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2015年第46卷第8期共收录52篇
1. Accession number:  20153801280752
  Title:  Development of monitoring management system and data synchronization for greenhouse IOT 
  Authors:  Li, Pingping1, 2 ; Chen, Meizhen1 ; Wang, Jizhang1 ; Zhou, Jinsheng1 ; Xia, Defeng1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Ministry of Education, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
 2  College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  224-231 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to realize the high efficient monitoring of environment information, a kind of common monitoring management system of the internet of things (IOT) for greenhouse was introduced. The system mainly consisted of an intelligent gateway based on Android system and a remote web server based on Google Web Toolkit. Also the monitoring data synchronous communication protocol between the gateway and remote web server was formulated. According to the data acquisition unit configuration information and the preset display style of the interface, the monitoring interface was adaptively generated by the gateway and server application program, the sensor data was dynamically parsed and the data storage in database was realized. Using the http post transmission mechanism, the applications of gateway and web server also realized the data synchronization of monitoring sensor parameters data and data acquisition units configuration information transmitted on the internet. The test results showed that the greenhouse IOT system and data synchronous communication were of high stability in practical application, and it can effectively avoid second software development which resulted from the changing of sensors or data acquisition unit nodes. The system achieved the function of monitoring management and data synchronization for greenhouse IOT system, and it provides a common platform for greenhouse intelligent monitoring and control.  
  Number of references:  17 
  Main heading:  Monitoring 
  Controlled terms:  Application programs  -  Data acquisition  -  Digital storage  -  Gateways (computer networks)  -  Greenhouses  -  HTTP  -  Information management  -  Internet  -  Internet of things  -  Internet protocols   -  Social networking (online)  -  Software design  -  Software testing  -  Synchronization  -  Web services  -  World Wide Web 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Data synchronization  -  Environment information  -  Intelligent gateway  -  Interface generation  -  Internet of thing (IOT)  -  Synchronous communications  -  Transmission mechanisms  -  Web servers 
  Classification code:  402.1 Industrial and Agricultural Buildings  -  722.1 Data Storage, Equipment and Techniques  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  903.2 Information Dissemination  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments  -  961 Systems Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.031 
  Database:  Compendex 
 
2. Accession number:  20153801280621
  Title:  Maximum power point tracking method based on three points comparison and real-time resistance matching for fuel cell 
  Authors:  Lü, Xueqin1 ; Liu, Wenming1  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Automation Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  372-378 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  It is necessary to force the system to operate in conditions to improve the utilization efficiency of the fuel cell, which corresponds to fuel cell maximum power point (MPP). According to the unique output characteristics of fuel cells, an algorithm based on the theory of maximum power transfer was developed, which was capable of tracking the MPPs of fuel cells. By controlling the DC-DC converter working at the reference current which was calculated by the real-time detection of fuel cell electric current and voltage, the fuel cell can work more stably at MPP which was located in the region of Ohm polarization. When the external environment changed, the algorithm with current type of perturbation and observation method can complete the maximum power point tracking of fuel cell. At the same time, in order to reduce the algorithm disturbance of fuel cell power, the correction was adopted in the algorithm. Simulation results showed that the control approach can yield satisfactory results under different operation conditions of fuel cell and load changes.  
  Number of references:  21 
  Main heading:  Fuel cells 
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  DC-DC converters  -  Maximum power point trackers  -  Perturbation techniques 
  Uncontrolled terms:  External environments  -  Maximum Power Point Tracking  -  Maximum power transfer  -  Output characteristics  -  Perturbation and observation methods  -  Resistance matching  -  Three points comparison  -  Utilization efficiency 
  Classification code:  702.2 Fuel Cells  -  704.1 Electric Components  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.052 
  Database:  Compendex

3. Accession number:  20153801280757
  Title:  Photosynthetic rate prediction model of cucumber seedlings fused chlorophyll content 
  Authors:  Zhang, Haihui1 ; Tao, Yanrong1 ; Hu, Jin1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  259-263 and 307 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  As the environmental factors were only considered in the existing photosynthetic rate prediction models based on neural network, slow convergence speed was still the existing problem. The temperature, CO<inf>2</inf> concentration, photon flux density and relative humidity, especially the chlorophyll content were considered. Photosynthetic rate prediction model of cucumber seedlings fused chlorophyll content was proposed. Firstly, 825 experimental data of cucumber seedlings photosynthetic rate were obtained by multi-factor coupling test. The temperature gradients were set at 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, respectively, CO<inf>2</inf> concentration gradients were set at 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 μL/L and the photon flux density gradients were set at 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500, 700, 1000, 1200, 1500 μmol/(m<sup>2</sup>·s), respectively. Secondly, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training method was used. Meanwhile, the effect of chlorophyll content on the training results was analyzed. Then different calibrations were used to validate the multi-factor coupling photosynthetic rate prediction model. The results showed that the training results of the training method considered chlorophyll content and the model fitting degree were superior to the training model only considered the environmental factors. Because of the local area, LM training method considering chlorophyll content can effectively flat over the local area and meet the training requirement. The error rate was less than 0.0001 and the determination coefficient between actual measured and calculated values was 0.987. It indicated that these two values had good correlation and similarity. Besides, the error was less than 4.68%, which proved that the proposed model has a high accuracy.  
  Number of references:  22 
  Main heading:  Chlorophyll 
  Controlled terms:  Forecasting  -  Photons 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Chlorophyll contents  -  Cucumber  -  Photosynthetic rate  -  Prediction model  -  Training methods 
  Classification code:  741.1 Light/Optics  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.036 
  Database:  Compendex

4. Accession number:  20153801280729
  Title:  Internal flow of flow-ejecting centrifugal pump under off-design conditions 
  Authors:  Li, Guidong1 ; Wang, Yang1 ; Cao, Puyu1 ; Zhou, Guohui2 ; Wu, Wen1 ; Han, Yawen1  
  Author affiliation:  1  National Research Center of Pump, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
 2  Fujian Glong Electric Group Co., Ltd., Fuan, China 
  Corresponding author:  Wang, Yang 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  48-53 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to study the internal flow characteristics in the flow passage components of flow-ejecting centrifugal pump under off-design conditions, the type JETST-100 self-priming pump was selected. It consists of seven parts: the inlet pipeline, jet aerator, wear ring, elbow, impeller, outlet pipeline and pump chamber. The transient numerical simulation for internal flow situation of computational model was carried out based on RNG k-Ε turbulence model by using CFX software. The flowing information of velocity and pressure in flow passage components of centrifugal pump were obtained. Comparison of flow change between inlet and throat of jet aerator under different operating conditions was performed and the simulation results were compared with the test results. The results showed that the highest pressure area of jet aerator was located at the inlet of nozzle, low pressure area was located at the vicinity of throat, and the maximum velocity occurred at the area of the vicinity of nozzle, the minimum velocity generated at the inflow part of suction liquid. With the flow rate decreased, mass flow rate of reverse flow in throat of jet aerator was increased; effluent liquid from the impeller was mostly reversed to the inlet of jet aerator. The flowing analysis of impeller showed that the blade suction surface velocity was generally higher than the blade pressure surface velocity, which further affected the operating efficiency of the pump. The study results will supply a theoretical reference for hydraulic optimization design of the internal flow status of flow-ejecting centrifugal pump under off-design conditions.  
  Number of references:  18 
  Main heading:  Fighter aircraft 
  Controlled terms:  Centrifugal pumps  -  Computer simulation  -  Computer software  -  Design  -  Impellers  -  Nozzles  -  Numerical models  -  Pipelines  -  Pumps  -  Turbulence models   -  Velocity 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Blade suction surface  -  Different operating conditions  -  Flow analysis  -  Hydraulic optimizations  -  Internal flow characteristics  -  Off design condition  -  Operating efficiency  -  Transient numerical simulation 
  Classification code:  408 Structural Design  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  618.2 Pumps  -  619.1 Pipe, Piping and Pipelines  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  652.1.2 Military Aircraft  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  921 Mathematics  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.008 
  Database:  Compendex

