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 2014年第45卷第12期共收录52篇

1. Accession number:20150200409269
  Title:Analysis and calibration on effect of distance between probe and sample on spectral detection of meat quality 
  Authors:Liu, Yuanyuan1, 2 ; Peng, Yankun1 ; Zhang, Leilei1 ; Wang, Wenxiu1 ; Zheng, Xiaochun1  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  College of Mechanic and Electrical Engineering, Tarim University, Alar, China 
  Corresponding author:Peng, Yankun 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:271-276 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:In order to minimize the great influence of the distance between fiber-optics probe and sample surface point on prediction results in livestock products quality and safety detection, the spectral change rules with change distances, and proposed a calibration method for the collected spectra were analyzed. Pork tenderness was investigated, and the calibration result of the proposed method was verified. First, VIS/NIR spectral data of pork (longissimusdorsi muscle) was collected by a fixed probe with the changing distance between 4 and 18 mm. Then, the spectral data collected under each condition were preprocessed by the same method and PLSR prediction models were established. The correlation coefficient and root meansquare error of validation set were 0.82 and 5.82 N respectively with unadjusted probe. Between 380 nm and 1 050 nm, all the fitting coefficients obtained were higher than 0.999 with root mean square errors in the range of 0.018 7~0.242 2 when the spectral data at the distance of 4~18 mm were calibrated to 13 mm by fifth-order polynomial fitting. The correlation coefficient and root mean standard error for pork tenderness prediction were in the range of 0.83~0.90 and 4.80~5.75 N respectively when the distance was at 4~17 mm, by using the fitted spectral data and the best prediction model. The results show that the proposed method can overcome the influence of different distances on pork quality prediction by calibrating the spectral data. 
  Number of references:22 
  Main heading:Meats 
  Controlled terms:Agriculture  -  Calibration  -  Forecasting  -  Image quality  -  Infrared spectroscopy  -  Mean square error  -  Probes 
  Uncontrolled terms:Calibration method  -  Correlation coefficient  -  Data corrections  -  Fitting coefficient  -  Pork  -  Root mean square errors  -  Spectral detection  -  Visible/near infrared spectroscopy 
  Classification code:731.1 Control Systems  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  822.3 Food Products  -  921 Mathematics  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  941.4 Optical Variables Measurements  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.040 
  Database:Compendex
 
2. Accession number:20150200409232
  Title:Robust slide mode control for intake system of diesel engine operating under conventional and low temperature combustion modes 
  Authors:Li, Dinggen1 ; He, Chunmeng1  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China 
  Corresponding author:Li, Dinggen 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:18-24 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:A robust nonlinear control approach for modern diesel engine operating under low temperature combustion and conventional compressor ignition combustion modes is described. A nonlinear state space model of intake system is established based on the ideal gas equation and the law of mass conversation. The intake pressure, exhaust pressure and composition of inducted flow are chosen as the system outputs, which have key influence on in-cylinder combustion, and the corresponding controller is designed by the method of integral sliding mode. Smooth switching of combustion modes is achieved by tracking the key engine air-path operating variables to control the in-cylinder conditions indirectly. At last, the effects of the controller were evaluated by co-simulations using GT-Power and Matlab/Simulink and rapid control prototype respectively. The result unveiled that compared with the PI algorithm the innovative control algorithm had significant merits such as good tracking performance, fast response, strong anti-interference and robustness and so on. 
  Number of references:17 
  Main heading:Controllers 
  Controlled terms:Algorithms  -  Combustion  -  Diesel engines  -  Engine cylinders  -  Engines  -  Ignition  -  Intake systems  -  MATLAB  -  Nonlinear equations  -  Robust control   -  State space methods  -  Temperature 
  Uncontrolled terms:CI/LTC  -  Combustion mode  -  In-cylinder combustion  -  Integral sliding mode  -  Low temperature combustion  -  Nonlinear state space models  -  Rapid control prototypes  -  Robust non-linear controls 
  Classification code:521.1 Fuel Combustion  -  612 Engines  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  641.1 Thermodynamics  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications  -  732.1 Control Equipment  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.1 Algebra 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.003 
  Database:Compendex
 
3. Accession number:20150200409252
  Title:Variability of soil temperature under different coverage conditions in alpine region of china 
  Authors:Fu, Qiang1 ; Ma, Ziao1 ; Li, Tianxiao1 ; Jiang, Ruiqi1  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Water Conservancy & Civil Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China 
  Corresponding author:Fu, Qiang 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:152-159 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Choosing Harbin as the study area, a city of typical cold climate, through the field experiment in winter (from 2013-11-01 to 2014-04-30), we measured soil temperature in the depth of 3 cm, 5 cm, 8 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 40 cm, 60 cm, 100 cm, and 140 cm with four control groups (bare land, 5 cm thickness of straw mulch, 10 cm thickness of straw mulch, 15 cm thickness of straw mulch), and air temperature and solar total radiation under different control group. The statistical analysis results show that the straw mulch can prevent heat transfer in two directions, and its dominance varies with the outer environment. Under a certain depth the soil temperature is determined by the interaction between soil thermal conductivity and straw mulching conditions. The temperature of bare land has the biggest change rate, followed by the 5 cm thickness of straw mulch and the 15 cm thickness of straw mulch, and the last is the 10 cm thickness of straw mulch, which means that the influence of straw mulching on soil temperature does not increase monotonously with the increase of the thickness of the straw. 
  Number of references:20 
  Main heading:Thermal conductivity 
  Controlled terms:Heat transfer  -  Soils  -  Temperature 
  Uncontrolled terms:Air temperature  -  Alpine regions  -  Cold area  -  Difference coefficients  -  Field experiment  -  Soil temperature  -  Soil thermal conductivity  -  Straw mulching 
  Classification code:483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  641.1 Thermodynamics  -  641.2 Heat Transfer 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.023 
  Database:Compendex
 
4. Accession number:20150200409265
  Title:Three-dimensional numerical simulation and experiment of three fields cooperative in refrigerated road transport carriage 
  Authors:Li, Qiang1 ; Weng, Weibing1 ; Fang, Dianjun2, 3 ; Cao, Miaolong1 ; Wu, Jian1  
  Author affiliation:1  Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Logistics Equipment and Technology, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou, China
 2  Department of Production Logistics, Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics, Dortmund, Germany
 3  Sino-German School, Tongji University, Shanghai, China 
  Corresponding author:Li, Qiang 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:241-248 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Taking advantage of research results about cooperative control of flow field and temperature field, the cooperative of velocity field and pressure field were further investigated by setting up indispensable parameters of heat transfer medium in refrigerated road transport carriage, according with start points of energy conservation synergistic equation and turbulent kinetic energy equation. Considering temperature distribution homogeneity as evaluation objective, the simulation distribution condition of three fields in longitudinal cross sections was qualitatively analyzed and experimentally verified. The heat transfer and pressure drop performance were fulfilled using numerical simulation analysis and comparison method for inlet orifice with three different shapes as circle holes, elliptic or regular hexagon. The test data of inside temperature in refrigerated transport carriage in fully loaded process showed that the highest temperature in cross sections with width direction dropped from 2.53 to 1.27, and the standard deviation amplitude of temperature values dropped from 0.642 to 0.332, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the flow resistance of elliptic air inlet orifice was smaller than other two shapes, and the consumption power of refrigeration motor-pump was fewer. The temperature distribution was more stable and homogeneity, and velocity field, temperature gradient field and pressure gradient field had favorable harmonious degree. 
  Number of references:19 
  Main heading:Motor transportation 
  Controlled terms:Computational fluid dynamics  -  Computer simulation  -  Heat transfer  -  Inlet flow  -  Kinetic energy  -  Kinetics  -  Numerical methods  -  Numerical models  -  Orifices  -  Refrigeration   -  Roads and streets  -  Temperature  -  Temperature distribution  -  Transportation  -  Velocity 
  Uncontrolled terms:Heat transfer and pressure drop  -  Numerical simulation analysis  -  Pressure field  -  Road transports  -  Temperature gradient fields  -  Three-dimensional numerical simulations  -  Turbulent kinetic energy equations  -  Velocity field 
  Classification code:406.2 Roads and Streets  -  432 Highway Transportation  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  641.1 Thermodynamics  -  641.2 Heat Transfer  -  644.4 Cryogenics  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.036 
  Database:Compendex
 
5. Accession number:20150200409237
  Title:Clogging of labyrinth emitters in greenhouse fertigation 
  Authors:Liu, Yanfang1 ; Wu, Pute1, 2 ; Zhu, Delan1 ; Zhang, Yan1  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  Institute of Water-saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:Wu, Pute 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:50-55 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Emitter clogging caused by simultaneous irrigation and fertilization (fertigation) has negative influence on the normal operation of drip irrigation systems. This study was carried out to determine the effects of fertigation amount and irrigation amount on labyrinth emitter clogging. Additionally, sediments in the labyrinth passage were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) to determine their composition. Results indicated that average discharge of the emitters decreased between 1.51% and 14.16% with the increase of the irrigation or fertigation amount after operating the drip irrigation system for 21 weeks. Statistical analysis showed that fertigation amount significantly affected emitter average discharge (P<0.01). Dissection of the clogged emitters revealed that the sediments located in the front labyrinth passage comprised primarily of sealing tape, insoluble fertilizer particles, and white powdery chemical precipitation. The chemical precipitation was found to be constituted of carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and other minerals. Consequently, emitter clogging was mainly caused by the combined effect of physical and chemical clogging. 
  Number of references:20 
  Main heading:Precipitation (chemical) 
  Controlled terms:Greenhouses  -  Irrigation  -  Scanning electron microscopy  -  Sediments 
  Uncontrolled terms:Chemical precipitation  -  Drip irrigation  -  Drip irrigation systems  -  Fertigations  -  Field emission scanning electron microscopes  -  Irrigation amounts  -  Normal operations  -  Sediment composition 
  Classification code:483 Soil Mechanics and Foundations  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  821.6 Farm Buildings and Other Structures 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.008 
  Database:Compendex
 
6. Accession number:20150200409276
  Title:Data transmission of WSN system in greenhouse based on two-level prediction 
  Authors:Liu, Yonghua1, 2 ; Shen, Mingxia1 ; Xiong, Yingjun1 ; Liu, Yong1 ; Gao, Juling2 ; Jin, Wenxin2  
  Author affiliation:1  Jiangsu Agricultural Technology and Equipment Engineering Laboratory, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China
 2  Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic College of Agriculture and Forestry, Jurong, China 
  Corresponding author:Shen, Mingxia 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:329-334 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:In order to decrease the data transmission frequency of the sensor nodes in greenhouse WSN system, a method based on two-level prediction was presented. Firstly, Letts' criterion was imported to detect the sequence of outliers and the calculation method of sliding recursive sequence variance was proposed to facilitate real-time calculation of the nodes. Secondly, a piecewise linear regression equation combined with weighted adaptive algorithm was established to form two-level prediction models in sensor node and server. When forecasting error exceeded the set threshold, the sensor nodes uploaded the actual collection value. At other times, the server automatically triggered the linear regression prediction model to fill the partial data. At the same time, a variable error threshold determination method based on parabola was presented according to the characteristics of the automatic control of facility environment. The tests proved that the first order linear regression model approximated the raw data curve in prescriptive error threshold and the number of sending data of WSN sensor nodes could be reduced 93% by using two-level prediction algorithm (error threshold is 0.9). 
  Number of references:14 
  Main heading:Wireless sensor networks 
  Controlled terms:Adaptive algorithms  -  Algorithms  -  Automation  -  Data communication systems  -  Data transfer  -  Forecasting  -  Greenhouses  -  Linear regression  -  Piecewise linear techniques  -  Regression analysis   -  Sensor nodes 
  Uncontrolled terms:Forecasting error  -  Linear regression models  -  Piecewise linear regression  -  Prediction algorithms  -  Real-time calculations  -  Recursive sequences  -  Regression predictions  -  Wireless sensor 
  Classification code:402.1 Industrial and Agricultural Buildings  -  716 Telecommunication; Radar, Radio and Television  -  717 Optical Communication  -  718 Telephone Systems and Related Technologies; Line Communications  -  722 Computer Systems and Equipment  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing  -  731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  732 Control Devices  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.4 Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.047 
  Database:Compendex
 
