaling transformation methods for vegetation temperature condition index retrieved from landsat data 
  Authors:  Wang, Pengxin1, 2 ; Wu, Gaofeng1, 2 ; Bai, Xuejiao1, 2 ; Liu, Junming1, 2  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  264-271 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Vegetation temperature condition index (VTCI) drought monitoring results retrieved from Landsat remotely sensed data (30 m) in Guanzhong Plain, China were spatially transformed to a scale of the Aqua MODIS resolution (930 m) by using point spread function, mixed pixel area weighting method and median pixel variability weighting method. The transformed VTCIs were compared with the ones retrieved from Aqua MODIS data for agreement analysis of the two drought monitoring results. Taking MODIS VTCIs as the 'real' droughts, correlation coefficients and root mean square errors between the up-scaled Landsat VTCIs and MODIS VTCIs, and the texture and semi-variances of the two VTCIs were applied to select the best transformation method. The results showed that the transformed VTCIs from the point spread function and the mixed pixel area weighting method were better than those from the median pixel variability weighting method, which indicates that the point spread function and the mixed pixel area weighting method were both suitable for transforming the retrieved VTCI drought monitoring results from Landsat remotely sensed data, and the data processing procedure of the point spread function was relatively simple. The transformed VTCIs in the selected sampling sites covered by winter wheat showed that the smaller the spatial heterogeneity, the higher the transformed accuracy. 
  Number of references:  19 
  Main heading:  Metadata 
  Controlled terms:  Data handling  -  Drought  -  Mean square error  -  Optical transfer function  -  Pixels  -  Radiometers  -  Remote sensing  -  Scales (weighing instruments)  -  Vegetation 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Correlation coefficient  -  LANDSAT  -  Mixed pixel  -  Root mean square errors  -  Spatial heterogeneity  -  Transformation methods  -  Upscaling  -  Vegetation temperature condition index 
  Classification code:  444 Water Resources  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  943.3 Special Purpose Instruments  -  944.7 Radiation Measuring Instruments 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.038 
  Database:  Compendex 
 
41. Accession number:  20153401188156
  Title:  Effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on rill morphological characteristics 
  Authors:  Shen, Haiou1 ; Zheng, Fenli1, 2 ; Wen, Leilei1 ; Jiang, Yiliang1 ; Lu, Jia1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zheng, Fenli 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  162-170 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Studies on rill morphological characteristics can reveal soil erosion mechanisms, and rill morphology has important influence on runoff and soil loss of the hill slope. However, the existing studies only use rill density, rill width-depth ratio, etc. to characterize rill morphology, which cannot fully reflect rill morphological characteristics. Effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on rill erosion and rill morphology at the loess hill slope were studied based on a rainfall simulation study. The experimental treatments included three rainfall intensities (50, 75 and 100 mm/h) of representative erosive rainfall on the Loess Plateau and three common slope gradients (10°, 15° and 20°) of rill erosion occurrence. The results showed that both soil erosion and rill erosion increased with increasing of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, where relationships among them were the power function. Rill inclination angle concentrated between 16°~20° under the experimental conditions, and it increased with an increase in rainfall intensity and decreased with an increase in slope gradient. Rill density, degree of rill dissection and rill tortuosity complexity were 0.74~1.95 m/m<sup>2</sup>, 0.08~0.17 and 1.09~1.38, respectively, which all increased as rainfall intensity and slope gradient increased. Rill width-depth ratio was 1.93~2.35, which decreased with increasing rainfall intensity and slope gradient. By analyzing correlations between rill erosion and rill morphological indicators, degree of rill dissection is the best indicator to evaluate rill erosion and rill morphology. When studying the effect of rainfall intensity on rill morphology, indicators of degree of rill dissection, rill tortuosity complexity and rill inclination angle are recommended to preferentially select. When analyzing the effect of slope gradient on rill morphology, indicators of rill density and rill width-depth ratio are recommended to preferentially select, except for degree of rill dissection. Most of rill cross sections presented “V” shapes. Generally, the rill cross section appeared more and more irregular change with increasing rainfall intensity and slope gradient, where the runoff turbulence increased. This indicated that the change of rill cross section can reflect change characteristics of runoff, thereby reveal the rill erosion mechanisms. 
  Number of references:  26 
  Main heading:  Rain 
  Controlled terms:  Erosion  -  Morphology  -  Runoff  -  Sediments  -  Soils 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Effects of rainfalls  -  Experimental conditions  -  Morphological characteristic  -  Morphological indicator  -  Rainfall intensity  -  Rill cross section  -  Rill erosion  -  Slope gradients 
  Classification code:  443.3 Precipitation  -  444.1 Surface Water  -  483 Soil Mechanics and Foundations  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.024 
  Database:  Compendex
 