5. Accession number:  20153801280742
  Title:  Temporal-spatial dynamic change characteristics of evapotranspiration in Beibu Gulf coastal zone during 2000-2013 
  Authors:  Tian, Yichao1, 2 ; Liang, Mingzhong1 ; Hu, Baoqing3  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Resources and Environment, Qinzhou University, Qinzhou, China
 2  National Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Geochemistry Institute of Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang, China
 3  Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Environmental Evolution and Resources Utilization, Guangxi Normal University, Nanning, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  146-158 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Based on the MOD16 evapotranspiration (ET) data during the period of 2000-2013 and the vegetation type, the mathematical-statistics methods of Theil-Sen median trend, Mann-Kendall test and Hurst index were used to analyze the characteristics of temporal-spatial dynamic changes of ET and its future trend in Beibu Gulf coastal zone. The results showed regarding temporal variations, the annual ET of coastline in Beibu Gulf increased with a fluctuation rate of 1.41 mm/a in the study area from 2000 to 2013, and it was higher than that in the southern area of Guangxi. The trends of ET changing rate in east coast were faster than that of the whole region, while it was slower in the hilly areas and west coastal regions than that of the whole region. The order of increasing rate of seasonal ET was summer (111.88 mm) > autumn (93.45 mm) > spring (85.57 mm) > winter (47.98 mm), which accounted for 33.01%, 27.58%, 25.25% and 14.16% of annual ET, respectively. Regarding spatial distribution, the spatial distribution of averaged annual ET in northeast-southwest centerline showed it was higher in the western coastal zone than that in the east, and the annual ET in southeast region reached minimum and the law of ET's Theil-Sen median trend was from -50.93 mm/a to 51.76 mm/a, the spatial distribution of ET showed a decreasing trend in coastal zone. Regarding the volatility of ET, the variable coefficient of ET was larger and its value was from 0.02~0.39. The ET in central and southeastern coastal zone presented a high volatility level, while the west and northwest of the coastal zone were in a low-volatility state, and the ET in Hepu County of Nanliu River Delta showed the maximum volatility. Regarding the future trend of ET, the Hurst index of ET was changed from 0.25 to 0.93, with a mean of 0.68, presented the right unimodal distribution. And the anti-sustained sequence (7.58%) was smaller than sustained sequence (92.42%), which indicated that the overall ET would take on an ongoing decreasing trend in the future.  
  Number of references:  36 
  Main heading:  Coastal zones 
  Controlled terms:  Evapotranspiration  -  Spatial distribution  -  Statistics 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Beibu gulfs  -  HURST index  -  MOD16  -  Spatial variations  -  Theil-Sen median trend 
  Classification code:  444.1 Surface Water  -  471 Marine Science and Oceanography  -  921 Mathematics  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.021 
  Database:  Compendex

6. Accession number:  20153801280727
  Title:  PIV measurements of intake flow field in axial-flow pump 
  Authors:  Liu, Chao1 ; Liang, Haojie2 ; Jin, Yan1 ; Yang, Fan1 ; Chen, Feng1 ; Yang, Hua1  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Hydraulic, Energy and Power Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China
 2  Administration of General Canal of Jiangsu Province, Huaian, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  33-41 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Due to less study on the flow field measurements, especially on the three dimensional flow field measurements, only the calculation results of very limited flow field are validated, therefore the further detail experimental study is necessary. The 3D-PIV particle image velocimetry was applied to measure the flow fields inside pump structure, including a vertical axial-flow pump bell-tube and suction passage. The measurement results under two typical operational conditions of flow rate showed that at the operation condition of design flow rate (Q<inf>0</inf>), the velocity-field distribution in the impeller inlet section was symmetrical, the axial velocity uniformity of the section was 0.87, and vortex was not occurred, the flow regime in the bell-tube and the impeller inlet was good. The distribution of the velocity field in the impeller inlet-section at large flow rate (1.2Q<inf>0</inf>) was asymmetric, and the axial velocity uniformity of the section was only 0.70. A pair of strong vortices were formed at each section in both the bell-tube and the space below the bell mouth, which finally entered the impeller and induced vibration. By analyzing the detailed flow structure of vortex core zone, the distribution regularity of circular velocity components in the vortex core was revealed, which were close to zero at the center of the vortex core and increased with the increase of vortex core radius. In the radius range of 3~5 mm, the velocity gradient was the largest and the characteristics of forced-vortex of the vortices were evident. A unit area weighted velocity uniformity and the corresponding calculation formulas of the velocity uniformity in flow section were proposed, and the calculated result by the formulas was more reasonable and practical.  
  Number of references:  13 
  Main heading:  Vortex flow 
  Controlled terms:  Axial flow  -  Bells  -  Flow fields  -  Flow rate  -  Flow velocity  -  Impellers  -  Pumps  -  Velocity  -  Velocity measurement 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Axial flow pump  -  Distribution regularities  -  Flow field measurement  -  Operational conditions  -  Particle image velocimetries  -  PIV  -  Three dimensional flow field  -  Vertical axial flow pump 
  Classification code:  601.2 Machine Components  -  618.2 Pumps  -  631 Fluid Flow  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  752.1 Acoustic Devices  -  931.1 Mechanics  -  943.3 Special Purpose Instruments 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.006 
  Database:  Compendex

7. Accession number:  20153801280738
  Title:  Effects of grain for Green project on soil microelements in semi-arid area of Loess Plateau 
  Authors:  Li, Yuting1 ; Zhang, Jianjun1 ; Tian, Ningning1 ; Zhao, Rongwei1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, Jianjun 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  113-120 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The available soil microelements are important components of enzyme, growth hormone and vitamins in plants. A better understanding of the variability of soil microelements after Grain for Green project will improve the emphasis of afforesting during the proceeding period. However, quantitative research on the effect of Grain for Green project on soil microelements is quite scarcity. The study was conducted to ascertain the effect of Grain for Green project on soil microelements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo and Fe) in Guanchuan river basin of Loess Plateau by applying partial correlation analysis and path analysis. The results showed that the contents of available soil microelements were promoted as a whole but diminished with the increase of soil depth after croplands were converted into forest lands. Available Fe in the soil was at a below level and could not meet the demands of plant growth. The available indices of soil microelements in forest lands were higher than those in croplands, the available amounts of Cu, Mn and Mo were higher than those of Zn and Fe. Moreover, Platycladus orientalis forest lands showed a higher comprehensive index than Picea asperata forest lands. Partial correlation analysis and path analysis showed that principal influence factors of variation in soil microelements were soil organic matter, soil total K, soil total N and soil moisture content. Both soil K and organic matter had a significant positive correlation with available Cu, Zn and Fe. Regression analysis showed that soil environmental factors can explain 38.1%~73.8% of variation in soil microelements. Decision-making analysis showed that soil K and soil organic matter were decision variables in soil microelements, while the soil moisture content was the limited variable in the experimental region. It was recommended that application of rainwater harvesting measurements can improve utilization efficiency of precipitation. The results provide valuable reference for implementing the Grain for Green project in semi-arid region.  
  Number of references:  29 
  Main heading:  Soils 
  Controlled terms:  Arid regions  -  Biogeochemistry  -  Biological materials  -  Correlation methods  -  Decision making  -  Factor analysis  -  Forestry  -  Landforms  -  Manganese  -  Moisture   -  Moisture determination  -  Organic compounds  -  Regression analysis  -  River basin projects  -  Sediments  -  Soil moisture  -  Trace elements  -  Zinc 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Available index  -  Grain for green projects  -  Loess Plateau  -  Microelements  -  Path analysis 
  Classification code:  441 Dams and Reservoirs; Hydro Development  -  443 Meteorology  -  443.1 Atmospheric Properties  -  444 Water Resources  -  461.2 Biological Materials and Tissue Engineering  -  481.1 Geology  -  481.2 Geochemistry  -  483 Soil Mechanics and Foundations  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  543.2 Manganese and Alloys  -  546.3 Zinc and Alloys  -  801 Chemistry  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  821.0 Woodlands and Forestry  -  912.2 Management  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics  -  944.2 Moisture Measurements 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.017 
  Database:  Compendex