7. Accession number:20150200409274
  Title:Texture extraction of Hami melon based on dual-tree complex wavelet transform and neighborhood operation 
  Authors:Ma, Benxue1, 2 ; Gao, Guogang1 ; Wang, Bao1 ; L, Chen1 ; Zhang, Wei1, 2 ; Zhu, Rongguang1, 2  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China
 2  Agricultural Machinery Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Shihezi, China 
  Corresponding author:Ma, Benxue 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:316-322 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:In order to investigate the distribution feature of surface texture, 168 images of Hami melon samples from two different varieties in two kinds of ripeness were acquired. The algebra operations were conducted in terms of R, G, B components, and the gray images were obtained to implement the background segmentation. Then, the images were decomposed by dual-tree complex wavelet transform(DT-CWT) to obtain high frequency sub-images. Following the neighborhood operation, the extraction results were derived from selecting the optimal thresholds by iterative method. Finally, the methods of gray-scale differential statistics and texture frequency analysis were used to analyze the texture feature, support vector machine(SVM) was employed to build a model for texture classification. Results of computer simulation indicated that more continuous and complete images were obtained when DT-CWT and image neighborhood operation were employed to extract texture. There were significant differences among texture eigenvalues of four types of Hami melons, and the accuracy rate of classification was 89.3%. In addition, periodic characteristic was not found from the appearance texture. 
  Number of references:22 
  Main heading:Wavelet transforms 
  Controlled terms:Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions  -  Extraction  -  Image segmentation  -  Image texture  -  Iterative methods  -  Partial discharges  -  Support vector machines  -  Textures 
  Uncontrolled terms:Dual-tree complex wavelet transform  -  Hami melon  -  Neighborhood operation  -  Texture description  -  Texture extraction 
  Classification code:701.1 Electricity: Basic Concepts and Phenomena  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  921 Mathematics  -  933 Solid State Physics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.045 
  Database:Compendex
 
8. Accession number:20150200409268
  Title:Modeling of heat and mass transfer during osmo-dehydrofreezing of mangoes 
  Authors:Zhao, Jinhong1, 2 ; Yuan, Yuejin3 ; Li, Shuying1, 2 ; Ding, Yang1, 2 ; Nie, Ying1, 2 ; Tang, Xuanming1, 2   
  Author affiliation:1  Institute of Agro-products Processing Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Agro-products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China
 3  College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, China 
  Corresponding author:Tang, Xuanming 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:262-270 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:The one-dimensional mass transfer and heat transfer mathematical models were developed by taking mango cells as a basic unit for the effective prediction and process control of osmo-dehydrofreezing. The mass balance equations for the diffusion of different species were established separately for the intracellular and extracellular volumes taking into account the transfer through the cellular membrane and the plasmodesma. Moreover, the model also considered bulk flow of different species in the extracellular volumes. The thermal balance equations for modeling the subsequent freezing step were developed, which included the phase change phenomena. The numerical solutions were solved by a finite difference method with Matlab programs. A good agreement was obtained between the simulated and experimental results including water loss and solid gain during osmotic dehydration and temperature profile during freezing, and the relative error was controlled in 15%, which proved that this model was practical. Numerical results could describe the distribution of water and sucrose in the intracellular and extracellular volumes of mangoes during osmotic dehydration and show the change of temperature at different time during freezing. 
  Number of references:23 
  Main heading:Dehydration 
  Controlled terms:Cell membranes  -  Enzyme activity  -  Finite difference method  -  Freezing  -  Fruits  -  Heat transfer  -  Mass transfer  -  MATLAB  -  Models  -  Numerical methods   -  Osmosis 
  Uncontrolled terms:Change of temperatures  -  Distribution of water  -  Extracellular volumes  -  Heat and mass transfer  -  Mango  -  Mass balance equations  -  Osmotic dehydration  -  Phase change phenomena 
  Classification code:461.2 Biological Materials and Tissue Engineering  -  461.9 Biology  -  641.2 Heat Transfer  -  641.3 Mass Transfer  -  802.2 Chemical Reactions  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  902.1 Engineering Graphics  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.039 
  Database:Compendex
 
9. Accession number:20150200409246
  Title:Reconstitution and motion simulation of D-bale knotter based on reverse engineering 
  Authors:Chen, Longjian1 ; Li, Cheng1 ; Zhang, Anqi1 ; Li, Haitao1 ; Han, Lujia1   
  Author affiliation:1  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:Han, Lujia 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:104-108 and 125 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:D-bale knotter is one of the key parts of square baler, which influences the efficiency and quality of baler. Based on reverse engineering, D-bale knotter was reconstituted and the accuracy of working surfaces was analyzed. The results showed that more than 90% domain for all the working surfaces can achieve the precise level above. Reconstruction parts of D-bale knotter were assembled and then simulated by using the software Solidworks. The angular velocity and displacement data of twine holder, bill hook, wiping arm, and driving dentate disc were obtained and the movement relationships of these parts were further analyzed. This study will provide basic data for the optimization of D-bale knotter. 
  Number of references:17 
  Main heading:Reverse engineering 
  Uncontrolled terms:3D reconstruction  -  Knotter  -  Motion simulations  -  Movement relationship  -  Precise levels  -  Simulation  -  SolidWorks  -  Square baler 
  Classification code:723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.017 
  Database:Compendex
 
10. Accession number:20150200409279
  Title:Kinematic dexterity and stiffness performance of spatial 3-PUS-UP parallel manipulator 
  Authors:Cui, Guohua1 ; Zhang, Haiqiang2 ; Xu, Feng2 ; Sun, Chuanrong2  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Equipment and Manufacturing, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, China
 2  School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, China 
  Corresponding author:Cui, Guohua 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:348-354 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Three degrees of freedom parallel manipulator 3-PUS-UP with a properly constrained passive limb was taken as the research objective. Inverse kinematics solution equations were formulated with closed vector method, and a Jacobian matrix of parallel driving part was obtained considering the influences of driving chains, constraint chain and parasitic motion of moving platform. Further, a Jacobian matrix of UP limb of serial part was acquired by adopting the D-H method. Combining the relation between the driving equations with constraint equations, a complete Jacobian matrix of the 3-PUS-UP parallel manipulator was constructed and verified by simulation analysis on the basis of the previous kinematical model. Simultaneously, kinematic dexterity and stiffness were introduced to evaluate the kinematic performance, and distribution atlas of the kinematic dexterity and stiffness in the workspace were drawn and researched. The optimum regions of the kinematic dexterity in the reachable workspace were defined and calculated. The research results show that this 3-PUS-UP parallel manipulator has good kinematic dexterity and stiffness performance. 
  Number of references:18 
  Main heading:Jacobian matrices 
  Controlled terms:Chains  -  Degrees of freedom (mechanics)  -  Inverse kinematics  -  Kinematics  -  Manipulators  -  Matrix algebra  -  Stiffness  -  Stiffness matrix 
  Uncontrolled terms:D-H method  -  Inverse kinematics solutions  -  Kinematic performance  -  Parallel manipulators  -  Reachable workspace  -  Research objectives  -  Simulation analysis  -  Three degrees of freedom 
  Classification code:421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  422 Strength of Building Materials; Test Equipment and Methods  -  602.1 Mechanical Drives  -  731.5 Robotics  -  921.1 Algebra  -  931.1 Mechanics  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.050 
  Database:Compendex
 
11. Accession number:20150200409249
  Title:Transport mode of soil moisture in arid areas considering air effect 
  Authors:Zhu, Hongyan1 ; Jia, Zhifeng2 ; Li, Peicheng1, 2 ; Liu, Xiuhua2  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shannxi, China
 2  Institute of Water and Development, Chang'an University, Xi'an, China 
  Corresponding author:Li, Peicheng 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:126-138 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:In order to accurately describe the transport mode of soil moisture in arid areas, based on previous studies, the model parameters and specific boundary conditions were determined according to the actual situation of Shihezi Reclamation, and a two-phase mass and heat flow transfer model including water and air was established fit for this vadose zone-saturated zone, thereby simulating the dynamic changes of soil moisture, soil temperature. The measured soil temperature, soil moisture were used to test models. The results showed that the simulated soil temperature and moisture could well reflect variation of measured values. Accuracy assessment indicators showed that the simulation accuracy of each soil layers was high. Simulated results of the model considering the impact of air were closer to the measured results. For the day rainfall of 9.7 mm, infiltration depth could affect soil moisture of about 20 cm depth for coupling model, and up to about 30 cm depth for a single model. The average evaporation rate of the model considering air in the rain day was 7.7% more than the result of the model without considering air. In the day right after the rainfall event, the results without considering the effect of air pressure caused evaporation rate 3.19% lower than the results considering air effect. Calculating the total evaporation during the simulation period, the results of the two models were very close. But based on the results of water balance analysis of the two models, comparing calculated evaporation and simulated evaporation, the results of the model considering air influence were considered reliable. 
  Number of references:30 
  Main heading:Soil testing 
  Controlled terms:Arid regions  -  Atmospheric pressure  -  Evaporation  -  Groundwater  -  Moisture  -  Rain  -  Soil moisture  -  Soils  -  Temperature  -  Transportation   -  Two phase flow 
  Uncontrolled terms:Accuracy assessment  -  Coupling modeling  -  Saturated zone  -  Simulated results  -  Simulation accuracy  -  Soil temperature  -  Two phase flow model  -  Water balance analysis 
  Classification code:431 Air Transportation  -  432 Highway Transportation  -  433 Railroad Transportation  -  434 Waterway Transportation  -  443 Meteorology  -  444 Water Resources  -  444.2 Groundwater  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  641.1 Thermodynamics  -  802.3 Chemical Operations 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.020 
  Database:Compendex
 
12. Accession number:20150200409254
  Title:Effects of raindrop energy on runoff, chemicals and sediment transport in red soil slope 
  Authors:Wang, Hui1 ; Ping, Li'na1 ; Shen, Ziyan1 ; Gong, Enlei1  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Engineering, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China 
  Corresponding author:Wang, Hui 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:165-170 and 223 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Kinetic energy from rainfall is one of the most active factors impacting soil chemicals transport in runoff and the chemicals transport by rainfall splash is usually the first step. Effects of raindrop kinetic energy on the transport of soluble chemicals and sediment to runoff and infiltration into a clay red soil were quantified. The runoff, chemical and sediment transfer were investigated in small soil beds for five kinetic energy of raindrops obtained by varying heights of fall (0, 0.7, 1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 m), using a drip-type simulator. Runoff lag time, water content in surface and depth of water infiltration decreased linearly with increasing of the droplet energy flux (DE). The relationships of total runoff(TR), sediment yield(SY) and DE were described by power and logarithmic functions, respectively. The bromide transport in surface runoff was best described by a power decay model with the decay coefficients related to rainfall energy. The concentration of dissolved phosphorus in runoff increased linearly with time and the relation between the amount of total phosphorus (TP) loss to runoff and DE was an exponential function. The vertical transport of bromide and phosphorus within the soil matrix was strongly dependent upon the raindrop impact. 
  Number of references:16 
  Main heading:Infiltration 
  Controlled terms:Chemicals  -  Drops  -  Exponential functions  -  Kinetic energy  -  Kinetics  -  Phosphorus  -  Rain  -  Runoff  -  Sediment transport  -  Sediments   -  Soils  -  Solute transport 
  Uncontrolled terms:Decay coefficients  -  Dissolved phosphorus  -  Logarithmic functions  -  Red soils  -  Soil erosion  -  Surface runoffs  -  Vertical transports  -  Water infiltration 
  Classification code:443.3 Precipitation  -  444.1 Surface Water  -  483 Soil Mechanics and Foundations  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  921 Mathematics  -  931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.025 
  Database:Compendex
 
13. Accession number:20150200409241
  Title:Design and experiment on pump as turbine with forward curved blades 
  Authors:Wang, Tao1, 2 ; Kong, Fanyu2 ; Yuan, Shouqi2 ; Yang, Sunsheng2 ; Chen, Kai2  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Energy and Environment, Xihua University, Chengdu, China
 2  Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China 
  Corresponding author:Kong, Fanyu 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:75-79 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:A reversed running centrifugal pump can work as a hydraulic turbine. In order to improve the operating performance of pump as turbine (PAT), a special impeller with forward curved blades was designed and experimented. By using the constant velocity moment theory, the calculation expressions of volute constant within spiral volute were developed and the velocity moment before impeller was acquired. Impeller with forward curved blades was designed and manufactured. Its inlet angle at leading edge was determined by using shockless inlet flow while its outlet angle was designed on whirl free outlet flow. Performance test of PAT with designed forward curved blades impeller and conventional back swept blades impeller was performed. The comparison between designed forward curved blades and conventional back curved blades shows that the best efficiency is increased by 13.22%. Compared with original PAT performance curves, the efficiency curve of PAT with forward swept blades is more flat. The efficiecy variation of PAT with forward curved blades is only within 1.5% between 0.9QBEP (flow rate of best efficiency point)and 1.2QBEP operating range. Therefore, the high efficiency operating range of impeller with forward swept blades is wider than conventional back swept impeller. 
  Number of references:16 
  Main heading:Turbine components 
  Controlled terms:Efficiency  -  Experiments  -  Hydraulic motors  -  Hydraulic turbines  -  Impellers  -  Inlet flow  -  Pumps  -  Turbomachine blades 
  Uncontrolled terms:Back swept impeller  -  Best efficiency point  -  Constant velocities  -  Curved blades  -  Efficiency curves  -  Operating performance  -  Performance tests  -  Pump as turbine (PAT) 
  Classification code:601.2 Machine Components  -  617 Turbines and Steam Turbines  -  617.1 Hydraulic Turbines  -  618.2 Pumps  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  632.2 Hydraulic Equipment and Machinery  -  901.3 Engineering Research  -  913.1 Production Engineering 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.012 
  Database:Compendex
 