42. Accession number:  20153401188164
  Title:  Application of hyperspectral imaging for detection of natural defective features in huping jujube fruit 
  Authors:  Xue, Jianxin1 ; Zhang, Shujuan1 ; Zhang, Jingjing1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, Shujuan 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  220-226 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Hyperspectral imaging technology covered the range of 450~1000 nm was employed to detect natural defects (shrink, crack, insect damage, black rot and peck injury) of Huping jujube fruit. 663 sample images were acquired which included five types of natural defects and sound samples. After acquiring hyperspectral images of Huping jujube fruits, the spectral data were extracted from region of interest (ROI). Using Kennard-Stone algorithm, all kinds of samples were randomly divided into training set (500 samples) and test set (163 samples) according to the proportion of 3:1. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were conducted to select optimal sensitive wavelengths (SWs), as a result, 9 SWs and 10 SWs were selected, respectively. And then, least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) discriminate model was established by using the selected wavebands. The results showed that the discriminate accuracy of the SPA-LS-SVM method was 93.2%. Then, images corresponding to ten sensitive bands (535, 595, 657, 672, 685, 749, 826, 898, 964, 999 nm) selected by SPA were executed to PCA. Finally, the images of PCA were employed to identify the location and area of natural defects feature through imaging processing. Using Sobel operator, region growing algorithm and the images of PCA, the edge and defect feature of 163 Huping jujube fruits could be recognized, the detect precision was 90.8%. This investigation demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging technology could detect the natural defects of shrink, crack, insect damage, black rot and peck injury in Huping jujube fruit in spectral analysis and feature detection, which provided a theoretical reference for the natural defects nondestructive detection of jujube fruit. 
  Number of references:  18 
  Main heading:  Feature extraction 
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  Crack detection  -  Cracks  -  Damage detection  -  Defects  -  Edge detection  -  Error detection  -  Fruits  -  Image acquisition  -  Image processing   -  Image segmentation  -  Imaging techniques  -  Least squares approximations  -  Spectroscopy  -  Spectrum analysis  -  Spoilage  -  Support vector machines 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Huping jujube  -  Hyperspectral Imaging  -  Hyperspectral imaging technologies  -  Least squares support vector machines  -  Natural defect  -  Nondestructive detection  -  Partial least squares regressions (PLSR)  -  Successive projections algorithms (SPA) 
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  423 Non Mechanical Properties and Tests of Building Materials  -  461.9 Biology  -  716 Telecommunication; Radar, Radio and Television  -  721.1 Computer Theory, Includes Formal Logic, Automata Theory, Switching Theory, Programming Theory  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  746 Imaging Techniques  -  801 Chemistry  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.032 
  Database:  Compendex
 
43. Accession number:  20153401188150
  Title:  Design and test of logarithmic spiral round baler chamber 
  Authors:  Gao, Dongming1 ; Wang, Decheng2 ; Li, Jie1 ; Liu, Yude1 ; Qiao, Xiaodong3  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Material and Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, China
 2  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 3  Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Wang, Decheng 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  118-122 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Operational efficiency and working quality of silage round baler were mainly determined by the compression chamber. For the feeding difficulties of traditional compression chamber, a new type of round bale device with logarithmic spiral geometric features was designed for the silage job. This device consists of a preload feeding mechanism and the logarithmic spiral type secondary extrusion mechanism. The pressure angles of this machine were experimented with different moisture contents of corn stalks. Results of field test indicate that, plugging problems were solved by using logarithmic spiral geometry chamber baler compared with the circular cavity compression chamber balers. The pressure angle of logarithmic spiral baler feeder must be less than 20° under the feeding process of thick, hard and moist materials. Under the conditions that the pressure angle of 15° and the moisture content of 50%~70%, the feeding speed could match the baling speed in higher efficiency. To form bales of equivalent mass, the device had good adaptability for high moisture corn stalks. The design principles and experimental results of logarithmic spriral compression chamber provided an optimization direction for improving the working efficiency of silage round baler. 
  Number of references:  16 
  Main heading:  Feeding 
  Controlled terms:  Efficiency  -  Moisture  -  Moisture determination 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Compression chambers  -  Different moisture contents  -  Higher efficiency  -  Logarithmic spiral  -  Operational efficiencies  -  Round baler  -  Silage  -  Working efficiency 
  Classification code:  691.2 Materials Handling Methods  -  801.4 Physical Chemistry  -  913.1 Production Engineering  -  944.2 Moisture Measurements 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.018 
  Database:  Compendex 
 