8. Accession number:  20153801280762
  Title:  Soil electrical conductivity online real-time detection system based on four-electrode method 
  Authors:  Zhao, Yandong1 ; Li, Ning1 ; Pi, Tingting1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  299-307 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  A soil electrical conductivity online real-time detection system was proposed. A full set of design scheme of AC method to measure conductivity was introduced, which included the design of a signal source, a stable AC current power supply circuit, probe, sensor signal conditioning circuit and acquisition system. The AC four-electrode method has a better detection performance compared with DC four-electrode method. The test system performance reached the same level compared with products from abroad and it had a more cost efficiency compared with the similar foreign products. Compared with Hydra Probe II sensor, the absolute error was -22.62~29.41 μS/cm, relative error was -2.2%~2.4%, the maximum relative error was 2.4%, the accuracy was the same. Compared with mercury thermometer, the temperature sensor had the absolute error of -0.12~0.23, maximum relative error of 2.3%, which can satisfy the accuracy of measurement. The soil in Beijing area was selected as test samples, the system's measuring range was 0~1520 μS/cm, monitoring error was -2.2%~2.4%, the dynamic response time was 544 ms, the measurement bandwidth was 1 MHz, the performance can meet the measurement requirements, which can provide a high precision measuring tool for precise agroforestry.  
  Number of references:  37 
  Main heading:  Signal conditioning circuits 
  Controlled terms:  Electric conductivity  -  Electric power systems  -  Electrodes  -  Errors  -  Power supply circuits  -  Probes  -  Sensors  -  Signal detection  -  Social networking (online)  -  Soils   -  Temperature sensors 
  Uncontrolled terms:  AC currents  -  Accuracy of measurements  -  Detection performance  -  Maximum relative errors  -  Measurement bandwidth  -  Real time monitoring  -  Sensor-signal conditioning  -  Soil electrical conductivity 
  Classification code:  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  701.1 Electricity: Basic Concepts and Phenomena  -  703.1 Electric Networks  -  704.1 Electric Components  -  706.1 Electric Power Systems  -  716.1 Information Theory and Signal Processing  -  722.4 Digital Computers and Systems  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications  -  732 Control Devices  -  801 Chemistry  -  921 Mathematics  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.041 
  Database:  Compendex

9. Accession number:  20153801280753
  Title:  Topology based energy efficient routing algorithm in farmland wireless sensor network 
  Authors:  Sun, Xiang1, 2 ; Wu, Baoguo1 ; Wu, Huarui2, 3 ; Miao, Yisheng2, 3 ; Li, Qingxue2, 3  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China
 2  National Engineering Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing, China
 3  Key Laboratory of Agri-Informatics, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Wu, Baoguo 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  232-238 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Aiming at the problems in farmland wireless sensor networks such as uneven nodes distribution, strict energy constraint, etc., a topology based routing algorithm TBCS-EA was proposed. Cluster heads were selected by considering the residual node energy and the node topology parameters, such as node position and density. This strategy made the nodes in an intensive area or close to the sink has a higher possibility to become a cluster-head, which could improve the network power efficiency. Existing clustering algorithms elect cluster head frequently, which will bring extra power consumption. An energy approximation scheme was also included in the algorithm. A node kept as cluster head until its residual energy reached the energy approximation target, then another node was selected as the new cluster head by using the topology based scheme. By doing this, the protocol cost could be significantly reduced. The simulation and experiment results showed that the network life span of TBCS-EA was more than 2200 rounds, which was about 1.5 times of CHCS and 2.2 times of LEACH. According to the node energy curve, the node energy balance of TBCS-EA was much better than that of LEACH, and it was almost like CHCS. The overall performance of TBCS-EA was better than that of the existing methods of LEACH and CHCS.  
  Number of references:  20 
  Main heading:  Sensor nodes 
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  Approximation algorithms  -  Clustering algorithms  -  Electric network topology  -  Energy efficiency  -  Farms  -  Leaching  -  Network routing  -  Power management (telecommunication)  -  Routing algorithms   -  Routing protocols  -  Topology  -  Wireless sensor networks 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Approximation scheme  -  Energy constraint  -  Energy efficient routing  -  Farmland  -  Network topology  -  Power Optimization  -  Topology parameters  -  WSN 
  Classification code:  525.2 Energy Conservation  -  533.1 Ore Treatment  -  703.1 Electric Networks  -  721 Computer Circuits and Logic Elements  -  722 Computer Systems and Equipment  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  732 Control Devices  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.032 
  Database:  Compendex

10. Accession number:  20153801280754
  Title:  Optimization of CO<inf>2</inf> enrichment strategy based on BPNN for tomato plants in greenhouse 
  Authors:  Zhang, Man1 ; Li, Ting1 ; Ji, Yuhan1 ; Sha, Sha1 ; Jiang, Yiqiong1 ; Li, Minzan1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory for Modern Precision Agriculture System Integration Research, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  239-245 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Carbon dioxide (CO<inf>2</inf>) as the important raw materials of plant growth in greenhouse, it is also one of the main factors that affects the plant photosynthesis. Adding CO<inf>2</inf> gas fertilizer has been one of the important techniques for increasing production of tomatoes in greenhouse. In order to determine the proper amount of CO<inf>2</inf> based on the plant demands, the impact of different CO<inf>2</inf> concentrations on net photosynthesis rate (P<inf>n</inf>) of tomato plants was studied. Tomatoes after planting were treated under four different CO<inf>2</inf> concentration levels, including elevated CO<inf>2</inf> concentrations of (700±50) μmol/mol (C1), (1000±50) μmol/mol (C2), (1300±50) μmol/mol (C3), and ambient CO<inf>2</inf> concentration in greenhouse (about 450 μmol/mol, CK). The above-mentioned CO<inf>2</inf> enrichment was taken in the sunny daytime (09:00-12:00). During the experiment, firstly, the sensor nodes based on WSN were used to monitor greenhouse environmental parameters, including air temperature, air humidity, light intensity and CO<inf>2</inf> concentration. Secondly, the diurnal dynamics of photosynthesis rate of tomato plants were achieved by LI-6400XT portable photosynthesis analyzer at the flowering stage. The parameters were measured by hourly from 08:00 to 18:00. In the environmental factors nested test of photosynthesis, the CO<inf>2</inf> concentration gradients were set to 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1300 and 1500 μmol/mol, respectively, the PAR gradients were set to 300, 600, 900 and 1200 μmol/(m<sup>2</sup>·s), respectively, and the temperature gradients were set to 28 and 35, respectively. The air humidity came from the ambient environment (23.16%~46.07%). Then, in order to better understand the characteristics of tomato growth and achieve the purpose of the regulation of CO<inf>2</inf> concentration in greenhouse, BP neural network was used to create photosynthesis prediction model according to the environmental factors nested test of photosynthesis. The diurnal dynamics of photosynthesis rate from different groups were simulated based on established model in the natural environment (except CO<inf>2</inf> concentration), from which the CO<inf>2</inf> concentration saturation point was obtained. The results indicated that CO<inf>2</inf> enrichment raised P<inf>n</inf> of tomato significantly, and the value was 37.13% and 40.42% higher in C2 and C3 than that in CK, respectively. Furthermore, the photosynthesis prediction model created by training group was accurate with average relative error of 3.91%, mean absolute error of 0.51 μmol/(m<sup>2</sup>·s), root mean square error of 0.79 μmol/(m<sup>2</sup>·s) and correlation coefficient of 0.98. The corresponding values of testing group were 10.08%, 1.36 μmol/(m<sup>2</sup>·s), 1.80 μmol/(m<sup>2</sup>·s) and 0.93, respectively. The prediction effect of diurnal dynamics of photosynthesis revealed that the correlation coefficient between the measured and calculated values was 0.96 when CO<inf>2</inf> concentration was set to 700 μmol/mol, 0.94 when CO<inf>2</inf> concentration was set to 1000 μmol/mol, 0.78 when CO<inf>2</inf> concentration was set to 1300 μmol/mol, 0.96 in the 450 μmol/mol treatment. Therefore, the prediction model had high accuracy and certain universality, which could provide a theoretical basis for optimal regulation of photosynthetic rate dynamically and precise control of CO<inf>2</inf> gas fertilizer in greenhouse.  
  Number of references:  18 
  Main heading:  Photosynthesis 
  Controlled terms:  Bacteriology  -  Carbon  -  Carbon dioxide  -  Dynamics  -  Environmental regulations  -  Errors  -  Fertilizers  -  Forecasting  -  Fruits  -  Greenhouses   -  Growth (materials)  -  Ionization of gases  -  Mean square error  -  Neural networks  -  Sensor nodes 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Concentration gradients  -  Diurnal dynamics  -  Environmental parameter  -  Greenhouse tomatoes  -  Net photosynthesis rate  -  Net photosynthetic rate  -  Prediction model  -  Root mean square errors 
  Classification code:  454.2 Environmental Impact and Protection  -  461.9 Biology  -  722 Computer Systems and Equipment  -  723.4 Artificial Intelligence  -  731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.2 Inorganic Compounds  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  821.6 Farm Buildings and Other Structures  -  921 Mathematics  -  931.1 Mechanics  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.033 
  Database:  Compendex