14. Accession number:20150200409231
  Title:Experiment and numerical simulation of droplet impacting onto a wetted surface 
  Authors:Li, Dashu1 ; Qiu, Xingqi1 ; Yu, Lei1 ; Zheng, Zhiwei1 ; Ma, Peiyong2 ; Qi, Fenglei3  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, China
 2  School of Mechanical and Automobile Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China
 3  Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames; IA, United States 
  Corresponding author:Ma, Peiyong 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:9-17 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:In order to explore the mechanism of fuel droplet impacting on a wetted surface in a small-size combustor of diesel engine, experiments and numerical simulation were carried out. High speed camera was used to observe the phenomenon of spreading, liquid sheet formation, breakup and splashing during droplet impact. The results showed that the spreading factor and velocity were closely related to impact velocity. The higher impact velocity droplet had a larger spreading factor, and the initial spreading velocity was the largest, which could be increased by increasing impact velocity. The numerical simulation was developed using volume of fluid method including heat transfer and contact resistance. The mechanism of droplet fluid and heat transfer as well as breakup during impact were obtained according to analysis of results. The numerical results also showed that the pressure gradient inside liquid was the main factor resulting in droplet spreading, liquid sheet formation, breakup and splashing. The capillary wave resulted in the shrink at the neck of the liquid sheet and breakup and splash from the liquid sheet. 
  Number of references:20 
  Main heading:Drop breakup 
  Controlled terms:Computational fluid dynamics  -  Diesel engines  -  Drops  -  Fluids  -  Heat resistance  -  Heat transfer  -  High speed cameras  -  Liquids  -  Numerical methods  -  Numerical models   -  Velocity  -  Wetting 
  Uncontrolled terms:Droplet breakup  -  Droplet impact  -  Droplet spreading  -  Impact velocities  -  Liquid sheets  -  Numerical results  -  Volume of fluid method  -  Wetted surface 
  Classification code:612.2 Diesel Engines  -  641.2 Heat Transfer  -  742.2 Photographic Equipment  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  931.1 Mechanics  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.002 
  Database:Compendex
 
15. Accession number:20150200409258
  Title:Effect of trim on jujube transpiration in loess hilly region 
  Authors:Wei, Xinguang1 ; Chen, Dianyu1 ; Liu, Shouyang2 ; Wang, Xin1 ; Gao, Zhiyong1 ; Wang, Youke1, 3   
  Author affiliation:1  College of Water Resources and Architecture Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shannxi, China
 2  Unite of Modelling Agricultural and Hydrological Systems in the Mediterranean Environment, French National Institute of Agronomic Research (INRA), Avignon, France
 3  National Engineering Research Center for Water Saving Irrigation at Yangling, Yangling; Shannxi, China 
  Corresponding author:Wang, Youke 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:194-202 and 315 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:In order to alleviate the soil drying of the jujube forest in semiarid loess area, we took the gradient control on jujube tree specifications by pruning, using the TDP tree rod liquid flow monitoring system to monitor the jujube tree transpiration and CNC100 neutron moisture meter to monitor soil moisture. It was found that the pruning on jujube had a significant influence on the transpiration and water consumption at different time scales through the research for two consecutive years. Pruning can significantly reduce the tree transpiration in flowering period of fruit and fruit enlargement period of jujube, and reduce the consumption of soil moisture. Compared with the control treatments, the tree transpiration with mild, moderate and severe pruning of the whole growth period decreased by 31.7%, 52.0% and 68.6%, respectively. The relationship between tree transpiration and specifications were analyzed by linear and nonlinear analysis method, and then a mathematical model of natural precipitation and trim production target was built. The suitable target yield for the sustainable management of jujube forest in northern Shaanxi was 1.2×104 kg/hm2, and the tree index for water-saving trim regulation was the crown and the new length. The new mode was formed that the production of jujube was determined by soil moisture and jujube specifications were determined by production. 
  Number of references:21 
  Main heading:Forestry 
  Controlled terms:Fruits  -  Moisture  -  Moisture control  -  Monitoring  -  Nonlinear analysis  -  Sediments  -  Soil moisture  -  Soils  -  Specifications  -  Transpiration   -  Water conservation 
  Uncontrolled terms:Different time scale  -  Dried soil layers  -  Grey correlation  -  Loess hilly regions  -  Nonlinear analysis methods  -  Production targets  -  Sustainable management  -  Water - savings 
  Classification code:444 Water Resources  -  483 Soil Mechanics and Foundations  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  643 Space Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning  -  801.4 Physical Chemistry  -  821.0 Woodlands and Forestry  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  902.2 Codes and Standards  -  921 Mathematics  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments  -  944.2 Moisture Measurements 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.029 
  Database:Compendex
 
16. Accession number:20150200409266
  Title:Catalytic hydrolysis of aroma glycosides in Meili Young wine using glycosidase from wild rhodotorula mucilaginosa 
  Authors:Tao, Yongsheng1 ; Mu, Han1 ; Li, Guo2 ; Ma, Yin1  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  Ningxia Bureau of Grape & Floriculture Development, Yinchuan, China 
  Corresponding author:Tao, Yongsheng 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:249-254 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:In experiment, glycosides in Meili young wine from Yangling were extracted, and then wild yeast glycosidase was added. Varietal aroma compounds were collected and enriched after the catalytic hydrolysis, and detected by GC-MS. The catalytic effects of the almond β-glycosidase reference, Aspergillus niger pectinase, and La Fort Pectinase were compared with the wild yeast glycosidase in the experiment. The results showed that free volatiles released by almond β-glycosidase were the most abundant with high concentrations, while the followings were those released by A. niger pectinase and wild yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa glycosidase. In the released compounds, terpenols and norisoprenoids showed lower concentrations, but they gave the wine with fruity and floral fragrance. Three kinds of trace esters of phenolic acids brought more complex aroma to the wine. However, aliphatic compounds and volatile phenols displayed higher concentrations, which led wine on to off flavor. Therefore, the glycosidase of wild yeast R. mucilaginosa with medium catalytic ability has the potentiality to the application for wine aroma enhancement. 
  Number of references:16 
  Main heading:Wine 
  Controlled terms:Aspergillus  -  Flavor compounds  -  Hydrolysis  -  Odors  -  Sugars  -  Yeast 
  Uncontrolled terms:Aliphatic compound  -  Aspergillus niger  -  Catalytic ability  -  Catalytic effects  -  Catalytic hydrolysis  -  Floral fragrances  -  Glycosidases  -  Rhodotorula mucilaginosa 
  Classification code:451.1 Air Pollution Sources  -  461.9 Biology  -  802.2 Chemical Reactions  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  822.3 Food Products 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.037 
  Database:Compendex
 
17. Accession number:20150200409277
  Title:Model predictive control of air temperature in greenhouse based on CFD unsteady model 
  Authors:Zhou, Wei1, 2 ; Li, Yongbo1 ; Wang, Xiaochan1   
  Author affiliation:1  College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China
 2  Mechenical and Transportation Institute, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, China 
  Corresponding author:Wang, Xiaochan 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:335-340 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:A model predictive control of air temperature in greenhouse based on unsteady CFD model was proposed. Considering the air temperature in greenhouse as the research object and CFD model as a virtual greenhouse environment, the input/output time series data of the system were provided by the unsteady CFD numerical simulation instead of the real physical experiment data. Then the CFD model was converted into system control model based on the data by system identification. The roof ventilation cooling process was controlled by MBPC method based on CFD model. The results showed that the average control error and the standard control error were 2.65 and 3.27, respectively. The indoor temperature was controlled smoothly and effectively under the allowed range of crop growth. System identification and control algorithm combine with the CFD model improved the efficiency of controller design. This design technique can enrich the technology in greenhouse control system. 
  Number of references:19 
  Main heading:Model predictive control 
  Controlled terms:Algorithms  -  Atmospheric temperature  -  Computational fluid dynamics  -  Controllers  -  Greenhouses  -  Identification (control systems)  -  Models  -  Religious buildings  -  Virtual reality 
  Uncontrolled terms:Controller designs  -  Greenhouse controls  -  Greenhouse environment  -  Indoor temperature  -  Model based predictive control  -  Physical experiments  -  System control model  -  Unsteady modeling 
  Classification code:402.1 Industrial and Agricultural Buildings  -  402.2 Public Buildings  -  443.1 Atmospheric Properties  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  732 Control Devices  -  732.1 Control Equipment  -  902.1 Engineering Graphics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.048 
  Database:Compendex
 
18. Accession number:20150200409256
  Title:Effect of straw mulching mode on maize physiological index and water use efficiency 
  Authors:Wang, Kexin1 ; Fu, Qiang1 ; Jiang, Xin2 ; Zhang, Xiaoping2  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Water Conservancy & Civil Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China
 2  Water Conservancy and Hydropower Survey Design Institute of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, China 
  Corresponding author:Wang, Kexin 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:181-186 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:The object of this study was to explore the high quality and yield cultivation mode for maize in the north drought region. The impacts of different straw mulching modes in different growth stages on maize root-shoot ratio, root temporal and spatial distribution, surface biomass, yield and water use efficiency were analyzed through field contrast experiments from 2012 to 2013. There were a conventional tillage and four straw mulching modes in the experiments, which were surface tillage with straw mulching, no-tillage with straw mulching on furrow, no-tillage with stubble mulching, and no-tillage with straw mulching on ridge and furrow. SPSS statistics software was adopted to conduct significance analysis for data of jointing stage and harvesting stage respectively. The results showed that different straw mulching farming modes had significant effect on the control and support in root, root-shoot ratio and earth surface biomass, obvious effect in the early jointing stage. In addition, no-tillage with straw mulching on ridge and furrow was inferior to conventional tillage. But the other four kinds mulching models were better than comparison for 1.56%~5.48% in growth of earth surface biomass, higher than comparison for 15.10%~32.36% in root weight density, and higher than comparison CK for 10.38%~32.74% in root-shoot ratio. The yield and utilization efficiency of water were respectively higher than comparison for 10.38%~32.74% and 4.22%~12.31%. Surface tillage with straw mulching was an ideal cultivation method for cold and arid regions of North China, which had significantly advantages in growth of root formation, yield increase and water availability. 
  Number of references:15 
  Main heading:Agricultural machinery 
  Controlled terms:Agriculture  -  Arid regions  -  Biomass  -  Cultivation  -  Ecology  -  Efficiency 
  Uncontrolled terms:Different growth stages  -  Maize  -  Root  -  Root-shoot ratio  -  Significance analysis  -  Straw mulching  -  Temporal and spatial distribution  -  Utilization efficiency 
  Classification code:443 Meteorology  -  444 Water Resources  -  454.3 Ecology and Ecosystems  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  913.1 Production Engineering 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.027 
  Database:Compendex
 
19. Accession number:20150200409253
  Title:Process of runoff and sediment yield in straw-covered sloping fields based on automatic runoff monitoring field 
  Authors:Zheng, Zhiqi1 ; Wang, Shudong1 ; He, Jin1 ; Wang, Qingjie1 ; Li, Hongwen1 ; Lu, Zhanyuan2  
  Author affiliation:1  Beijing Key Laboratory of Optimized Design for Modern Agricultural Equipment, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  Inner Mongolia Academy of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Sciences, Huhhot, China 
  Corresponding author:He, Jin 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:160-164 and 138 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:The design of an automatic water runoff monitoring field was outlined. It consisted of six runoff plots and a rainfall simulator, which was generally used to study erosive processes in sloping fields. A German-made surface runoff measuring device (Umwelt-Gerate-Technik GmbH, UGT) was used in this runoff field, which effectively improved sampling efficiency and reduced human error through automatic sampling and recording. The effect of straw cover on runoff processes and sediment yield on sloping fields was investigated using this runoff monitoring field. The results demonstrated that the straw cover could significantly decrease the rates of runoff and sediment deposition, and delay the onset of surface runoff and reduce the total amount of soil loss by 54.5%~63.8%. Maximum retention of plant residues as soil cover can effectively avoid sharp increases in runoff and limit water scouring effects. It is significant for alleviating soil erosion in sloping fields. 
  Number of references:21 
  Main heading:Runoff 
  Controlled terms:Rain  -  Sediments  -  Soils 
  Uncontrolled terms:Runoff and sediment yields  -  Runoff plots  -  Simulated rainfall  -  Sloping fields  -  Straw mulching 
  Classification code:443.3 Precipitation  -  444.1 Surface Water  -  483 Soil Mechanics and Foundations  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.024 
  Database:Compendex
 