44. Accession number:  20153401188148
  Title:  Design on air-flowing cleaning unit of micro rice-wheat combine harvester 
  Authors:  Liu, Zhenghuai1 ; Zheng, Yiping1 ; Wang, Zhiming1 ; Chen, Dejun1 ; Wang, Jun2  
  Author affiliation:  1  Mechanical and Electrical Engineering College, Jinhua Polytechnic, Jinhua, China
 2  School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:  Chen, Dejun 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  102-108 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  To improve the operating quality of the micro rice-wheat combine harvester in hilly and mountainous areas, an air-flowing cleaning unit was designed. By means of design and calculation, the main working parts'(cleaning unit, suction tube and suction fan) structure parameters and working parameters were defined. Simulating analyses on 3D model of air-flowing field in the cleaning unit were done. The results showed that the cleaning device structure and distribution of air-flow speed met the design requirements well and the cleaning effect was good. The compared field test with the rice harvest showed that the micro combine harvester with air-flowing cleaning unit had the features of compact size and easy operation. The distribution of air-flowing velocity and pressure in the cleaning unit could meet design requirements well. Comparing to micro combine harvester without air-flowing cleaning unit, the total loss rate decreased from 3.8% to 2.34%, the damage rate decreased from 1.5% to 1.4% and the impurities rate decreased from 7.2% to 1.2%, which fell by 38.42%, 8.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Every performance reached the demands to JB/T 5117-2006 well. The decline of impurities rate was particularly significant. 
  Number of references:  9 
  Main heading:  Air cleaners 
  Controlled terms:  Air  -  Cleaning  -  Design  -  Fans  -  Harvesters  -  Structural design 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Combine harvesters  -  Design and calculation  -  Flowing velocity  -  Hilly and mountainous areas  -  Micro  -  Structure parameter  -  Wheat combine harvesters  -  Working parameters 
  Classification code:  408 Structural Design  -  408.1 Structural Design, General  -  618.3 Blowers and Fans  -  651.2 Wind Tunnels  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.016 
  Database:  Compendex
 
45. Accession number:  20153401188133
  Title:  On-line identification of apple stem-end/calyx based on coded spot-array structured light 
  Authors:  Zhang, Chi1, 2 ; Chen, Liping1, 2 ; Huang, Wenqian1, 2 ; Guo, Zhiming1 ; Wang, Qingyan1, 2  
  Author affiliation:  1  Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing, China
 2  National Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Chen, Liping 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  1-9 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Automatic detection of apple defects using a computer vision system is difficult due to the similarity between stem-end/calyx and true defects. Identification of stem-end/calyx is always a challenging project in automatic apple grading. This paper presents an encoding method based on position change for spot-array structured light, and the proposed method was used in distinguishing defects from stem-end/calyx of apple images in real time. By analyzing imaging process of the spots projected onto the object surface and reference plane, the position change of spot was chosen as coded primitive. Over the field of two elements, the M-array was generated by using the primitives, and was used as the coded pattern of near-infrared (NIR) spot-array structured light. Analysis of difference matrix made it possible to identify the location of stem-end/calyx regions after matching. The on-line experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method could realize the detection of stem-end/calyx efficiently, and achieve an average of 93.17% recognition accuracy with real-time performance. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective in identification of apple stem-end/calyx. 
  Number of references:  17 
  Main heading:  Image processing 
  Controlled terms:  Computer vision  -  Fruits  -  Grading  -  Image coding  -  Infrared devices  -  Infrared imaging  -  Social networking (online) 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Apple  -  Automatic sorting  -  Coded pattern  -  Near- infrared images  -  Structured Light 
  Classification code:  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  913.3 Quality Assurance and Control 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.001 
  Database:  Compendex
 