11. Accession number:  20153801280767
  Title:  LDMD-oriented blade remanufacturing based on CSC character reconstruction and defect model extraction 
  Authors:  Wang, Tao1 ; Ding, Huapeng1 ; Liu, Yiliu2 ; Lei, Jianbo3  
  Author affiliation:  1  Department of Mechanical Electronic Engineering, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin, China
 2  Department of Production and Quality Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
 3  Research Center of Laser Technology, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  333-337 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The blades of gas turbine are usually long-term operated in harsh environments. Due to high temperature and pressure in operation, as well as many external impacts, blades may have various defects, such as erosion, distortion, wear, cracks and impact dents. In order to implement the remanufacturing of defective blade with laser direct material deposit (LDMD), cross-section curve (CSC) was reconstructed based on design characters and defect 3D model was extracted. First, the remanufacturing system structure of blade was given. Second, on the basis of CSC design characters, the positions of leading edge (LE), trailing edge (TE), suction side (SS) and pressure side (PS) were identified in cross-section point cloud. In order to obtain LE and TE, the circle curves were utilized to fit the data points with the deviation of point from the circle and fitting error as threshold values. Meanwhile, the cross-section point cloud was segmented. And under the constraint condition of tangency to LE and TE, a sixth degree polynomial function was selected to fit the SS and PS by using the least square method. After some whole CSCs were obtained, the perfect blade airfoil model can be achieved by lofting them. Sequentially, defect 3D model for LDMD was extracted in Boolean subtraction. At last, an application of blade remanufacturing was given, which proved that the method was feasible, and the future research direction was also proposed.  
  Number of references:  20 
  Main heading:  Defects 
  Controlled terms:  Cracks  -  Curve fitting  -  Deposits  -  Gas turbines  -  Least squares approximations  -  Three dimensional computer graphics  -  Turbomachine blades 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Blade  -  Character reconstruction  -  Constraint conditions  -  Defect model  -  Future research directions  -  High temperature and pressure  -  Remanufacturing  -  Remanufacturing system 
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  423 Non Mechanical Properties and Tests of Building Materials  -  532 Metallurgical Furnaces  -  612 Engines  -  612.3 Gas Turbines and Engines  -  617 Turbines and Steam Turbines  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.046 
  Database:  Compendex

12. Accession number:  20153801280747
  Title:  Research progress and trend of food shelf life prediction 
  Authors:  Chen, Xiaoyu1, 2 ; Zhu, Zhiqiang3 ; Zhang, Xiaoshuan1, 2 ; Mu, Weisong1, 2 ; Fu, Zetian1, 2   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 3  National Engineering Technology Research Center for Preservation of Agricultural Products, Tianjin, China 
  Corresponding author:  Fu, Zetian 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  192-199 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  As an important research direction of food sector, shelf life prediction has become a hot topic worldwide. The related research literatures were summarized, the research mechanism and research progress of food shelf life prediction were reviewed, and the related research ideas and research methods were clarified. Five types of research methods were analyzed and compared, including the method based on chemical kinetics, the method based on growth kinetics of microbial, the method of back propagation (BP) neural networks, the method of Weibull hazard analysis and the method based on temperature such as Q<inf>10</inf> model. Quality indexes and research models used in different kinds of foods' shelf life prediction, such as meat, aquatic product, fruits and vegetables, which were proved to be available to achieve good results, were summarized. Finally, the status of food shelf life prediction research was analyzed and its development tendency was presented in the respects of research mechanism, study object and its surroundings, research applications and dynamic monitoring. Analysis indicates that food shelf life prediction tends to be more accurate and utility.  
  Number of references:  45 
  Main heading:  Food preservation 
  Controlled terms:  Backpropagation  -  Chemical analysis  -  Chemical hazards  -  Dynamics  -  Food products  -  Forecasting  -  Growth kinetics 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Aquatic products  -  Back propagation neural networks  -  Development tendency  -  Dynamic monitoring  -  Fruits and vegetables  -  Hazard analysis  -  Research applications  -  Shelf-life prediction 
  Classification code:  723.4 Artificial Intelligence  -  801 Chemistry  -  801.2 Biochemistry  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  822.2 Food Processing Operations  -  822.3 Food Products  -  914.1 Accidents and Accident Prevention  -  921 Mathematics  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.026 
  Database:  Compendex

13. Accession number:  20153801280769
  Title:  Dimensional synthesis of Ahut-Delta parallel mechanism based on improved chaotic particle swarm algorithm 
  Authors:  Zhang, Liang'an1, 2 ; Wan, Jun1 ; Tan, Yuliang1  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Mechanical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, China
 2  Institute of Industrial Robots, Ma'anshan Anhui University of Industrial Technology Research Institute, Maanshan, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  344-351 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Dimensional synthesis was the core content in the parallel mechanism design. Therefore, a dimensional synthesis method based on the improved chaotic particle swarm algorithm was proposed for the Ahut-Delta parallel mechanism. Firstly, improved chaotic particle swarm algorithm was proposed. In the algorithm, initialization of population with chaos cube map was experienced. Then inertia weight was adjusted exponentially on the basis of the algorithm iterative state. Simultaneously, early maturity judgment and chaotic disturbance were utilized to obtain the optimal particle. Secondly, the optimal parameters of Ahut-Delta were changed to the dimensional variables. The population mean condition number and the population fluctuation rate of Jacobian were synthesized to a global performance index, and then the global performance index was changed to the fitness function for the improved chaotic particle swarm algorithm under the geometric constraints and the transmission angle constraints of the Ahut-Delta. Thirdly, an optimization simulation on the scale parameters for Ahut-Delta parallel mechanism was conducted by using two optimization algorithms, i.e., basic particle group algorithm and improved chaotic particle swarm algorithm. Through the analysis of the two algorithms results, the optimal particle with the minimal fitness function value was optimized by means of improved chaotic particle swarm algorithm, and the optimal scales were obtained which remarkably improved Ahut-Delta motion performance. Finally, the results of simulation and analysis verified the correctness and effectiveness of the method.  
  Number of references:  24 
  Main heading:  Algorithms 
  Controlled terms:  Delta functions  -  Iterative methods  -  Machine design  -  Mechanisms  -  Number theory  -  Optimization 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Chaotic particle swarm algorithms  -  Dimensional synthesis  -  Geometric constraint  -  Optimization algorithms  -  Optimization-simulation  -  Parallel mechanisms  -  Simulation and analysis  -  Transmission angle 
  Classification code:  601 Mechanical Design  -  601.3 Mechanisms  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.048 
  Database:  Compendex