20. Accession number:20150200409025
  Title:Photoelectric measurement method of deep hole straightness 
  Authors:Chen, Zhenya1, 2 ; Shen, Xingquan1, 2 ; Pang, Junzhong1, 2 ; Xin, Zhijie1, 2 ; Guo, Tingting1  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Mechanical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan, China
 2  Research Center of Deep-hole Machining Engineering Technology, Taiyuan, China 
  Corresponding author:Chen, Zhenya 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:362-366 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Based on the photoelectric principle, an accurate method to measure the deep hole straightness is built according to the changing rule of the output voltage. The changing rule of the actual hole center is analyzed when the photodetector has translational and rotational movements. Based on the least squares principle, the relationship between the deep hole straightness and the output voltage is deduced, which provides the theoretical foundation for deep hole straightness photoelectric measurement. According to the photoelectric measurement theory, a self-positioning, real-time display device of deep hole straightness measurement deviation is designed, which can effectively achieve automatic and non-destructive detection of deep hole straightness measurement. 
  Number of references:20 
  Main heading:Photoelectricity 
  Controlled terms:Display devices  -  Measurement theory 
  Uncontrolled terms:Deep holes  -  Least Square  -  Nondestructive detection  -  Photoelectric measurements  -  Photoelectric principle  -  Straightness  -  Straightness measurement  -  Theoretical foundations 
  Classification code:722.2 Computer Peripheral Equipment  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  922 Statistical Methods 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.052 
  Database:Compendex
 
21. Accession number:20150200409270
  Title:Advances of research and application in remote sensing for agriculture 
  Authors:Zhao, Chunjiang1, 2   
  Author affiliation:1  Beijing Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Agri-informatics, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:Zhao, Chunjiang 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:277-293 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Agriculture is one of the most important and popular fields of remote sensing applications. The purpose of this paper is to review the advances of research and application in remote sensing for agriculture in the world. The review includes following six main aspects: cropland radiative transfer mechanism and remote sensing inversion of crop parameters, remote sensing classification and identification of crops, cropland nutrient and variable fertilization techniques, crop yield and quality perdition, agricultural disaster monitoring and forecasting, and spatial decision-making support system for agricultural remote sensing monitoring. Finally, the key directions needed more attention and technical breakthrough are figured out according to the current status and trends of agricultural remote sensing techniques. 
  Number of references:156 
  Main heading:Remote sensing 
  Controlled terms:Agriculture  -  Condition monitoring  -  Crops  -  Decision making 
  Uncontrolled terms:Agricultural remote sensing  -  Crop condition  -  Decision making support system  -  Decision-making systems  -  Remote sensing applications  -  Remote sensing classification  -  Research and application  -  Variable fertilizations 
  Classification code:603 Machine Tools  -  706 Electric Transmission and Distribution  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  912.2 Management 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.041 
  Database:Compendex
 
22. Accession number:20150200409242
  Title:Design and performance analysis of fourier non-circular gear-driven differential pump 
  Authors:Xu, Gaohuan1, 2 ; Chen, Jianneng1, 3 ; Zhang, Guofeng1, 3  
  Author affiliation:1  Faculty of Mechanical Engineering & Automation, Zhejiang Sci-tech University, Hangzhou, China
 2  School of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Zhejiang University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Hangzhou, China
 3  Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Transplanting Equipment and Technology, Hangzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:Chen, Jianneng 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:80-87 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:A differential velocity vane pump driven by Fourier noncircular gear was designed and the blades of pump were equipped the check valves in the same direction of rotation. Through the establishment of non-circular gears Fourier model and instantaneous flow models and design of the simulation software, we analyzed the influence of the three typical parameters on the shape of the section curve, the flow rate, displacement, pump structure and single or double pump, check valve on the blades to the pulsation rate. Dual pumps in parallel driven by the Fourier non-circular gear were compared with that driven by the eccentric gear to reduce pulsation rate 10.3%. And the installation of the check valve can solve the problem that the liquid trapped in closed chamber. 
  Number of references:18 
  Main heading:Pumps 
  Controlled terms:Computer software  -  Design  -  Fourier transforms  -  Gear pumps  -  Liquids  -  Vane pumps 
  Uncontrolled terms:Differential velocity vane pump  -  Direction of rotation  -  Instantaneous flow  -  Non-circular gears  -  Performance analysis  -  Pumps in parallels  -  Simulation software  -  Transient flow 
  Classification code:408 Structural Design  -  618.2 Pumps  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  921.3 Mathematical Transformations  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.013 
  Database:Compendex
 
23. Accession number:20150200409251
  Title:Variation of soil temperature and moisture under unidirectional freezing with shallow groundwater 
  Authors:Chen, Junfeng1 ; Yang, Junyao1 ; Zheng, Xiuqing1 ; Qin, Zuodong2 ; Liu, Ping1 ; Zang, Hongfei1  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Water Resources Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, China
 2  Institute of Loess Plateau, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China 
  Corresponding author:Zheng, Xiuqing 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:146-151 and 248 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:In order to reveal the influence of decreasing range of freezing air temperature (DRFT) and soil texture on soil temperature variation and soil moisture migration with shallow groundwater, three freezing schemes, less DRFT, medium DRFT and larger DRFT, were conducted with the groundwater level depth of 87.5 cm, and the temperature and moisture content of sandy loam and silty clay loam were monitored. The results showed that the surface temperature of sandy loam was lower than that of silty clay loam freezing by less DRFT, medium DRFT and larger DRFT about 0.88, 2.06 and 2.81, and soil profile temperature reached steady decreasing stage in 31 d, 33 d and 37 d respectively. Soil moisture of sandy loam mainly gathered at the depth of 10 cm to 30 cm and that of silty clay loam gathered at the depth of 10 cm to 40 cm. Soil moisture of sandy loam at the depth of 0 cm to 10 cm freezing by less DRFT was higher than that freezing by medium DRFT and larger DRFT about 1.5% and 7.3%, while it was 2.3% and 2.7% respectively for silty clay loam. 
  Number of references:26 
  Main heading:Soils 
  Controlled terms:Atmospheric temperature  -  Freezing  -  Groundwater  -  Moisture  -  Moisture determination  -  Soil conditioners  -  Soil moisture  -  Temperature  -  Textures 
  Uncontrolled terms:Air temperature  -  Moisture migration  -  Shallow groundwater  -  Silty clay loam  -  Soil temperature  -  Soil temperature variations  -  Soil textures  -  Surface temperatures 
  Classification code:443.1 Atmospheric Properties  -  444.2 Groundwater  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  641.1 Thermodynamics  -  822.2 Food Processing Operations  -  933 Solid State Physics  -  944.2 Moisture Measurements 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.022 
  Database:Compendex
 
24. Accession number:20150200409234
  Title:Design and experiment of hydro-pneumatic spring of tractor cab suspension 
  Authors:Zhu, Sihong1 ; Li, Ke1 ; Li, Chaoquan2 ; L, Baozhan3 ; Xu, Gang1  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China
 2  Bayuquan Subsidiary Company, Angang Company Ltd., Yingkou, China
 3  School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, China 
  Corresponding author:Zhu, Sihong 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:32-36 and 49 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Based on the requirement of CF700 tractor cab suspension parameters, the elastic force and damping force model of hydro-pneumatic spring was established using fluid mechanics theory. The key parameters of hydro-pneumatic spring were calculated, and the damping adjustable hydro-pneumatic spring was designed. The effect of the excitation, throttle valve size and check valve size on the output force were studied by experiments. Test result is shown that the damping force can be in a large range of adjustment. The throttle valve size had influence on output force of both compression and rebound stroke, while the check valve size just had influence on the output force of compression stroke, and the throttle valve size had more obvious influence on the output force. The effectiveness of design ideas and methods were verified, and the research base of tractor cab hydro-pneumatic suspension was provided. 
  Number of references:19 
  Main heading:Suspensions (components) 
  Controlled terms:Damping  -  Design  -  Experiments  -  Fluid mechanics  -  Pneumatics  -  Springs (components)  -  Tractors (agricultural)  -  Tractors (truck) 
  Uncontrolled terms:Compression stroke  -  Damping forces  -  Elastic force  -  Hydro-pneumatic spring  -  Hydro-pneumatic suspension  -  Research base  -  Suspension parameters  -  Throttle valve 
  Classification code:408 Structural Design  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  632.3 Pneumatics  -  663.1 Heavy Duty Motor Vehicles  -  901.3 Engineering Research  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.005 
  Database:Compendex
 
25. Accession number:20150200409236
  Title:Droplet kinetic energy of rotating spray-plate sprinkler 
  Authors:Gong, Xinghui1 ; Zhu, Delan1, 2 ; Zhang, Lin2, 3 ; Zhang, Yisheng1 ; Yang, Wen1 ; Ge, Maosheng1  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Areas, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 3  Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:Zhu, Delan 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:43-49 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:The specific power has often been used in evaluating the influence of water droplet impact on soil surface. A Nelson R3000 rotating spray-plate sprinkler was selected and the drop size, drop velocity were tested under 100, 150 and 200 kPa by 2DVD. The relationship between drop kinetic energy and drop size, kinetic energy applied per unit drop volume and distances along the sprinkler, specific power and distances along the sprinkler were analyzed. Results indicated that there were proportional relation between the kinetic energy and drop size, and the maximum value of drop kinetic energy from test location increased with the distances along the sprinkler increased. At the same location from the sprinkler, the maximum and average values of drop kinetic energy decreased with the increase of working pressure. The kinetic energy per unit volume increased with the distances along the sprinkler increased, and the change between kinetic energy per unit volume and distances along the sprinkler met exponential function. At the same location from the sprinkler, the kinetic energy per unit volume decreased with the increase of working pressure. At the test location between 0~6 m along the sprinklers, the specific power values were less than 0.02 W/m2 and the differences were small when operating pressure values were set at 100, 150, 200 kPa. At the test location from 6 m to the end of the sprinklers, the maximum values of the specific power were 0.1172, 0.0827 and 0.052 2 W/m2, and the value of the specific power decreased with the increase of working pressure. 
  Number of references:23 
  Main heading:Kinetics 
  Controlled terms:Drops  -  Exponential functions  -  Hose  -  Kinetic energy 
  Uncontrolled terms:Drop size  -  Droplet kinetics  -  Operating pressure  -  Specific power  -  Sprinkler 
  Classification code:619.1 Pipe, Piping and Pipelines  -  921 Mathematics  -  931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.007 
  Database:Compendex
 
26. Accession number:20150200409244
  Title:3D inverse design and performance investigation of pump-turbine runner 
  Authors:Wang, Xuhe1 ; Zhu, Baoshan1 ; Fan, Honggang1 ; Tan, Lei1 ; Chen, Yuanlin2 ; Wang, Huanmao2  
  Author affiliation:1  State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
 2  Harbin Institute of Large Electrical Machinery, Harbin, China 
  Corresponding author:Zhu, Baoshan 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:93-98 and 116 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:3D inverse design method was applied to configure the runner geometry of a middle-high head pump-turbine, in which design parameters were given according to pump operation and iterative calculations conducted from turbine direction. Model tests were performed to measure performances of developed runner under different operating modes and points. Test results show that the highest efficiency under pump mode is 91.34%, and highest efficiency under turbine mode is 88.5%. Internal flow analyses based on viscous full passage computations show that water pass through the passage smoothly with smaller loss under pump mode, while rather serious incidence loss exists at runner inlet and large low pressure area exists at suction side under turbine mode. 
  Number of references:14 
  Main heading:Hydraulic turbines 
  Controlled terms:Computer simulation  -  Design  -  Inlet flow  -  Iterative methods  -  Pumped storage power plants  -  Pumps  -  Turbines 
  Uncontrolled terms:Design parameters  -  Inverse design methods  -  Inverse designs  -  Iterative calculation  -  Low-pressure area  -  Model tests  -  Pump turbine runners  -  Pump-turbines 
  Classification code:402.1 Industrial and Agricultural Buildings  -  408 Structural Design  -  617.1 Hydraulic Turbines  -  618.2 Pumps  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  921.6 Numerical Methods 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.015 
  Database:Compendex
 
27. Accession number:20150200409235
  Title:Drawbar pull model of planetary rover associated with subsidence 
  Authors:Ding, Liangliang1 ; Xiao, Jie1, 2 ; Zong, Wei1, 2 ; Liu, Dianfu1 ; Yang, Xiaoqing1 ; Zuo, Meng3  
  Author affiliation:1  Shanghai Aerospace System Engineering Institute, Shanghai, China
 2  Shanghai Key Laboratory of Spacecraft Mechanism, Shanghai, China
 3  Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun, China 
  Corresponding author:Ding, Liangliang 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:37-42 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:There are many unexpected events when a rover is moving on a planet surface, and subsidence is one of the most fatal events which could result in the invalidation of the rover. It is very important to research subsidence prediction and intervention measures when encountering unpredictable excessive subsidence. Function relationship between wheel and soil is linearized to establish simple drawbar pull equation for subsidence estimation. “Yutu” lunar rover is taken as an example for revising equation by means of wheel soil-bin test and subsidence estimation function used to estimate subsidence online. Error between the calculation of the drawbar pull model and the measurement in soil bin test is less than 9%. The proposed model can be used to warn before the rover sinking, and provide the sinkage data for the earth-based simulation of breaking away from sink after the rover sinking. This method can also be used for rapid subsidence estimation when wheeled machinery performs various operations on the sand, beaches and other soft ground. 
  Number of references:21 
  Main heading:Subsidence 
  Controlled terms:Machinery  -  Planetary landers  -  Soils  -  Wheels 
  Uncontrolled terms:Drawbar pull  -  Estimation function  -  Function relationships  -  Intervention measures  -  Planetary rovers  -  Sinkage  -  Subsidence predictions  -  Unexpected events 
  Classification code:483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  601 Mechanical Design  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  655.1 Spacecraft, General 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.006 
  Database:Compendex
 