46. Accession number:  20153401188171
  Title:  Spatial distribution of high temperature stress at corn flowering stage in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China 
  Authors:  Liu, Zhe1 ; Qiao, Hongxing1 ; Zhao, Zuliang1 ; Li, Shaoming1 ; Chen, Yanqing1 ; Zhang, Xiaodong1   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, Xiaodong 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  272-279 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  High temperature stress has serious influences on the yield and quality of corn. The yield loss would be devastating if heat injury happened at corn flowering stage. The Huang-Huai-Hai Plain is one of corn predominance regions in China, where high temperature damage often occurs in recent years. This study aims to explore the temporal and spatial distribution of the high temperature stress of corn at flowering stage in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. Firstly, we determined hours per day of temperature higher than 34 at flowering stage as the index for heat injury, then we calculated the index value of each county in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain during 2013, and analyzed its temporal and spatial distribution of the region. Secondly, based on the meteorological data in 63 a, we calculated the 2013 probability of high temperature stress at corn flowering stage in the region. The result shows that, Pingdingshan City, Xinyang City of Henan Province and area near by encountered unusual high temperature at flowering stage in 2013, where the probability of 2013 was below once-in-a-century. In order to reduce yield loss and overlapping time between the corn flowering stage and high temperature period, we suggested to sow about one week in advance for these areas. In background of the climate change, research on the temporal and spatial distribution of corn high temperature damage is significant to react the disaster mitigation of maize production. 
  Number of references:  23 
  Main heading:  Spatial distribution 
  Controlled terms:  Balloons  -  Climate change  -  Meteorology 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Corn  -  Disaster mitigation  -  Flowering stage  -  High temperature stress  -  High-temperature damage  -  Meteorological data  -  Predominance regions  -  Temporal and spatial distribution 
  Classification code:  443 Meteorology  -  443.2 Meteorological Instrumentation  -  451 Air Pollution  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.039 
  Database:  Compendex
 
47. Accession number:  20153401187686
  Title:  Welding technology optimization and capability analysis of honeycomb panel heat exchanger 
  Authors:  Wang, Shiguang1 ; Li, Shujun1 ; Yang, Bingnan1 ; Li, Ziming1 ; Du, Xinwu2 ; Jin, Xin2  
  Author affiliation:  1  Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences, Beijing, China
 2  College of Agricultural Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China 
  Corresponding author:  Li, Shujun 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  359-364 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  To improve the mechanical strength of the honeycomb panel heat exchanger and ameliorate the limit of swell-crush forming, the main factors which affecting the welding limit cohesion and limit strength of stamping rupture were optimized. These factors included the welding shape, welding power, welding speed, welding distance, and welding arrangement. The single factor experiment and multi factors experiment for welding sheet mechanical strength were carried out with digital controlled laser welder, pulling test rig, hydraulic pressure pump and other apparatuses. The results of the single factor experiment showed that the sheet limit mechanical strength of spiral welding spot was the largest. With the increase of welding power and welding speed, the limit mechanical strength of spiral welding spot first increased then decreased. The limit strength of stamping rupture of equilateral triangle arranged welding spot was relatively good. With the increase of welding distance, the strength decreased rapidly. The result of orthogonal experiment showed that: with the spiral welding spot and equilateral triangle arranged welding spot, the maximum limit strength of stamping rupture reached 8.6 MPa which was improved by 7.5% compared with current welding technology when the welding distance was 50 mm, welding power was 2.2 kW, and welding speed was 2.5 m/min. 
  Number of references:  13 
  Main heading:  Welding 
  Controlled terms:  Heat exchangers  -  Honeycomb structures  -  Optimization  -  Pumping (laser)  -  Radiant heating  -  Stamping 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Capability Analysis  -  Equilateral triangles  -  Honeycomb panels  -  Hydraulic pressure  -  Limit strength  -  Orthogonal experiment  -  Single-factor experiments  -  Welding technology 
  Classification code:  408.2 Structural Members and Shapes  -  535.2 Metal Forming  -  538.2 Welding  -  616.1 Heat Exchange Equipment and Components  -  643.1 Space Heating  -  744.1 Lasers, General  -  921.5 Optimization Techniques 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.051 
  Database:  Compendex
 