14. Accession number:  20153801280755
  Title:  Real-time measurement of particulate matter emitted from animal feeding operation based on aerodynamic particle sizer 
  Authors:  Chang, Zhiyong1, 2 ; Yang, Xiao1, 2 ; Mu, Haifeng1, 2 ; Tong, Jin1, 2 ; Chen, Donghui1, 2 ; Guo, Li1, 2   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun, China 
  Corresponding author:  Guo, Li 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  246-251 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted from animal feeding operations (AFOs) is complex, and those particulates have negative impact on the health of people and animal in and near the AFOs. To better understand the degree of pollution caused by those PMs, it is necessary to conduct real-time measurement, such as particle sizes and concentrations and so on. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility and effectiveness of the aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) on measuring PM emitted from AFOs. An APS was firstly employed to measure the size distribution of the glass sphere powder and vegetable oil with different attributes in the laboratory. The measurement results were compared with those simultaneously measured by micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). Then particulate matter emitted from a cattle feedlot was measured by APS at real-time. The result showed that APS performed well when using it to measure two types of glass sphere powder and vegetable oil in the laboratory. According to linear regression analysis, there was correlation between the cumulative mass concentrations of glass sphere powder obtained by APS and MOUDI, as well as the vegetable oil. Both of the values of determination coefficient R<sup>2</sup> were greater than 0.9. APS also performed well when using it to measure the particulate emitted from the cattle feedlot since it well recorded the pollution scenarios and reflected the variation of the air pollutant. APS provided values of geometric mean diameter, number concentration and mass concentration, which can be used to evaluate pollution level of particulates emitted from animal feeding operation from different aspects.  
  Number of references:  17 
  Main heading:  Particle size 
  Controlled terms:  Aerodynamics  -  Animals  -  Feeding  -  Glass  -  Particles (particulate matter)  -  Pollution  -  Regression analysis  -  Spheres  -  Time measurement  -  Vegetable oils 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Aerodynamic particle sizer  -  Animal feeding  -  Geometric mean diameters  -  Mass concentration  -  Number concentration  -  Particulate Matter 
  Classification code:  454.2 Environmental Impact and Protection  -  461 Bioengineering and Biology  -  471 Marine Science and Oceanography  -  631 Fluid Flow  -  651.1 Aerodynamics, General  -  691.2 Materials Handling Methods  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  812.3 Glass  -  814 Leather and Tanning  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  822 Food Technology  -  822.3 Food Products  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics  -  943.2 Mechanical Variables Measurements  -  943.3 Special Purpose Instruments  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.034 
  Database:  Compendex

15. Accession number:  20153801280745
  Title:  Rotary cycle of crushed straw material bed and complete mixing time of layers in rotary cylinder 
  Authors:  Zhou, Jingzhi1 ; Zhou, Zhixing2 ; Feng, Junxiao1 ; Li, Shizhong2  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China
 2  Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Feng, Junxiao 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  178-185 and 238 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Cylinder is used for solid-state fermentation, and the lower crushed straw material layer in the cylinder is lack of oxygen which leads to higher layer temperature, death of yeast and the decrease of fermentation efficiency. Rotating the cylinder will mix the material layers to balance temperature. It needs to forecast the complete mixing time of layers. Firstly, a rotary cylinder was built to analyze the mode of material bed's rotation, and a model to describe the rotary cycle (T) of material bed was built. As there were too many variables need to be measured, height difference and length of bed's arc edge which were hard to measure were replaced with easily measured cylinder rotary speed and material volume filling rate based on regression and error analysis. The calculation accuracy of the simplified formula was higher than 95%. Secondly, based on image analysis method and VB programming, complete tests were done to get the complete mixing time (τ<inf>G</inf>) of upper and lower layers at different filling rates (0.2, 0.4, 0.6) and rotary speeds of cylinder (0.9, 4.5, 8.0 r/min). τ<inf>G</inf> was divided by T to get rotation number of material bed (N<inf>R</inf>) when two layers were completely mixed. The results showed that N<inf>R</inf> had little relationship with rotary speed of cylinder and had linear relationship with filling rate. Based on regression and error analysis, a formula was built to calculate N<inf>R</inf> at different filling rates. Multiplying T by N<inf>R</inf> can derive a formula which was used to forecast τ<inf>G</inf> of upper and lower layers. The calculation accuracy of the formula was higher than 90%. The way to get such a formula on other cylinders was also introduced. The result is helpful on designing and operating of cylinder in order to improve fermentation efficiency.  
  Number of references:  22 
  Main heading:  Cylinders (shapes) 
  Controlled terms:  Error analysis  -  Fermentation  -  Filling  -  Image analysis  -  Mixing 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Balance temperatures  -  Calculation accuracy  -  Fermentation efficiency  -  Image analysis method  -  Linear relationships  -  Simplified formula  -  Solid-state fermentation  -  Straw materials 
  Classification code:  408.2 Structural Members and Shapes  -  691.2 Materials Handling Methods  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  802.2 Chemical Reactions  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  921.6 Numerical Methods 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.024 
  Database:  Compendex

16. Accession number:  20153801280731
  Title:  Visualization experiment of gas-liquid two-phase flow of pump during self-priming process 
  Authors:  Li, Hong1 ; Jiang, Bo1 ; Lu, Tianqiao1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  59-65 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The transient self-priming process is characterized by a complex gas-liquid two-phase flow in the pump, and the gas-liquid mixture and separation effects play a crucial role in gas exhaustion, which further affect the self-priming performance. The collaboration system between the external characteristic of self-priming performance and gas-liquid two-phase flow characteristic during self-priming process was built. Then the experimental instant pump inlet and outlet pressure, pump inlet and outlet flow rate, rotational speed were obtained and programmed by the LabVIEW software. Gas-liquid two-phase flow phenomena in the impeller, volute and gas-liquid separation chamber was observed by high-speed photography system. Results showed that the self-priming process was stable under dynamic conditions before liquid flow was increased. The stable gas-liquid separation interface which appeared at the outlet of the diffuser contributed to gas-liquid separation and gas exhaustion. Bubbles which convoluted at the outlet of the diffuser were not conducive to gas exhaustion in time. During the start-up process, the gas-liquid velocity and the number of bubbles at each section of the volute were in the oscillatory process due to the unstable pressure differential in the impeller. At last instant self-priming process, there was a sudden change in flow rate and pressure. Drops in the gas-liquid separation chamber and bubbles in the diffuser were increased sharply, and then decreased rapidly. The results testified the transient effect during the last instant self-priming process. Microscopic variations of gas-liquid two-phase flow are consistent with macroscopic variations of pressure, flow rate and rotational speed measured by experimental instruments.  
  Number of references:  15 
  Main heading:  Two phase flow 
  Controlled terms:  Computer programming languages  -  Diffusers (fluid)  -  Flow visualization  -  Gases  -  High speed photography  -  Impellers  -  Ionization of gases  -  Liquids  -  Phase interfaces  -  Pumps   -  Visualization 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Dynamic tests  -  External characteristic  -  Gas - liquid two-phase flows  -  Microscopic variation  -  Pressure differential  -  Self-priming  -  Self-priming performance  -  Visualization experiment 
  Classification code:  601.2 Machine Components  -  618.2 Pumps  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  723.1.1 Computer Programming Languages  -  742.1 Photography  -  902.1 Engineering Graphics  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.010 
  Database:  Compendex