28. Accession number:20150200409260
  Title:Diagnosis of nitrogen nutrition and recommended model of topdressing for cotton 
  Authors:Li, Xinwei1 ; L, Xin1 ; Zhang, Ze1 ; Chen, Jian1 ; Shi, Honggang1 ; Tian, Min1  
  Author affiliation:1  Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology Agriculture of Xinjiang Bingtuan, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China 
  Corresponding author:L, Xin 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:209-214 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:A recommended nitrogen topdressing model was built up using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of cotton canopy, which was obtained by active GreenSeeker sensor for diagnosing the nitrogen nutrition in cotton plant, and the precise management of nitrogen nutrition for cotton by topdressing was realized. The field test data treated with different nitrogen fertilizer levels in 2011 and 2012 were obtained, and the quantitative correlations between NDVI and fertilizer rate as well as NDVI and yield of cotton were established. Combining with the nitrogen fertilizer effect function, the best nitrogen application rate was calculated, and the nitrogenous fertilizer recommendation model based on spectra was established and verified by field test data of 2013. The results suggested that NDVI of cotton canopy increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level, and then stopped increasing when nitrogen fertilizer was up to a certain level. The NDVI of cotton canopy presented a liner increasing trend with nitrogen fertilizer rate increasing in four growth stages, full bud, flowering, full boll and early wadding stages, and the corresponding thresholds of NDVI were 0.695, 0.833, 0.881 and 0.809, respectively, when the total application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was 294.7 kg/hm2 during the whole growth period of cotton. In addition, as NDVI decreased by 0.001 from the thresholds, the amounts of applied nitrogen fertilizer were 0.24, 0.91, 1.11 and 0.16 kg/hm2 at four different stages, respectively. Field experiment illustrated that the nitrogenous fertilizer recommendation model could reduce the fertilizer application rate under guaranteeing the cotton yield. 
  Number of references:19 
  Main heading:Nitrogen fertilizers 
  Controlled terms:Cotton  -  Fertilizers  -  Nitrogen  -  Nutrition 
  Uncontrolled terms:Application rates  -  Fertilizer applications  -  NDVI  -  Nitrogen application rates  -  Nitrogen fertilizer rate  -  Nitrogen nutrition  -  Normalized difference vegetation index  -  Quantitative correlation 
  Classification code:461.7 Health Care  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  819.1 Natural Fibers 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.031 
  Database:Compendex
 
29. Accession number:20150200409238
  Title:Raindrop characteristics of sprinklers for artificial rainfall system 
  Authors:Han, Wenting1, 2 ; Cao, Pei1 ; Liu, Wenshuai1  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shannxi, China
 2  Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:Han, Wenting 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:56-61 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:In the water-saving irrigation, the characteristics of sprinklered raindrops is an important standard of nozzles hydraulic performance. The paraments which can reflect the characteristics of raindrops mainly contain drop diameter, drop size distribution, drop velocity and raindrop kinetic energy, in all of this parameters, the raindrop diameter is the basis of other parameters studies. This paper makes accurate measurements of drop view, drop size distribution, equi-volumetric diameter and vertical velocity of raindrops by using 2D-video-distrometer. It also analyses the trend on raindrop equi-volumetric diameter affected by nozzle size and working stress, and establishes a model based on the relationship of raindrop equi-volumetric diameter and the vertical velocity. The results show that the equi-volumetric diameter of artificial rainfall sprinklers raindrop is ranged from 0 to 3mm and when the working pressure increased, the equi-volumetric diameter of raindrops decreased as the sprinklers size is not changed; on the contrary, when the working pressure is changeless, the equi-volumetric diameter of raindrops increased as the sprinklers size increased. According to the relationship model of equi-volumetric diameter versus vertical velocity of raindrops, it can get of good prediction of the vertical velocity which may provide a fundamental basis for kinetic energy calculation and establishing the mathematical models of erosion forecasting. 
  Number of references:19 
  Main heading:Drops 
  Controlled terms:Hose  -  Kinetic energy  -  Kinetics  -  Nozzles  -  Rain  -  Size distribution  -  Sprinkler systems (irrigation)  -  Velocity  -  Water conservation 
  Uncontrolled terms:Accurate measurement  -  Artificial rainfall  -  Distrometer  -  Drop size distribution  -  Hydraulic performance  -  Raindrop characteristics  -  Volumetric diameters  -  Water-saving irrigation 
  Classification code:423 Non Mechanical Properties and Tests of Building Materials  -  443.3 Precipitation  -  444 Water Resources  -  619.1 Pipe, Piping and Pipelines  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.009 
  Database:Compendex
 
30. Accession number:20150200409243
  Title:Flow instability in centrifugal pump based on energy gradient theory 
  Authors:Dou, Huashu1 ; Jiang, Wei1 ; Zhang, Yuliang2 ; Zhu, Zuchao1 ; Cui, Baoling1 ; Li, Yi1  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China
 2  College of Mechanical Engineering, Quzhou University, Quzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:Dou, Huashu 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:88-92 and 103 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Mechanism of flow instability in a centrifugal pump was studied by using the energy gradient theory. Numerical simulation was performed for the three-dimensional turbulent flow field in the centrifugal pump. The whole flow parameters in the centrifugal pump at different flow rate conditions were obtained from the simulation. The distributions of the energy gradient function K at various flow rates were calculated by using the data of the numerical simulation. According to the energy gradient method, the area with larger value of K caused instability and high turbulence intensity. The results show that instability was easier to be excited near impeller outlet area and volute tongue. In addition, as the flow rate was reduced, the unstable areas moved from the outlet to the inlet of the impeller. 
  Number of references:16 
  Main heading:Inlet flow 
  Controlled terms:Centrifugal pumps  -  Computer simulation  -  Flow rate  -  Gradient methods  -  Impellers  -  Numerical models  -  Plasma stability  -  Pumps  -  Stability  -  Turbulence   -  Turbulent flow 
  Uncontrolled terms:Energy gradient methods  -  Energy gradients  -  Flow instabilities  -  Flow parameters  -  Flow rate conditions  -  Impeller outlet  -  Three dimensional turbulent flow field  -  Turbulence intensity 
  Classification code:601.2 Machine Components  -  618.2 Pumps  -  631 Fluid Flow  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  801 Chemistry  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity  -  932.3 Plasma Physics  -  951 Materials Science  -  961 Systems Science 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.014 
  Database:Compendex
 
31. Accession number:20150200409230
  Title:Forces and deposition characteristics of particles in turbulent flow channel 
  Authors:Ning, Zhi1 ; Bai, Zhenxiao1 ; Sun, Chunhua1 ; Fu, Juan1  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:Ning, Zhi 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:1-8 and 31 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:The movement and deposition of the diesel particles have important effect on the particle sampling measurement, the operation of the exhaust gas recirculation system and the trapping of the particles. The forces imposed on the emission particles of diesel engine and the deposition characteristics of the emission particles of diesel engine in the turbulent flow channel were investigated under different conditions by using the force modes and the particle random trajectory mode established. The results showed that the Stokes drag force, Brownian force, Saffman lift force, thermophoresis force, gravitation force, and buoyancy force imposed on the emission particles had strong relations with the dimension of the particles and the distance of the particles far from the wall. The main driving forces for the depositing of the emission particles were different under different conditions. The forces, the flow inlet velocity and temperature and the channel dimensions affected the deposition of the emission particles in the turbulent flow channel. 
  Number of references:20 
  Main heading:Channel flow 
  Controlled terms:Deposition  -  Diesel engines  -  Drag  -  Engines  -  Exhaust gas recirculation  -  Importance sampling  -  Inlet flow  -  Particles (particulate matter)  -  Turbulent flow 
  Uncontrolled terms:Brownian forces  -  Channel dimension  -  Deposition characteristics  -  Diesel particles  -  Exhaust gas recirculation systems  -  Force  -  Gravitation forces  -  Particle sampling 
  Classification code:612 Engines  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  813.1 Coating Techniques  -  922 Statistical Methods  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.001 
  Database:Compendex
 
32. Accession number:20150200409264
  Title:Catalytic upgrading of pyrolytic vapors from rape straw vacuum pyrolysis 
  Authors:Fan, Yongsheng1 ; Cai, Yixi1 ; Li, Xiaohua1 ; Yu, Ning1 ; Yin, Haiyun1  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Automotive and Traffic Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China 
  Corresponding author:Cai, Yixi 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:234-240 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:The vapors directly catalyzed from vacuum pyrolysis of rape straw was investigated over HZSM-5 in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor to determine the effects of operating parameters on the product yields, including catalyzing temperature, biomass to catalyst mass ratio, and catalyst Si/Al ratio. The optimization of the oil phase yield was further conducted by employing response surface methodology (RSM). The statistical analysis showed that the operating parameters significantly affected the product yields. The optimal conditions for the maximum oil phase yield were obtained at catalyzing temperature of 491.0, biomass to catalyst mass ratio of 0.301, and catalyst Si/Al ratio of 53. Confirmation runs gave 9.80% of oil phase yield compared with 9.90% of predicated value. The upgraded bio-oil consisted of separable oil and aqueous phases. The H/C molar ratio, pH value and higher heat value (HHV) of the oil phase were 1.518, 5.15 and 33.80 MJ/kg, respectively. It showed that the oil phase had a higher yield and the qualities, which can be used as an engine fuel. The H/C molar ratio and HHV of the aqueous phase (dry basis) were 1.269 and 29.69 MJ/kg, respectively. The aqueous phase also had a high fuel value. 
  Number of references:20 
  Main heading:Oil shale 
  Controlled terms:Biofuels  -  Catalysis  -  Catalysts  -  Chemical reactors  -  Pyrolysis  -  Silicon  -  Surface properties 
  Uncontrolled terms:Bio oil  -  Catalytic upgrading  -  Fixed bed reactor  -  Operating parameters  -  Optimal conditions  -  Rape straws  -  Response surface methodology  -  Vacuum pyrolysis 
  Classification code:512.1 Petroleum Deposits  -  523 Liquid Fuels  -  524 Solid Fuels  -  712.1.1 Single Element Semiconducting Materials  -  802.1 Chemical Plants and Equipment  -  802.2 Chemical Reactions  -  803 Chemical Agents and Basic Industrial Chemicals  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.035 
  Database:Compendex
 
33. Accession number:20150200409262
  Title:Photo-hydrogen production of energy grasses pretreated by enzymatic hydrolysis 
  Authors:Zhang, Quanguo1 ; Zhang, Bingxue1 ; Jiang, Danping1 ; Li, Yameng1 ; Jing, Yanyan1 ; Lu, Chaoyang1  
  Author affiliation:1  Key Laboratory of New Materials and Facilities for Rural Renewable Energy of China's Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:Zhang, Quanguo 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:224-228 and 261 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:This paper mainly studied the photo-hydrogen production capability of using enzymatic hydrolysate to four different energy grasses, king grass, witchgrass, grassiness and alfalfa, as substrates. The cumulative hydrogen production and hydrogen production rate were taken as the indexes to contrast photo-hydrogen production capability of different energy grasses. Then modified Gompertz equation was used to perform regression analysis of hydrogen production process, and the technical feasibility using energy grasses as raw materials for photo-hydrogen production was verified. The results showed that among these four energy grasses, the hydrogen producing capability of alfalfa was the best followed closely by king grass, and the hydrogen producing capabilities of witchgrass and grassiness were feeblish, in the circumstances of 30% inoculum size, 30, 2000 lx illuminance, 120 h of fermentation time. The cumulative hydrogen production of king grass, witchgrass, grassiness and alfalfa was respectively 75.3, 27.2, 26.1, and 81.6 mL. The maximal hydrogen production rate was 7.83, 3.5, 4.33, and 14.75 mL/(h·L) respectively. 
  Number of references:16 
  Main heading:Hydrogen production 
  Controlled terms:Cellulose  -  Enzymatic hydrolysis  -  Regression analysis  -  Substrates 
  Uncontrolled terms:Bio-hydrogen production  -  Energy grass  -  Enzymatic hydrolysates  -  Enzymolysis  -  Hydrogen production process  -  Hydrogen production rate  -  Modified gompertz equations  -  Photo-hydrogen productions 
  Classification code:461 Bioengineering and Biology  -  522 Gas Fuels  -  801 Chemistry  -  801.2 Biochemistry  -  815.1.1 Organic Polymers  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.033 
  Database:Compendex
 