48. Accession number:  20153401188158
  Title:  Modelling and application of TOPMODEL based on LBM 
  Authors:  Gong, Xinglong1 ; Fu, Qiang1 ; Xing, Zhenxiang1 ; Wang, Bin1 ; Li, Heng1 ; Guo, Jia1  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China 
  Corresponding author:  Fu, Qiang 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  181-186 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  According to the blueprint idea which was presented by Freeze and Harlan, the TOPMODEL was improved by using Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The method of LBM was adopted to build a numerical model of watershed concentration which was used to solve the movement process of Richards in unsaturated regions. And the Darcy's equation was used to set up a numerical model of soil water movement in saturation regions. Then a grid distributed model based on LBMGTOPMODEL was built. In the grid distributed model, the runoff processes was divided into precipitation module, evapotranspiration module, unsaturated water vertical movement module, slope concentration module, river/channel module, and statured soil water/unground water module. The stored-full runoff generation pattern and the runoff generation pattern over infiltration were integrated together with considering runoff yield from soil water profiles, soil anisotropy and land slope. The concentration method was taken into ideas from geomorphologic hydrology to find the quantity relationships between the hydrological process and catchment geomorphology. The slope water movement was described through the integration of geomorphology factors and hydrodynamic diffusion, which solved the distribution of water quantity of slope flow. The Zhongtang Basin was taken as the object to apply hydrological simulation. The results showed that the certainty factor was between 0.547~0.883 and the average value was 0.725. This result could provide spatial distribution situation of water data for calculation of slope flow, channel flow and water movement in root area and unsaturated area. 
  Number of references:  19 
  Main heading:  Numerical models 
  Controlled terms:  Catchments  -  Computational fluid dynamics  -  Geomorphology  -  Kinetic theory  -  Landforms  -  Numerical methods  -  Runoff  -  Soil moisture  -  Soils 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Concentration method  -  Concentration modules  -  Distribution of water  -  Hydrological process  -  Hydrological simulations  -  Lattice Boltzmann method  -  Lattice boltzmann methods (LBM)  -  TOPMODEL 
  Classification code:  444 Water Resources  -  444.1 Surface Water  -  481.1 Geology  -  481.1.1 Geomorphology  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.026 
  Database:  Compendex 
 
49. Accession number:  20153401188168
  Title:  Mathematical simulation analysis of rice seeds on thermal dynamical and rheological properties 
  Authors:  Yan, Pingyu1 ; Li, Dong1 ; Mao, Zhihuai1 ; Tian, Ye2, 3 ; Li, Xinxing2, 3   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 3  Key Laboratory of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Li, Xinxing 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  245-250 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The thermal dynamical and rheological properties as well as mathematical simulation analysis of rice seeds were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). A long grain hybrid rice variety (Jinyou 974) grown in Hunan Province of China was used in this investigation. The results showed that the thermal transition was observed obviously and the length change of rice seeds with a loaded constant force along the major axis direction was detected during temperature scanning. The glass transition temperature decreased from (71.37±2.76) to (31.84±2.51) with moisture content increased from (11.3±0.23)% to (24.3±0.47)%. Both the linear function and Gordon-Taylor model can adequately represent the variation of glass transition temperature with moisture content (R<sup>2</sup>>0.98). In order to do more in-depth study of thermal dynamical properties of rice seeds, the creep and stress relaxation characteristics were tested on the basis of temperature scanning. 5-element Kelvin model and 3-element Maxwell model could match the creep and relaxation behavior of rice seeds well and the results showed that the creep behavior was significantly affected by its moisture content and length, while the relaxation behavior was only influenced by its moisture content. These indicated that there would be unavoidable stress cracks because of the influence of creep and relaxation during storage and transportation process. 
  Number of references:  16 
  Main heading:  Glass transition 
  Controlled terms:  Creep  -  Dynamic mechanical analysis  -  Glass  -  Moisture  -  Moisture determination  -  Rheology  -  Stress relaxation  -  Temperature 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Creep and relaxation  -  DMA  -  Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA)  -  Dynamical properties  -  Mathematical simulations  -  Rheological property  -  Rice seed  -  Storage and transportation process 
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  641.1 Thermodynamics  -  801.4 Physical Chemistry  -  812.3 Glass  -  815.1 Polymeric Materials  -  931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity  -  931.1 Mechanics  -  944.2 Moisture Measurements  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.036 
  Database:  Compendex
 