17. Accession number:  20153801280771
  Title:  Error compensation technology of strapdown inertial navigation system for mobile equipment 
  Authors:  Yang, Hai1 ; Li, Wei1 ; Zhang, Jinyao1 ; Si, Zhuoyin1 ; Ying, Baohua1  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Mechatronic Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:  Li, Wei 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  361-366 and 378 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The positioning error for strapdown inertial navigation system of mobile equipment will be increased when it works in the environment with strong vibration. Taking agricultural machinery, mining equipment and other mobile equipments as the research objects, the position and orientation of mobile equipment were measured with strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and the SINS error compensation model was built based on the vibration form of mobile equipment. Firstly, the magnitude-frequency characteristics and vibration properties were analyzed based on the acceleration and angular velocity which were measured by SINS. The angular vibration and linear vibration of mobile equipment were equivalently processed and the coning/sculling error compensation models for SINS with three samples and four samples algorithms were derived according to the SINS solution theory. Secondly, the experimental platform of SINS was built with agricultural machinery which was used for planning and fertilizing the fields. The SINS was fixedly installed on the agricultural machinery. The SINS data was sent to the positioning computer through two wireless transmission modules. The power was supplied for the SINS and one wireless transmission module through an external mobile power module. Finally, experimental results indicated that positioning accuracy of SINS can be increased with three samples and four samples compensation algorithms, and its accuracy was superior to that with non-compensation model. The coning error and sculling error of SINS with four samples algorithm were increased by 29.8% and 28.3% compared with those of three samples algorithm, respectively.  
  Number of references:  20 
  Main heading:  Navigation systems 
  Controlled terms:  Agricultural machinery  -  Agriculture  -  Air navigation  -  Algorithms  -  Equipment  -  Error compensation  -  Errors  -  Inertial navigation systems  -  Mining equipment  -  Navigation   -  Vibration analysis 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Compensation technology  -  Frequency characteristic  -  Mobile equipments  -  Position and orientations  -  Position and pose  -  Strap-down inertial navigation systems  -  Vibration characteristics  -  Wireless transmi-ssion modules 
  Classification code:  431.5 Air Navigation and Traffic Control  -  502.2 Mine and Quarry Equipment  -  721.1 Computer Theory, Includes Formal Logic, Automata Theory, Switching Theory, Programming Theory  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment  -  901 Engineering Profession  -  921 Mathematics  -  943.2 Mechanical Variables Measurements 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.050 
  Database:  Compendex

18. Accession number:  20153801280764
  Title:  3D automotive sketching system based on pressure-sensitivity of digital pen 
  Authors:  Gong, Yongjian1 ; Xuan, Cuixian1 ; Lou, Jianzhong1 ; Li, Qiang2  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Infomation Engineering, Jinhua Polytechnic, Jinhua, China
 2  School of Automotive Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  314-318 and 288 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  As far as current 3D sketching system is concerned, two main problems are obvious. One is few applications on automotive engineering, the other is that pressure-sensitive information is seldom used to create the third direction curve, though both methods of projection and surface intersection are usually used. Based on analysis of current pressure-sensitive technology of digital pen, a system structure of 3D automotive sketching system based on pressure-sensitivity of digital pen was proposed. Then, detailed software surrounding and hardware surrounding on developing the 3D automotive sketching system were proposed. Realization methods of 3D sketching system based on digital pen's pressure sensing were important and discussed in detail. There were four steps in the realization methods, which were creating reference plane, extracting pressure-sensitive information, creating and editing 3D curve, creating and editing 3D surface. During creating a 3D curve, the focus was on drawing original curve, dealing with the single stroke and parameterization of stroke, and fitting two curves. Finally, the system was integrated with AutoSketch system and tested, and a prototype for 3D automotive sketching based on pressure-sensitivity of digital pen was completed. The test results showed that the prototype system matched the AutoSketch system well. It was good at high recognition efficiency of operation command and short computation time. However, during the test, it was found that when fitting a single stroke, the beginning and end of the curve could not accurately pass the beginning and end tip of the given data points. The fitting method which is good at clamping might be suggested and adopted.  
  Number of references:  21 
  Main heading:  Curve fitting 
  Controlled terms:  Face recognition 
  Uncontrolled terms:  3D sketching  -  Automotive styling  -  Digital pens  -  Pressure sensitivities  -  Stroke 
  Classification code:  716 Telecommunication; Radar, Radio and Television  -  921.6 Numerical Methods 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.043 
  Database:  Compendex

19. Accession number:  20153801280758
  Title:  Hyperspectral estimation model of chlorophyll content in poplar leaves 
  Authors:  Cheng, Zhiqing1 ; Zhang, Jinsong1 ; Meng, Ping1 ; Li, Yanquan1 ; Wang, Hesong2 ; Li, Chunyou3  
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation of the State Forestry Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China
 2  College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China
 3  College of Landscape and Travel, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, Jinsong 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  264-271 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The feasibility of using SPAD value as a measure for chlorophyll content of poplar by potted poplar was tested, and methods of the poplar leaf chlorophyll content estimation by hyperspectral analysis technology were explored. Through analyzing the characteristics of poplar leaves' hyperspectral curve, the characteristic bands combination of 350 nm, 715 nm and 1150 nm were extracted by optimum index factor. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) calculated by the maximum correlation bands (705 nm, 953 nm) between NDVI and the poplar chlorophyll content, the maximum correlation bands (647 nm, 691 nm, 721 nm) between the first derivative of hyperspectral data and the poplar chlorophyll content and leaf chlorophyll index (LCI) were made by regression analysis to establish the estimation models. In order to select the best model, these models were analyzed and compared. The results showed that exponential relationship between SPAD values and chlorophyll content measured by chemical method and its corresponding value was significant, determination coefficient R<sup>2</sup> was up to 0.9023. The fitting accuracy of the estimation model with the characteristic bands combination of 350 nm, 715 nm and 1150 nm was extracted by optimum index factor and correlation coefficient was the highest. The determination coefficient R<sup>2</sup> was 0.9445, root mean square error was 2.5538 mg/cm<sup>2</sup>. Therefore, the characteristic bands combination of 350 nm, 715 nm and 1150 nm extracted by optimum index factor and correlation coefficient is able to build a more accurate model for estimation of poplar chlorophyll content.  
  Number of references:  27 
  Main heading:  Chlorophyll 
  Controlled terms:  Mean square error  -  Regression analysis 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Chlorophyll contents  -  Estimation models  -  HyperSpectral  -  Leaves  -  Poplar 
  Classification code:  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.037 
  Database:  Compendex

20. Accession number:  20153801280736
  Title:  Analysis of influencing factors of rainfall in irrigation area and combining rainfall forecasting 
  Authors:  Xing, Zhenxiang1 ; Guo, Hao1 ; Fu, Qiang1   
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Water Conservancy & Civil Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China 
  Corresponding author:  Fu, Qiang 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  97-103 and 96 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Sanjiang Plain is located in the east of Heilongjiang Province, which belongs to the humid climate area. In recent years, Sanjiang Plain's natural state has changed due to several factors, such as the warming climate and human activity. Precipitation is one of the major sources of agricultural irrigation in the irrigation area. Due to the strongly stochastic characteristic of precipitation which was influenced by many factors and the lower accuracy of single forecasting model, set pair analysis was introduced which could discuss the relation between rainfall and meteorological factors. In order to improve the training speed of the radial basis function neural network, the K-means algorithm based on density parameter was applied. In this way, the sensitivity of conventional K-means algorithm to initial clustering center was also removed. A combing model based on information entropy (IE-CM) was built, which combined the radial basis function artificial neural network based on density parameter with the grey model, and the weight of each single model was calculated by using the information entropy weight method. The constructed model was applied to forecast the rainfall over the Youyi Farm in Sanjiang Plain. The case study showed that the determination coefficient, average relative error and root mean square error of IE-CM were better than those of single models, which were demonstrated to be 0.99, 10.655% and 3.03 mm, respectively. The qualification rate of the forecasted result was 83.3%, which satisfied the requirements of hydrologic prediction. In conclusion, the built combining model could provide a new method for forecasting precipitation.  
  Number of references:  17 
  Main heading:  Precipitation (meteorology) 
  Controlled terms:  Balloons  -  Clustering algorithms  -  Factor analysis  -  Forecasting  -  Functions  -  Irrigation  -  Mean square error  -  Neural networks  -  Radial basis function networks  -  Rain   -  Stochastic models  -  Stochastic systems  -  Weather forecasting 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Determination coefficients  -  Grey Model  -  Initial clustering centers  -  Radial basis function artificial neural networks  -  Radial basis function neural networks  -  Rainfall forecasting  -  Set pair analysis  -  Stochastic characteristic 
  Classification code:  443 Meteorology  -  721 Computer Circuits and Logic Elements  -  723.4 Artificial Intelligence  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  921 Mathematics  -  922.1 Probability Theory  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics  -  961 Systems Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.015 
  Database:  Compendex