34. Accession number:20150200409261
  Title:Spatial variability response of soil organic carbon to sampling density change 
  Authors:Ye, Huichun1 ; Huang, Shanyu2 ; Zhang, Shiwen3 ; Zhang, Liping1 ; Huang, Yuanfang1 ; Huang, Yajie1  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Resources and Environment, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  Institute of Geography, University of Cologne, Kln, Germany
 3  College of Earth and Environment, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, China 
  Corresponding author:Huang, Yuanfang 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:215-223 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Soil organic carbon (SOC) in Beijing was taken as target variable and four different sampling densities were designed to investigate the structural changes of the variogram and uncertainty of spatial prediction with the study scale changes. The results showed that the mass ratio of SOC was macroscopically related to terrain factor and low sampling density data were the most optimal for use in fitting the trend values. As sampling density increasing, the variogram distribution of SOC mass ratio and its residuals flattened out gradually. The random variation was growing strongly, and the structural variation and uncertainty of spatial prediction decreased gradually. In addition, the range of variogram might also affect the uncertainty of spatial prediction. Increasing sampling density and regression Kriging method aided by terrain factors can improve the prediction accuracy of mass ratio of SOC. Therefore, soil monitoring and management introducing auxiliary variable can cut the number of sampling points to some extent without reducing prediction accuracy. 
  Number of references:30 
  Main heading:Organic carbon 
  Controlled terms:Carbon  -  Forecasting  -  Soils 
  Uncontrolled terms:Beijing  -  Sampling densities  -  Scale effects  -  Soil organic carbon  -  Spatial variability 
  Classification code:483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.032 
  Database:Compendex
 
35. Accession number:20150200409233
  Title:Improved test bench of energy storage system in electric vehicle 
  Authors:Li, Yong1 ; Ma, Fei1 ; Kazerani, Mehrdad2 ; Gu, Qing1  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China
 2  Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo , Canada 
  Corresponding author:Ma, Fei 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:25-31 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:The safety and reliability of electric vehicle depend on the performance of vehicular energy storage system. The test bench composed by DC motor and flywheel was proposed to test the performance of energy storage system. This paper mainly focuses on an improved test bench. The tracking precision of speed control system was affected by the improved test bench. The model and current problems of the test bench were presented. The structure improvement method of the test bench was improved according to the theory of multi-shaft transmission system. The improved test bench was modeled by using state-space equation method. The efficiency and ratio control of continuously variable transmission (CVT) were analyzed. The dSPACE-based hardware-in-the loop (HIL) test bench was built and improved in the lab. Experimental results showed that the tracking precision of speed control system was improved with new test bench. It provides technology support for the performance testing of hybrid energy storage system. 
  Number of references:17 
  Main heading:Energy storage 
  Controlled terms:Control systems  -  DC motors  -  Electric vehicles  -  Equations of state  -  Speed control  -  Variable speed transmissions  -  Vehicles 
  Uncontrolled terms:Continuously variable transmission  -  CVT  -  Energy storage systems  -  Hardware in the loops  -  Hybrid energy storage systems  -  Structure improvement  -  Test benches  -  Transmission systems 
  Classification code:432 Highway Transportation  -  602.2 Mechanical Transmissions  -  702 Electric Batteries and Fuel Cells  -  705.3.2 DC Motors  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  731.3 Specific Variables Control  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.004 
  Database:Compendex
 
36. Accession number:20150200409273
  Title:Algorithm of crown volume with square grid-based method 
  Authors:He, Cheng1 ; Zhang, Siyu1 ; Matteo, Convertino2 ; Zhou, Aimin1 ; Hong, Fangxia3  
  Author affiliation:1  Forest Fire Research Center, Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing, China
 2  Institute on the Environment, University of Minnesota Twin-Cities, MT, United States
 3  School of Tourism, Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, Nanchang, China 
  Corresponding author:Zhang, Siyu 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:308-315 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:A new algorithm of crown volume based on a square grid method was presented, which was low in cost and high in efficiency and precision, and the normal errors in manual measurement of parameters can be reduced, such as total height, crown width, crown projected area, and so on. While the traditional assessments were not sufficient to provide accurate parameters owing to the irregular crown shapes, and three-dimensional laser was too expensive and fussy to afford. A numerical analysis of the proposed algorithm was presented, along with a design procedure and experimental results. Comparison of obtained results from classical methods and three-dimensional laser measurement was made. The point cloud data were acquired by non-prism total station and a coordinate grid of canopy surface was built, and then the crown volume can be computed with a square grid-based method. Analysis of the parameters had been made with satisfactory precise and the results showed that the relative error of square grid method was 4.13% and the average accuracy was 95.75%. There was no significant difference between calculation value and actual measurement for crown volume under confidence level of 0.05. Moreover, compared to the traditional manual measurement, only one-third of time was consumed by square grid method, which costed 2% of those by three-dimensional laser scanning, therefore, the expenditure was extremely reduced and efficiency was increased. 
  Number of references:19 
  Main heading:Algorithms 
  Controlled terms:Measurement errors 
  Uncontrolled terms:Actual measurements  -  Crown volume  -  Manual measurements  -  Point cloud data  -  Square grid  -  Three-dimensional laser scanning  -  Total station  -  Traditional assessment 
  Classification code:723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  921 Mathematics  -  922 Statistical Methods 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.044 
  Database:Compendex
 
37. Accession number:20150200409272
  Title:Relationship between winter wheat growth grades obtained from remote-sensing and meteorological factor 
  Authors:Huang, Qing1 ; Zhou, Qingbo1, 2 ; Wang, Limin1, 2 ; Li, Dandan1, 2  
  Author affiliation:1  Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China
  Key Laboratory of Agri-informatics, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:Huang, Qing 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:301-307 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Based on MODIS-NDVI data, taking Shaanxi and Gansu provinces as examples, the correlation between different grades of winter wheat growth and main meteorological factors at 7 different phenophases were explored. Firstly, the development stage of winter wheat was divided into 7 different stages. Then the growth condition of winter wheat from sowing to maturity stages from 2011-2012 were assessed based on MODIS-NDVI data. Furthermore, the lag correlation between different grades of winter wheat growth in each phenophase and the meteorological factors with corresponding phenophases (temperature, precipitation and sunshine), which taken from 32 meteorological stations distributed within Shaanxi and Gansu provinces, were analyzed by using correlation analysis and GIS spatial analysis methods. The results showed that the winter wheat growth varied across time and space in the study area. And no matter what grades of winter wheat growth, the correlation coefficients between winter wheat growth condition and accumulated precipitation were higher than synchronous precipitation and pre-phenophase precipitation in terms of the average value in 7 phenophases, which showed the accumulated precipitation during the whole growing season had greater influence on winter wheat growth than synchronous precipitation and pre-phenophase precipitation. The influences of temperature on winter wheat were different according to different grades of winter wheat growth. In terms of sunshine, no matter what grades of winter wheat growth, the correlation coefficients between winter wheat growth condition and accumulated sunshine were highest in terms of the average value in 7 phenophases. The study also showed that winter wheat with better and worse growth condition were more sensitive to precipitation, whereas winter wheat with normal growth condition were largely influenced by temperature in the whole. 
  Number of references:21 
  Main heading:Crops 
  Controlled terms:Radiometers  -  Remote sensing  -  Space optics  -  Spatial variables measurement 
  Uncontrolled terms:Growth conditions  -  Meteorological factors  -  NDVI  -  Phenophase  -  Spatial-temporal correlation  -  Winter wheat 
  Classification code:731.1 Control Systems  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  943.2 Mechanical Variables Measurements  -  944.7 Radiation Measuring Instruments 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.043 
  Database:Compendex
 
38. Accession number:20150200409278
  Title:Mapping behaviors onto structures using order parameters and D-robots 
  Authors:Hou, Yuemin1, 2 ; Van Tooren, Michel3 ; Ji, Linhong2, 4  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Electromechanical Engineering, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Beijing, China
 2  Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
 3  Ronald E. McNair Center for Aerospace Innovation and Research, University of South Carolina, Columbia; SC, United States
 4  State Key Laboratory of Tribology (SKLT), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:Hou, Yuemin 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:341-347 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Design principles were investigated from a view of synergetics and meta rules for mechanical design and analyses were generated by introducing order parameters. Same order parameters can be used to produce different mechanisms according to specific behavior specification, and an order parameter can be used repetitively to produce the profile of a mechanism. The concept of design robots (D-Robots) was proposed to execute the repetitive operation of order parameters. Order parameters were used as action rules of D-Robots. By introducing the concept of order parameters, the process of synthesis and analysis of different mechanisms can be described in same order parameters. By introducing the concept of D-Robots, the synthesis and analysis procedure can be formulated as a generic template. Combining order parameters and D-Robots, the synthesis and analysis of mechanisms are automated. The order parameters and D-Robots were tested by mechanism synthesis and analysis. A D-Robot template for the mechanism synthesis and analysis is constructed. As case study, a D-Robot for cam mechanism design and analysis was developed and programmed. The output of the D-Robot includes generating the cam profile, kinematic analyses, the cam center and area, the bill of material, the balance weight, the speed fluctuation calculation, an animation and a report. This paper distinguishes with current research methods in generalizing meta rules to produce structures based on behavior specification rather than doing this by establishing equations for each type of mechanisms. 
  Number of references:24 
  Main heading:Machine design 
  Controlled terms:Animation  -  Cams  -  Computer aided design  -  Design  -  Mapping  -  Robots  -  Specifications 
  Uncontrolled terms:Analysis of mechanisms  -  Behavior specifications  -  Design automations  -  Different mechanisms  -  Kinematic Analysis  -  Mechanism synthesis  -  Order parameter  -  Repetitive operations 
  Classification code:408 Structural Design  -  601 Mechanical Design  -  601.3 Mechanisms  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  731.5 Robotics  -  902.1 Engineering Graphics  -  902.2 Codes and Standards 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.049 
  Database:Compendex
 
39. Accession number:20150200409024
  Title:Influence of coring methods on sample bedding in lunar soil drill-sampling 
  Authors:Liu, Tianxi1 ; Wei, Cheng1 ; Ma, Liang1 ; Zhao, Yang1  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Astraunutics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China 
  Corresponding author:Wei, Cheng 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:355-361 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Aiming at the lunar soil drill-sampling task, the bedding protection performances of two coring methods, hard tube coring and soft sack coring, are analyzed based on discrete element model. A curved surface slope method is proposed to describe the bedding information of the lunar soil sample. It can directly reflect the deformation of each layer of lunar soil sample distributed with drilling depth by curvefitted surface, and quantitatively illustrate the boundary between the slightly perturbed part and bedding damage part in each layer, and also the trend and degree of the bedding failure. Analysis results show that the soft sack can significantly protect the sample bedding information. The hard tube coring method destroys the bedding of outside sample seriously, and damages more layers, while there is no obvious difference in the scope that is slightly perturbed from the soft sack coring. Additionally, in both work conditions, the bedding information of surface regolith is damaged severely, which indicates that the lunar regolith on the surface has great follow-up property. 
  Number of references:21 
  Main heading:Moon 
  Controlled terms:Drills  -  Lunar surface analysis  -  Soil surveys  -  Soils  -  Tubes (components) 
  Uncontrolled terms:Discrete element modeling  -  Hard tube coring  -  Lunar soil  -  Protection performance  -  Soft sack coring 
  Classification code:483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  603.2 Machine Tool Accessories  -  616.1 Heat Exchange Equipment and Components  -  657.2 Extraterrestrial Physics and Stellar Phenomena 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.051 
  Database:Compendex
 
40. Accession number:20150200409275
  Title:Relative analysis between image characteristics of panicle structure and spikelet number 
  Authors:Zhao, Sanqin1 ; Li, Yinian1 ; Ding, Weimin1 ; L, Junyi1 ; Wang, Xinyi1  
  Author affiliation:1  Engineering Laboratory of Modern Facility Agricultural Technology and Equipment in Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China 
  Corresponding author:Ding, Weimin 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:323-328 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Characteristics extraction method of rice panicle images was proposed to solve the traditional measurement problems, such as inefficiency, worse repeatability, obtaining multi-parameters difficultly. There was significant correlation between primary branch length and spikelet number obtaining by manual measurement. Consequently, rice panicle was spread out and images were captured. Image characteristics were extracted using some image processing operations, including area, primary branch length, and panicle skeleton. Experimental result showed that the correlation coefficients were up to 0.90 between image characteristics and spikelet number, and the average predicting error of the model was 7.90%. Consequently, characteristics extraction method of rice panicle images was effective and feasible. The area and primary branch length can be perfect expression and substitute for spikelet number. 
  Number of references:13 
  Main heading:Image processing 
  Controlled terms:Extraction  -  Image analysis 
  Uncontrolled terms:Area  -  Characteristics extraction  -  Correlation coefficient  -  Image characteristics  -  Manual measurements  -  Measurement problems  -  Primary branch  -  Rice 
  Classification code:741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  802.3 Chemical Operations 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.046 
  Database:Compendex
 