50. Accession number:  20153401188162
  Title:  Rapid determination of oil stained vinegar capsule using hyper-spectral technology 
  Authors:  Shi, Jiyong1 ; Zou, Xiaobo1 ; Zhao, Jiewen1 ; Hong, Zhaopeng1 ; Huang, Xiaowei1 ; Zhu, Yaodi1  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zou, Xiaobo 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  210-213 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The oil stained vinegar capsule and the qualified vinegar capsule are of the same color, which makes it difficult to detect oil stained vinegar capsule using the naked eye or computer vision. The spectral information of hyperspectral data is sensitive to the chemical compounds of sample area, and allows quantitative/qualitative analysis of biological products. Therefore the feasibility of using hyper-spectral imaging technology for rapid determination of oil stained vinegar capsule was investigated. The hyper-spectral image data of oil stained vinegar capsule were acquired in the wavelength range of 430~960 nm, and were used to extract characteristic information of oil stained vinegar capsule. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and K-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN) were used to build discriminant models for oil stained vinegar capsule. When principal component factors equaled to 2 and K levels equaled to 3, the optimal KNN model was obtained with identification rates of 100% in both training set and prediction set. The overall results show that hyper-spectral imaging technology could extract the spectral characteristics of oil stained vinegar capsule efficiently. The hyper-spectral imaging technology could be used for rapid determination of oil stained vinegar capsule. 
  Number of references:  15 
  Main heading:  Plant extracts 
  Controlled terms:  Acetic acid  -  Chemical analysis  -  Chemical compounds  -  Computer vision  -  Discriminant analysis  -  Image processing  -  Imaging techniques  -  Nearest neighbor search  -  Pattern recognition  -  Principal component analysis   -  Spectroscopy 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Hyper-spectral images  -  HyperSpectral  -  K nearest neighbor algorithm  -  Linear discriminant analysis  -  Oil stained  -  Rapid detection  -  Spectral characteristics  -  Vinegar capsule 
  Classification code:  461.9 Biology  -  716 Telecommunication; Radar, Radio and Television  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  741.2 Vision  -  746 Imaging Techniques  -  801 Chemistry  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  922 Statistical Methods  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.030 
  Database:  Compendex
 
51. Accession number:  20153401188134
  Title:  Bionic scene recognition of agricultural mobile robot based on what-where dual channel theory 
  Authors:  Wang, Fuzhi1 ; Song, Changlin1 ; Jiang, Daijun1 ; Feng, Daiwei2  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Mechanical Engineering, Xihua University, Chengdu, China
 2  School of Mechatronic Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  10-16 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Scene recognition is the key to visual navigation for the agricultural mobile robot in unknown environment. This paper used what-where dual channel theory to build the models of scene perception, scene representation and scene recognition, and proposed a bionic method of scene recognition on the basis of probabilistic framework. This method first computed the bottom-up saliency map of scene based on the contrast prior and the center prior, which can be further optimized with the global energy function. Then shifted the visual focus of saliency map to obtain the saccade sequence as the "where information", and analyzed the content of the visual focus to obtain the "what information" with the experts network comprised of single layer perceptron. Lastly, according to the action recognition regularity of human, built the discrete and observable Markov model using the "what information" and the "where information". The parameters of the model can be determined by training the frame images from the camera on the mobile robot and can be viewed as the prior knowledge about different scenes, which can be recognized by maximizing the likelihood probability of the Markov recognition model. The whole recognition process is similar to human's. Experimental results show that this method has good performance for indoor scenes and the recognition accuracy averaged out at 87.3%. 
  Number of references:  17 
  Main heading:  Mobile robots 
  Controlled terms:  Agriculture  -  Behavioral research  -  Markov processes  -  Robots 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Bottom-up saliencies  -  Double channel  -  Markov model  -  Probabilistic framework  -  Scene recognition  -  Scene representation  -  Single layer perceptron  -  Visual Attention 
  Classification code:  731.5 Robotics  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  922.1 Probability Theory  -  971 Social Sciences 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.002 
  Database:  Compendex
 