21. Accession number:  20153801280722
  Title:  Soybean seeds visual classification system based on DSP and ARM 
  Authors:  Fang, Junlong1 ; Yang, Sensen1 ; Zhao, Zhaoyang1 ; Li, Ming1 ; Wang, Runtao1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Electrical and Information, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  1-6 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Selection and screening of soybean seeds was an important link in soybean seeds processing. At present, manual work and mechanical principle were widely used in domestic selection and screening of soybean seeds, which were featured by high cost, great labor intensity and low efficiency and precision. In recent years, with the research on machine vision technology deeper, the machine vision was more and more widely applied to recognition and detection of agricultural products. A total design scheme of embedded soybean seeds visual classification system was proposed based on DSP and ARM. The working principle of the device, hardware configuration, software system and placement test were introduced. A soybean seeds selection algorithm was designed, and statistic on parameters was made, extraction of soybean seeds boundary and regional drawing characteristics was found out, and roundness and smoothness were set as primary basis of selection. DSP-ARM dual-processor architecture processor with DaVinci technology TMS320DM6437 (DSP) and TMS320DM355 (ARM) was used as the core processing unit. In this system, a real-time process to the soybean seeds picture captured by camera was taken by using DaVinci technology TMS320DM6437, and the processed result was obtained by using TMS320DM355, which achieved the intelligent grading of soybean seeds. Image processing algorithm was designed firstly, statistical approach was utilized to distill boundary characteristics and regional characteristics of soybean seeds, and then the grading feature was determined. Visual grading of soybean seeds was achieved by embedded operating system. Four varieties of soybean (Dongnong 42, Dongnong 89836, Dongnong L13 and Dongnong 44) of 2000 grains each were taken as test samples to retest the device. The precision of selection and screening can reach 95%.  
  Number of references:  19 
  Main heading:  Image processing 
  Controlled terms:  Agricultural machinery  -  Agricultural products  -  ARM processors  -  Classification (of information)  -  Computer vision  -  Grading  -  Software testing 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Boundary characteristics  -  Embedded operating systems  -  Hardware configurations  -  Image processing algorithm  -  Regional characteristics  -  Soybean  -  TMS320DM355  -  TMS320DM6437 
  Classification code:  716.1 Information Theory and Signal Processing  -  721 Computer Circuits and Logic Elements  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  913.3 Quality Assurance and Control 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.001 
  Database:  Compendex

22. Accession number:  20153801280737
  Title:  Effects of raindrop impact on rill erosion characteristics on loess hillslope 
  Authors:  Shen, Haiou1 ; Zheng, Fenli1, 2 ; Wen, Leilei1 ; Lu, Jia1 ; Jiang, Yiliang1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zheng, Fenli 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  104-112 and 89 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  A rainfall simulation study was conducted to examine the effects of raindrop impact on rill erosion characteristics on the loess hillslope. The experimental treatments included three rainfall intensities (50, 75 and 100 mm/h) of representative erosive rainfalls on the Loess Plateau and three common slope gradients (10°, 15° and 20°) of rill erosion occurrence. Each experimental treatment included two surface treatments: with and without raindrop impact through placing the nylon net over the soil pan. The results showed that eliminating raindrop impact caused decreases in stable runoff rates and sediment concentrations; soil loss was induced and rill erosion was decreased by 28.1%~47.7% and 20.2%~38.6%, respectively; the increase in the contribution of rill erosion to hillslope soil erosion was induced. After eliminating raindrop impact, the effect of slope gradient on rill erosion was the same as that in treatments with raindrop impact; but the effect of rainfall intensity on rill erosion was increased. With regard to treatments with and without raindrop impact, both rill density and degree of rill dissection were increased with increase in rainfall intensity or slope gradient; but the changes of rill inclination angle were complex. Thus, rill density and degree of rill dissection were the optimal indicators to describe rill morphological characteristics. The results also indicated that raindrop impact had indirect influence on rill channel shape. That is, the degree of variation in rill width and rill depth was decreased, and rill channel shape was more inerratic after eliminating raindrop impact. With regard to treatments with raindrop impact, rill width-depth ratio was decreased with rainfall intensity or slope gradient increase. For treatments without raindrop impact, rill width-depth ratio was also decreased with increase in slope gradient, but it was slightly increased as rainfall intensity increased.  
  Number of references:  30 
  Main heading:  Rain 
  Controlled terms:  Drops  -  Erosion  -  Sediments  -  Soils 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Loess hillslope  -  Morphological characteristic  -  Raindrop impact  -  Rainfall simulations  -  Rill erosion 
  Classification code:  443 Meteorology  -  483 Soil Mechanics and Foundations  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.016 
  Database:  Compendex

23. Accession number:  20153801280734
  Title:  Growth and water consumption characteristics of cotton in Manas basin during recent 34 years 
  Authors:  Wang, Jin1, 2 ; Bai, Jie3 ; Luo, Geping3 ; Wang, Shaoming1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology Agriculture, Xinjiang Production and Construction Groups, Shihezi, China
 2  Wulanwusu Agrometeorological Experiment Station, Shihezi, China
 3  State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, China 
  Corresponding author:  Bai, Jie 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  83-89 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Xinjiang is one of the three major cotton-producing areas in China, and provided 45% of the nation's production. Due to the intensive agricultural management, the cotton planting in Xinjiang go through three cropping periods in 1980-2013. The three cropping periods are as following: period of furrow irrigation with non-mulching (NF period, 1980-1993), period of furrow irrigation with mulching (MF period, 1994-2004) and period of drip irrigation with mulching (MD period, 2005-2013). Under the condition of sufficient irrigation, the seed yield of cotton was closely influenced by air temperature, and the evapotranspiration was more related to irrigation water amount. The seed yield reached the maximum value of 4 493.3 kg/hm<sup>2</sup> in MD period, while ET had the peak value of 714 mm in NF period. In the recent 34 years, the seed yield and evapotranspiration of cotton were generally increased. The annual increasing rate of seed yield (83.97 kg/hm<sup>2</sup>) was greater than that of evapotranspiration (5.46 mm). Thus water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) of cotton were also increased. WUE and IWUE reached the peak value of (0.7±0.1) kg/m<sup>3</sup> and (1.0±0.3) kg/m<sup>3</sup>, respectively, which were close to the levels in humid regions.  
  Number of references:  23 
  Main heading:  Irrigation 
  Controlled terms:  Cotton  -  Efficiency  -  Evapotranspiration  -  Subirrigation  -  Water  -  Water supply 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Agricultural management  -  Furrow irrigation  -  Irrigation water use efficiency  -  Irrigation waters  -  Producing areas  -  Seed cotton  -  Water consumption  -  Water use efficiency 
  Classification code:  444 Water Resources  -  444.1 Surface Water  -  446.1 Water Supply Systems  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  913.1 Production Engineering 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.013 
  Database:  Compendex