41. Accession number:20150200409267
  Title:Effect of pressure and temperature on water distribution in fresh shrimp using LF-NMR 
  Authors:Yu, Yong1 ; Ge, Lingyan1 ; Su, Guangming1 ; Gan, Xiaoling1 ; Zhu, Songming1   
  Author affiliation:1  College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:Zhu, Songming 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:255-261 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Fresh shrimp (Penaeus monodon) was treated by either high pressure processing (HPP) or heat for comparison. The changes of water states and distribution were detected by low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). Relaxation times T2 and distribution areas were calculated and compared to investigate the treatment effects on shrimp samples. Pressure levels of HPP ranged from 100 MPa to 600 MPa, and pressure holding time was set as constant, i. e. 10 min. The initial temperature of pressure transient medium was 25, while 40, 60 and 90 were selected and the treatments time was set as 10 min during heat treatments. For both HPP and heat treatments, treatment conditions of untreated control samples were at 0.1 MPa and 25. Experimental results showed that both HPP and heat treatment could alter, to some extent, relaxation times T2 and relative contents of different states of water in shrimp samples. A kind of bound water with high capacity of combining with macromolecules in meat was induced when samples were treated at pressures in excess of 100 MPa or at temperatures in excess of 60, with relaxation time located between 0.1 ms and 1 ms. The content of combined water in meat, which was highly related to product water holding capacity, was significantly influenced by heat treatment but not by pressure. The content of combined water decreased significantly with the temperature rising. The changes of combined water content after HPP and heat treatments suggested that HPP was a superior method for producing fresh shrimp to retain the water holding capacity than heat treatment. 
  Number of references:20 
  Main heading:Heat treatment 
  Controlled terms:Nuclear magnetic resonance  -  Relaxation time  -  Shellfish  -  Water  -  Water supply systems 
  Uncontrolled terms:High pressure processing  -  Initial temperatures  -  Low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF NMR)  -  Pressure transient  -  Shrimp  -  Treatment conditions  -  Water distributions  -  Water holding capacity 
  Classification code:444 Water Resources  -  446.1 Water Supply Systems  -  461.9 Biology  -  537.1 Heat Treatment Processes  -  931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids  -  933 Solid State Physics 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.038 
  Database:Compendex
 
42. Accession number:20150200409245
  Title:Investigation on inner gas-liquid flow and performance of liquid-ring pump 
  Authors:Zhang, Renhui1 ; Guo, Guangqiang1 ; Yang, Junhu1 ; Li, Rennian1  
  Author affiliation:1  School of Energy and Power Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:Zhang, Renhui 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:99-103 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:With the aim to improve the hydraulic performance of liquid-ring pump, the three dimensional transient gas-liquid flow in liquid-ring pump was simulated by using the volume of fluid (VOF) method. The streamline, the distribution of velocity, press and the volume fraction were investigated. The secondary flow in pump was analyzed. The free interface of gas and liquid phase in pump was traced, and the relation between the shape of the free interface and the hydraulic performance of the pump was analyzed. The experimental research was carried out. The numerical results and the experimental results show good agreement. The numerical method of VOF is suitable for simulating the gas-liquid flow in liquid-ring pump. The free interface could be traced exactly and the hydraulic performance could be evaluated with enough accuracy, which pave the way for hydraulic optimization of liquid-ring pump. 
  Number of references:15 
  Main heading:Phase interfaces 
  Controlled terms:Computer simulation  -  Fluids  -  Gases  -  Liquids  -  Numerical methods  -  Pumps  -  Two phase flow 
  Uncontrolled terms:Distribution of velocity  -  Experimental research  -  Gas liquid flows  -  Hydraulic optimizations  -  Hydraulic performance  -  Liquid ring pumps  -  Volume of fluid method  -  Volume of fluids 
  Classification code:618.2 Pumps  -  631 Fluid Flow  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.016 
  Database:Compendex
 
43. Accession number:20150200409247
  Title:Development of orchard symmetric swing mist spraying system 
  Authors:Liu, Jizhan1 ; Wang, Qin1 ; Zhan, Guoxiang2 ; Feng, Shanghai1  
  Author affiliation:1  Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Ministry of Education, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
 2  Zhenjiang Agricultural Machinery and Technology Extension Station, Zhenjiang, China 
  Corresponding author:Liu, Jizhan 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:109-116 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Present orchard spray equipment is much larger, and both power and pesticide consumption are much higher. To overcome the above deficiency, an orchard symmetric swing mist spraying system was developed. To expand the diameter of mist spraying, a planar-spatial hybrid mechanism was designed firstly by analyzing the configuration of driving point and fulcrum, and degree of freedom. The planar-spatial hybrid mechanism was driven by a DC motor, which consisted of a symmetrical double crank mechanism and different multi-degree joints at driving points and fulcrums to realize spatial swing motion of the two mist sprayers. To simplify the manipulation and avoid the backflow of pesticide, a MCU control system was designed to realize one-button start/stop operation of the complex action process of the symmetric swing mist spraying system. According to the orchard's specification, the structural parameters, including the length of the crank, the height of crank center, height of fulcrum, distance of crank center and distance of fulcrum, were determined by nonlinear programming that took the minimization of machine size and the effective covering of canopy by mist spray as objective and constraint conditions, respectively. And then to achieve the highest efficiency of mist spraying under the constraints of both rate and uniformity of mist spraying, the optimal traveling speed of the machine and rotation speed of the crank were determined. This spraying system can guarantee the effective coverage of crowns within height of 1 500~4 300 mm and 5 500 mm width with 400 mm radius mini mist sprayer, and guarantee the uniformity and quantity for spray of mist spraying on both sides of the trees, whose working efficiency can reach 2.33~2.67 hm2/h. It is an energy-saving, pesticide-saving and miniature mobile orchard spraying system and will be a better selection in the future for pest control in orchards. 
  Number of references:15 
  Main heading:Orchards 
  Controlled terms:DC motors  -  Degrees of freedom (mechanics)  -  Design  -  Energy conservation  -  Farms  -  Nonlinear programming  -  Optimization  -  Pesticides  -  Spraying  -  Structural analysis 
  Uncontrolled terms:Complex actions  -  Constraint conditions  -  Degree of freedom  -  Hybrid mechanisms  -  Spray equipment  -  Spraying system  -  Structural parameter  -  Working efficiency 
  Classification code:408 Structural Design  -  408.1 Structural Design, General  -  525.2 Energy Conservation  -  705.3.2 DC Motors  -  731.5 Robotics  -  803 Chemical Agents and Basic Industrial Chemicals  -  813.1 Coating Techniques  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  921.5 Optimization Techniques 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.018 
  Database:Compendex
 
44. Accession number:20150200409239
  Title:Distribution and application of urea with precision fertilization device of drip irrigation in cotton fields 
  Authors:Chen, Jian1 ; Zhang, Ze1 ; Yunger, John A2 ; L, Xin1 ; Tian, Min1 ; Hou, Zhenan1  
  Author affiliation:1  Agricultural College, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China
 2  Biology Department, Governors State University, Chicago, United States 
  Corresponding author:L, Xin 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:62-68 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:On the basis of SPAD model for nutrition diagnosis of nitrogen fertilization, we determined the optimal nitrogen rate at the different growth stages of cotton with drip irrigation under mulch. Combining with relevant research at a single irrigation time and acreage of round irrigated area, we definited the fertilizer time of different specifications fertilizer disc. The capacity of the device with combined application of nitrogen fertilizer was determined by comparing with distribution and application of combined fertilizer at unit time. The results showed that the rate of fertilization per unit time for the device was related to water yield from any single well and nitrogen fertilizer in the whole cotton growth period, and the device were unable to meet the needs of topdressing when it used fertilizer disc of sizes with 100 g, 200 g and 300 g. Furthermore, fertilizer disc of sizes with 400 g and 500 g could only meet topdressing nitrogen level of cotton under condition of the specific water yield from a single well. And according to our research described above, we explored the approach to optimize and improve device. 
  Number of references:13 
  Main heading:Nitrogen fertilizers 
  Controlled terms:Cotton  -  Fertilizers  -  Irrigation  -  Nitrogen  -  Urea 
  Uncontrolled terms:Cotton fields  -  Different growth stages  -  Drip irrigation  -  Drip irrigation under mulches  -  Nitrogen fertilization  -  Nutrition diagnosis  -  Per unit  -  Precision fertilizations 
  Classification code:804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  821.4 Agricultural Products 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.010 
  Database:Compendex
 
45. Accession number:20150200409259
  Title:Effects of lead on microbial communities in rhizosphere and physiological functions of brassica chinensis L. 
  Authors:Fu, Weiguo1 ; Wang, Fankun1 ; Li, Pingping2 ; Tang, Juanjuan1  
  Author affiliation:1  High-tech Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment & Intelligentization of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
 2  College of Forest Resources and Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China 
  Corresponding author:Fu, Weiguo 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:203-208 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:By studying the characteristics of microbial number, nitrification and denitrification rates and respiration rate of rhizosphere soil of Brassica chinensis L. grown under the different concentration of lead (Pb) environments, the effect of lead on the ecological safety of plant rhizosphere micro-ecosystem was revealed. The results showed that the all numbers of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes first increased and then decreased with increase of Pb concentration, and the peak value occurred in the environment with soil Pb concentration of 300 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively. The Pb tolerance of microbe was fungi > actinomycetes > bacteria under the Pb stress environments. The all numbers of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in the rhizosphere, soil nitrification and denitrification rate, and soil respiration rate also first increased and then decreased with increase of Pb concentration, and peak values of all above parameters occurred in the environment with soil Pb concentration of 300 mg/kg. Nitrification rate and number of nitrifying (R2=0.6847), denitrification rate and number of denitrifying bacteria (R2=0.851 1), and respiration rate and the total number of microbe (R2=0.6843) were all correlated significantly and positively. In conclusion, only when the soil Pb concentrations reaches or exceeds 1 200 mg/kg, significant microbial community structural and functional degradation of B. Chinensis rhizosphere micro-ecosystem will occur. 
  Number of references:18 
  Main heading:Pollution 
  Controlled terms:Bacteria  -  Denitrification  -  Ecology  -  Ecosystems  -  Fungi  -  Lead  -  Microorganisms  -  Nitrification  -  Soils 
  Uncontrolled terms:Brassica  -  Denitrifying bacteria  -  Microbe  -  Microbial communities  -  Nitrification and denitrification  -  Physiological functions  -  Respiration  -  Soil respiration rates 
  Classification code:454.2 Environmental Impact and Protection  -  454.3 Ecology and Ecosystems  -  461.9 Biology  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  546.1 Lead and Alloys  -  802.2 Chemical Reactions 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.030 
  Database:Compendex
 
46. Accession number:20150200409255
  Title:Response of water demand signal, yield and fruit quality of peach tree to soil moisture 
  Authors:Zhou, Hanmi1, 2 ; Zhang, Fucang1, 2 ; Li, Zhijun1, 2 ; Gong, Daozhi3 ; Wu, Lifeng1, 2 
  Author affiliation:1  Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  Institute of Water-saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 3  Key Laboratory of Water-saving Agriculture in Dryland, CAAS, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:Zhang, Fucang 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:171-180 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:In order to understand the effects of irrigation amount on fruit quality and yield and to investigate the efficient mode of water supply of peach tree in semi-arid area field, two-year experiments were conducted to study the response of water demand signal (sap flow velocity, net photosynthetic rate Pn, transpiration rate Tr, stomatal conductance Gs), yield and fruit quality of four years peach tree to the different irrigation amount treatments (I1: 100%ETc, I2: 75%ETc, I3: 50%ETc, I4: 25%ETc, ETc is crop evapotranspiration) under mobile rain shelter in two consecutive seasons (2010-2011). The two-year results showed that the number of fruit per hectare were both performance for I1 > I2 > I3 > I4 and the yield per hectare are both characterized by I1≈I2 > I3 > I4. Compared with I1, I2 didn't have lower sap flow velocity and had higher water use efficiency (WUE) which was improved by 6.2% and 7.7% without reduction on the Pn and yield significantly, while I3 and I4 reduced yield by 9.2%, 21.4% and 16.9%, 42.5% respectively in 2010 and 2011, even if it had the low transpiration rate and high WUE. Meanwhile, irrigation had extremely significant effects (P < 0.01) on peach mouthfeel, vitamin C, sugar/acid, single fruit weight and yield so that I2 was improved by 2.2%, 4.5%, 24.4%, 28.8%,-2.3% and 5.9%, 3.2%, 26.5%, 9.3%, 0.4% respectively compared with I1, and significant effects (P < 0.05) on fruit number, color, firmness and titratable acid so that I2 was improved by -24.1%, 85.7%, 22.1%, 12.1% and -8.1%, 40%, 28.8%, -2.7% respectively compared with I1. It had little impact on fruit moisture content and deficit irrigation (I2, I3 and I4) all improved the fruit quality of peach. The research also showed that there were high correlative relationships between peach yield, net photosynthetic rate and soil water content in two-year experiments. Under the condition of experiment, the highest yield, higher water benefit and better fruit quality of peach tree can be obtained with irrigation of 75%ETc. 
  Number of references:31 
  Main heading:Fruits 
  Controlled terms:Arid regions  -  Evapotranspiration  -  Flow velocity  -  Forestry  -  Image quality  -  Irrigation  -  Moisture  -  Soil moisture  -  Transpiration  -  Water supply 
  Uncontrolled terms:Correlative relationship  -  Crop evapotranspiration  -  Net photosynthetic rate  -  Peach trees  -  Stomatal conductance  -  Transpiration rates  -  Water-use efficiency  -  Yield 
  Classification code:443 Meteorology  -  443.1 Atmospheric Properties  -  444 Water Resources  -  444.1 Surface Water  -  446.1 Water Supply Systems  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  631 Fluid Flow  -  643 Space Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.026 
  Database:Compendex
 