52. Accession number:  20153401188166
  Title:  Effect of tree shapes on prediction of sugar content of Huanghua pear in harvest time using visible/near infrared spectroscopy 
  Authors:  Liu, Huijun1, 2 ; Ying, Yibin1   
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
 2  College of Metrological Technology and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:  Ying, Yibin 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  233-237 and 250 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Light permeability of tree affects the accumulation of sugar in fruits, and there is a difference in quality of fruit between different types of trees. The effect of tree shapes on prediction of sugar content of Huanghua pears in harvest time by visible/near infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIR) was evaluated. A total of 480 pears were picked from opening canopy trees and trellis-trained trees in six batches, there was significant difference in fruit sugar content between two types of fruit trees (p<0.05). The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual prediction deviation (the ratio of standard deviation to RMSEP, RPD) of models of single tree shape fruits for predicting similar fruits ranged from 0.69°Brix to 0.64°Brix, and from 2.08 to 1.97, while for all fruits of different tree shapes, they ranged from 1.31°Brix to 1.07°Brix, and from 1.14 to 1.36, respectively. The RMSEP of the combined model was 0.59°Brix, and RPD was 2.38. The results showed that the model established by single tree shape fruits had poor performance, while a model established by using combined shapes fruits would obtain ideal robustness and good accuracy. The results would help to further utilize VIS/NIR to test quality of fruits in harvest time and predict the optimal harvest time. 
  Number of references:  24 
  Main heading:  Fruits 
  Controlled terms:  Forecasting  -  Forestry  -  Harvesting  -  Infrared spectroscopy  -  Mean square error  -  Orchards 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Huanghua pear  -  Partial least square (PLS)  -  Sugar content  -  Tree shape  -  Visible/near infrared spectroscopy 
  Classification code:  731.1 Control Systems  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.034 
  Database:  Compendex
 
53. Accession number:  20153401188136
  Title:  Pincette-type end-effector using two fingers and four pins for picking up seedlings 
  Authors:  Han, Lühua1 ; Mao, Hanping1 ; Yan, Lei1 ; Hu, Jianping1 ; Huang, Wenyue1 ; Dong, Lili1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Ministry of Education, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China 
  Corresponding author:  Mao, Hanping 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  7 
  Issue date:  July 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  23-30 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  A pincette-type end-effector using two fingers and four pins for picking up seedlings was designed. When the end-effector extracts seedlings from the tray cells, its two cylinder fingers push out the four pick-up pins to penetrate into the root soil deeply, and then the pick-up pins are closed to hold the soil of the seedlings firmly for lifting. When the end-effector releases seedlings at the discharge point, its two cylinder fingers open and the pick-up pins loosen the soil of the seedlings and pull the pick-up pins back for discharging. Based on the physical and mechanical properties of plug seedlings as related to the automatic transplanting work, the mechanical design of end-effector was conducted according to the requirements of extracting seedlings. A prototype of the pincette-type end-effector was constructed and test-operated to examine whether or not its functional requirements were satisfied. As the extraction speed was 40 mm/s, there were no significant effects on the extraction force for picking up seedlings from the tray cells under various parameters. In the orthogonal experiments, it was found that the root soil moisture content exerted the greatest effect on the root damages in the pick-up process, and other factors such as penetration angle, penetration depth, and root system had no significant effects. As the penetration angle was 11°, the penetration depth was 32 mm, the number of seedlings in the cell was 4, and the root soil moisture content was 55%~60%, the minimum root soil damages in picking up seedlings from the tray cells using the designed pincette-type end-effector can be achieved. 
  Number of references:  28 
  Main heading:  End effectors 
  Controlled terms:  Biomechanics  -  Cells  -  Cylinders (shapes)  -  Cytology  -  Extraction  -  Moisture  -  Moisture determination  -  Pickups  -  Soil moisture  -  Soil testing   -  Soils 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Functional requirement  -  Mechanical design  -  Orthogonal experiment  -  Physical and mechanical properties  -  Pick-up process  -  Pincette-type  -  Plug seedling  -  Transplanter 
  Classification code:  408.2 Structural Members and Shapes  -  461.2 Biological Materials and Tissue Engineering  -  461.3 Biomechanics, Bionics and Biomimetics  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  731.5 Robotics  -  752.3.1 Sound Reproduction Equipment  -  801.4 Physical Chemistry  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  944.2 Moisture Measurements 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.07.004 
  Database:  Compendex