47. Accession number:20150200409248
  Title:Optimal mechanical transplanting method for high-yield rice in Huaibei Area 
  Authors:Xu, Ke1 ; Chang, Yong1, 2 ; Zhang, Qiang1, 2 ; Huo, Zhongyang1, 2 ; Zhang, Hongcheng1, 2 ; Dai, Qigen1, 2  
  Author affiliation:1  Innovation Center of Rice Cultivation Technology in Yangtze River Valley, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangzhou, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:Zhang, Hongcheng 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:117-125 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:From 2011 to 2012, a series of field experiments were conducted in Donghai county, Huaibei region of Jiangsu Province under typical annual rice-wheat cropping rotation system. Two conventional japonica varieties, Zhendao 11 and Yongyou 8, and two hybrid japonica varieties, Yongyou 1640 and Yongyou 2640, were grown under three mechanical transplanting methods, bowl-seedling, blanket-seedling, and direct-seeding mechanical-transplanting, to determine the diversity of seedling quality, growth duration, photosynthetic production, accumulated temperature and illumination hours, yield components, and grain quality. Results showed that the seedling quality of bowl-seedling of the mechanical transplanting rice was significantly better than that of blanket-seedling mechanical transplanting rice. Compared with bowl-seedling of the mechanical transplanting rice, each growth period were postponed in blanket-seedling mechanical transplanting rice and direct-seedling mechanical transplanting rice, and whole growth period was shorted about 8~10 d and 20~22 d, respectively. Accumulated temperature and illumination hours of whole growth period and different growth stages were lower, and then led significantly lower crop growth rate and net assimilation rate in mid-to-late growth period. The yield of bowl-seedling mechanical transplanted rice was the highest and the yield of direct-seeding mechanical transplanted rice was the lowest. Yield components of bowl-seedling mechanical transplanted rice had the characteristics of significantly less number of panicle per unit area, significantly higher spikelets per panicle and kilo-grains weigh, and bowl-seedling mechanical transplanted method significantly increased grain yield by 10.2% and 23.4% than blanket-seedling and direct-seeding mechanical-transplanting method in hybrid rice, respectively, and by 5.6% and 19.3% in conventional rice, respectively. Moreover, grain quality of bowl-seedling mechanical transplanted rice was the best. Studies indicate that bowl-seedling mechanical transplanted method is a priority selection in Huaibei area. 
  Number of references:27 
  Main heading:Grain (agricultural product) 
  Controlled terms:Grain growth  -  Plants (botany) 
  Uncontrolled terms:Accumulated temperatures  -  Different growth stages  -  Japonica varieties  -  Mechanical transplanting  -  Net assimilation rates  -  Photosynthetic production  -  Rice following wheat  -  Yield formations 
  Classification code:461.9 Biology  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  933.1.2 Crystal Growth 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.019 
  Database:Compendex
 
48. Accession number:20150200409240
  Title:Optimal design of rotating stream interrupter diffuser for sprinklers 
  Authors:Li, Hong1 ; Xu, Min1 ; Li, Yiming1 ; Chen, Chao1  
  Author affiliation:1  Research Center of Fluid Machinery and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China 
  Corresponding author:Li, Hong 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:69-74 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Through stream breaking by stream interrupter installed in the rotary sprinkler, close-in water will be increased and the water distribution will be enhanced. The rotary stream interrupter rotates intermittently under the stream impact, which leads to improve the water uniformity, and at the same time, almost does not reduce the throw distance. The structural size of the diffuser fixed in the stream interrupter plays an important role to the hydraulic performance of the sprinkler. The shortest performance radius R and the affected area angle α produced by the diffuser are put forward as the optimizing indexes in the orthogonal experiment. The key sizes, such as the diffuser width a, the diffuser length interrupting in the stream h and the distance from the outlet nozzle to the diffuser c, are presented as factors. By testing the hydraulic performance influenced by the factors, the relationships among the factors and the performance radius and the affected area angle are obtained, and the optimum structural sizes of the diffuser are also brought forward. The radical water distribution of a rotaty sprinkler is composed of the distributions without the diffuser and with the diffuser by the definite spraying frequency. According to above meationed law and the concept that the ideal shape of the final water distribution is triangle, the method to calculate the shortest performance radius in the affected area is first built up. 
  Number of references:13 
  Main heading:Rivers 
  Controlled terms:Diffusers (optical)  -  Hose  -  Optimal systems  -  Structural optimization  -  Water supply systems 
  Uncontrolled terms:Affected area  -  Hydraulic performance  -  Optimal design  -  Orthogonal experiment  -  Rotating stream interrupter  -  Sprinklers  -  Structural size  -  Water distributions 
  Classification code:407.2 Waterways  -  446.1 Water Supply Systems  -  619.1 Pipe, Piping and Pipelines  -  741.3 Optical Devices and Systems  -  921.5 Optimization Techniques 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.011 
  Database:Compendex
 
49. Accession number:20150200409257
  Title:Cooling method and vegetable growth in closed greenhouses based on ditch cultivation 
  Authors:Zhang, Min1 ; Zhang, Fucang2 ; Xue, Xuzhang3 ; Li, Xia1 ; Wang, Guodong1   
  Author affiliation:1  College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 3  National Engineering Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:Wang, Guodong 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:187-193 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Since the soil temperature in closed greenhouses is relatively constant and less influenced by external environment, the ditch cultivation method in closed greenhouses is adopted to conduct tests in this research. Moreover, water is supplied according to the transpiration to create suitable conditions for crops. The differences among the environmental factors of different ditches with various depth and their influences on transpiration rate, yield of Chinese cabbage as well as water productivity are researched. The results show that in high temperature condition the temperature values in 0.7 m and 0.9 m (the depth of the ditch) are reduced obviously compared with CKi (Check treatment in greenhouse), and the maximum temperature difference is larger than 20. The humidity is maintained between 25% and 75%, which is suitable for the growth of crops. The water productivity for each treatment are: 0.9 m > 0.7 m > 0.5 m > 0.25 m > CKi > CKo. In high temperature, ditches with the depths of 0.7 m and 0.9 m are more suitable for the growth of Chinese cabbage. Therefore, ditch cultivation method can solve the high temperature and high humidity problems of closed greenhouse. Meanwhile, it can improve the crop water productivity. 
  Number of references:21 
  Main heading:Water treatment 
  Controlled terms:Cooling  -  Crops  -  Greenhouses  -  Productivity  -  Thermal processing (foods)  -  Transpiration 
  Uncontrolled terms:Crop water productivity  -  Environmental factors  -  External environments  -  High temperature condition  -  Maximum temperature differences  -  Planting with ditch  -  Suitable conditions  -  Water productivity 
  Classification code:445.1 Water Treatment Techniques  -  641.2 Heat Transfer  -  643 Space Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  821.6 Farm Buildings and Other Structures  -  822.2 Food Processing Operations  -  913.1 Production Engineering 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.028 
  Database:Compendex
 
50. Accession number:20150200409263
  Title:Orthogonal experiment on biogas production characteristics of chicken manure with biochar 
  Authors:Pan, Junting1, 2 ; Qiu, Ling1, 2 ; Hassanein, A.A.M.1, 3 ; Gao, Tianlei2, 4 ; Liang, Yong1, 2  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  Northwest Research Center of Rural Renewable Energy Exploitation and Utilization of M. O. A, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 3  College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Suze Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
 4  College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:Qiu, Ling 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:229-233 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:An L9(33) of orthogonal experiment on batch anaerobic digestions was conducted in order to investigate the effects to biogas production characteristics by adding biochar in anaerobic digestion of chicken manure under the mesospheric condition (35±1). The effects of the three factors including biochar concentration, inoculums concentration and biochar thickness on biogas production characteristics were determined. The optimal combination of these three factors was achieved. The results showed that the factors affect biogas production from highest to lowest were biochar concentration (very significant), biochar thickness (not significant), and inoculums concentration (not significant). The effect of thickness of biochar to methane contents achieved a very significant level. 
  Number of references:18 
  Main heading:Anaerobic digestion 
  Controlled terms:Animals  -  Biogas  -  Manures  -  Methane 
  Uncontrolled terms:Bio chars  -  Biogas production  -  Chicken manure  -  Methane content  -  Optimal combination  -  Orthogonal experiment 
  Classification code:461 Bioengineering and Biology  -  461.9 Biology  -  471 Marine Science and Oceanography  -  522 Gas Fuels  -  814 Leather and Tanning  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  821.5 Agricultural Wastes  -  822 Food Technology 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.034 
  Database:Compendex
 
51. Accession number:20150200409250
  Title:Deep soil water depletion characteristic of jujube plantation in loess semiarid region 
  Authors:Liu, Xiaoli1 ; Ma, Lihui2, 3 ; Yang, Ronghui4 ; Wu, Pute2, 3 ; Wang, Youke2, 3  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 3  Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 4  College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:Ma, Lihui 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:139-145 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:Soil dry layer has occurred widely in artificial economic forest in Loess region, which constrained vegetation restoration and reconstruction. In order to investigate deep soil depletion (below 2 m) in densely planted jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) orchard, soil coring method (Luoyang shovel) was used to get soil water content from surface to the maximum fine rooting depth at 0.2 m soil interval. The results showed that root water uptake had a tendency to extend gradually deep, deep soil water depletion was 0, 29.6, 149.9 and 155.7 mm in 2, 4, 9 and 12-year-old jujube plantation, deep soil water supply was 203.7, 167.7, 35.5 and 29.7 mm, respectively, annual deep soil water depletion accounted for 0, 2.3%, 5.1% and 3.9% of annual soil water supply. There was almost no available water in 2~4 m soil layer when the jujube plantation developed for 9 years. Jujube water requirement could not be met by the existing rainfall and drip irrigation amount. Soil dry layer extent and depth can be evaluated more accurately with the maximum rainfall infiltration depth and maximum fine rooting depth as upper and lower boundaries. Soil water content could be increased through water catchment, water conservation and water supplement, which played an important role in alleviating jujube plantation deep soil drying. 
  Number of references:25 
  Main heading:Infiltration 
  Controlled terms:Arid regions  -  Catchments  -  Conservation  -  Irrigation  -  Rain  -  Sediments  -  Soil conservation  -  Soil moisture  -  Soils  -  Water conservation   -  Water supply 
  Uncontrolled terms:Densely jujube plantation  -  Fine roots  -  Loess region  -  Rainfall infiltration  -  Soil water 
  Classification code:443.3 Precipitation  -  444 Water Resources  -  446.1 Water Supply Systems  -  454 Environmental Engineering  -  483 Soil Mechanics and Foundations  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.021 
  Database:Compendex
 
52. Accession number:20150200409271
  Title:Tree crown extraction based on segmentation of high-resolution remote sensing image improved peak-climbing algorithm 
  Authors:Zhang, Ning1 ; Zhang, Xiaoli1 ; Ye, Li1  
  Author affiliation:1  College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:Zhang, Xiaoli 
  Source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:45 
  Issue:12 
  Issue date:December 25, 2014 
  Publication year:2014 
  Pages:294-300 
  Language:Chinese 
  ISSN:10001298 
  CODEN:NUYCA3 
  Document type:Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:The peak-climbing algorithm in two aspects histogram compression and the two merging based on class when it is applied to high-resolution image segmentation to achieve the tree crown extraction improved peak-climbing algorithm was simulation with programing on Matlab. In order to verify the reliability of the peak-climbing algorithm on high-resolution image tree crown segmentation, QuickBird image to extract individual tree crown and analyze the precision of its area. The study result that the test sample accuracy could more than 85% using the improved and no much differences comparing with the visual interpretation. Thus this improved peak-climbing algorithm meets the application requirements. 
  Number of references:18 
  Main heading:Image segmentation 
  Controlled terms:Algorithms  -  Extraction  -  Forestry  -  Image processing  -  Image reconstruction  -  MATLAB  -  Remote sensing  -  Trees (mathematics) 
  Uncontrolled terms:Application requirements  -  Climbing algorithms  -  High resolution image  -  High resolution image segmentation  -  High resolution remote sensing images  -  Remote sensing images  -  Tree crowns  -  Visual interpretation 
  Classification code:723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  821.0 Woodlands and Forestry  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.4 Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory 
  DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.12.042 
  Database:Compendex