24. Accession number:  20153801280743
  Title:  Spatial prediction of soil nutrients based on multi-dimensional fractal methods 
  Authors:  Chen, Guang1 ; Gao, Ran2 ; Zhang, Shiwen3 ; Zhang, Liping1 ; Ye, Huichun4 ; Huang, Yuanfang1   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Resources and Environment, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, China
 3  College of Earth and Environment, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, China
 4  Key Laboratory of Digital Earth Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Huang, Yuanfang 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  159-168 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Soil is a continuous spatial-temporal heterogeneity with high spatial variability. Soil nutrients are important parts of soil, and scientific and effective spatial prediction of the spatial variability of soil nutrients is the foundation of sustainable utilization of soil. The multi-dimensional fractal (multifractal) Krige method (Mkrige) with Krige method as a reference was used to simulate four types of soil nutrients, i.e., soil organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Effectiveness of spatial prediction of Mkrige method was deeply analyzed in terms of five aspects, i.e., the traditional statistics, accumulation curve, multi-dimensional fractal images, multi-dimensional parameters and specific values. The results showed that traditional statistics parameters, accumulated value curve, multi-dimensional fractal parameters and multi-dimensional fractal image of the predicted values by Mkrige method were closer to the measured values than that of the predicted values by Krige method for the considered four soil nutrients. Mkrige method can better maintain the specific value area of the original samples, which truly reflected the chaotic state of the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and had a better prediction effect. The fractal degrees of phosphorus, organic matter, total nitrogen and potassium were reduced in order. For Mkrige method, the higher the fractal degree was, the more excellent the prediction effects were.  
  Number of references:  29 
  Main heading:  Soils 
  Controlled terms:  Biogeochemistry  -  Biological materials  -  Forecasting  -  Fractals  -  Nitrogen  -  Nutrients  -  Organic compounds  -  Phosphorus  -  Potassium 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Krige  -  Multi fractals  -  Multi-dimensional fractals  -  Multi-dimensional parameters  -  Soil nutrients  -  Soil organic matters  -  Spatial prediction  -  Sustainable utilization 
  Classification code:  461.2 Biological Materials and Tissue Engineering  -  461.9 Biology  -  481.2 Geochemistry  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  549.1 Alkali Metals  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.022 
  Database:  Compendex

25. Accession number:  20153801280761
  Title:  Multi-parameter compounded testing system for soil 
  Authors:  Zhao, Yandong1 ; Li, Ning1 ; Pi, Tingting1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  289-298 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  A multi-parameter compounded testing system was proposed, which could collect soil moisture, electrical conductivity and temperature at the same time. An intensive research was carried out on soil moisture using standing wave ratio method, on electrical conductivity using four-electrode method, and on temperature using platinum resistor method. The soil in Beijing area was selected as sample; the correlation coefficients between measured value and value output by sensor for soil moisture, temperature and electrical conductivity were 0.9983, 0.9998 and 0.9991, respectively. The dynamic response times and standard deviation of stability for the above three parameters were 460 ms, 13 s, 2.28 s and 0.0115, 0.0014, 0.0103, respectively. Both stability and dynamic performance can meet the measurement requirements. The anti-interference performance of the proposed system was analyzed. With time-sharing power supply, the system's interference mainly existed between soil moisture and temperature. The soil temperature probe, which was considered as an abnormal medium, will cause increasing of soil moisture. This error can be compensated in data processing. The generally recognized soil moisture sensor, soil temperature sensor and soil electrical conductivity sensor were selected to compare with the proposed multi-parameter compounded testing system. The results demonstrated that the system can meet the requirements of real-time online measurement, and provide a portable tool with high accuracy for measurement of soil parameters.  
  Number of references:  34 
  Main heading:  Soil testing 
  Controlled terms:  Data handling  -  Electric conductivity  -  Electric power systems  -  Moisture  -  Moisture control  -  Soil moisture  -  Soils  -  Temperature 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Correlation coefficient  -  Electrical conductivity  -  Four-electrode method  -  Multil-parameter  -  On-line measurement  -  Soil electrical conductivity  -  Soil moisture sensors  -  Testing systems 
  Classification code:  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  641.1 Thermodynamics  -  701.1 Electricity: Basic Concepts and Phenomena  -  706.1 Electric Power Systems  -  723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing  -  801.4 Physical Chemistry  -  944.2 Moisture Measurements 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.040 
  Database:  Compendex

26. Accession number:  20153801280760
  Title:  Regionalization of maize cultivars cultivated in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China 
  Authors:  Liu, Zhe1 ; Tang, Rijing1 ; Zhao, Zuliang1 ; Li, Shaoming1 ; Zhu, Dehai1 ; Zhang, Xiaodong1   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, Xiaodong 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  281-288 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Regionalization of maize cultivars cultivated with a relatively large scale always fails to take fully consideration of differences of performances among varies cultivars due to the limitation of data and method, and thus often provides inaccurate indications for maize cultivars deployment, which caused serious economic losses. To make a further effort to solve the problem, an effective regionalization method for maize cultivars cultivated in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China was proposed. The study was based on six years (2001-2006) of regional trial data, which covered 40 maize-testing locations and plantation survey data on field production, including the agronomic characters, various stresses and plantation management information, and the climatic data was used as well. Firstly, statistical analysis on trial data and survey data was applied to filter indexes which had a high frequency of occurrence, a significant impact on yield and a strong relationship with environments. As a result, the accumulated temperature higher than 10, average planting density, blank-stem stress, lodging stress and leaf blight stress were taken as indexes. Secondly, quantitative expressions of each index basing on their relationship with weather and management scheme in field production were established, and then the comprehensive index value was calculated and assigned to each county. Finally, counties were clustered by their comprehensive index value, and the spatial continuity adjustment was combined to achieve a spatially coherent clustering result. Consequently, maize variety Xiuqing 73-1 was taken as an example, and 606 counties of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain were classified into 5 regions, outlier counties of each region were identified and analyzed whose comprehensive index values were greater than the upper limit or less than the lower limit. The result can provide a practical guidance for precise cultivar popularization of maize.  
  Number of references:  17 
  Main heading:  Cultivation 
  Controlled terms:  Balloons  -  Clustering algorithms  -  Losses  -  Surveys 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Accumulated temperatures  -  Clustering results  -  Comprehensive indices  -  Maize cultivars  -  Plantation managements  -  Planting suitability  -  Precise regionalization  -  Spatial clustering 
  Classification code:  405.3 Surveying  -  652.5 Balloons and Gliders  -  721 Computer Circuits and Logic Elements  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  911.2 Industrial Economics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.039 
  Database:  Compendex

27. Accession number:  20153801280733
  Title:  Research progress on conservation and restoration of biodiversity in land reclamation of opencast coal mine 
  Authors:  Huang, Yuanfang1 ; Zhang, Shiwen2 ; Zhang, Liping1 ; Zhang, Hongyan3 ; Li, Zhen1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  School of Earth and Environment, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, China
 3  College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  72-82 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Biodiversity provides the necessary resources and living environment for human life, which is a core component of the earth's life-support system. Opencast coal mining destroys a considerable number of land resources. Meanwhile, series of ecological problems were triggered, such as vegetation damage, the destruction of structure and function of landscape and biodiversity loss, etc. Land reclamation is an activity making damaged land to reach available state through taking remediation measures; of course, it is also the recovery process of biodiversity. Therefore, it is greatly significant to promote the coordinated development of economy and environment on the study of conservation and restoration of biodiversity in land reclamation of opencast coal mine. The connotation and research which focus on biodiversity and disturbance and recovery features of conservation and restoration of biodiversity in the process of mining and land reclamation of opencast coal mine were briefly introduced. In the aspect of biodiversity conservation of opencast coal mine, some study progresses on investigation, monitoring and evaluation of biodiversity, damage assessment and forecasting were concentrated on. In the aspect of biodiversity restoration of opencast coal mine, the researches on soil habitat reconstruction, revegetation, reclamation landscape structure, and ecological function of biodiversity reengineering were mainly discussed. Relevant regulations and policies for conservation and restoration of biodiversity in land reclamation of opencast coal mine were interpreted. Finally, the future research about conservation and restoration of biodiversity in land reclamation of opencast coal mine were looked forward. It may provide some ideas for further promoting the research in this area.  
  Number of references:  81 
  Main heading:  Land reclamation 
  Controlled terms:  Biodiversity  -  Coal  -  Coal deposits  -  Coal mines  -  Coal reclamation  -  Conservation  -  Damage detection  -  Ecology  -  Ecosystems  -  Land use   -  Metal recovery  -  Reclamation  -  Restoration  -  Revegetation  -  Soil conservation 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Biodiversity conservation  -  Ecological functions  -  Monitoring and evaluations  -  Opencast Coal Mine  -  Opencast coal minings  -  Regulations and policy  -  Remediation measures  -  Soil habitats 
  Classification code:  402 Buildings and Towers  -  409 Civil Engineering, General  -  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  422 Strength of Building Materials; Test Equipment and Methods  -  442.2 Land Reclamation  -  452.4 Industrial Wastes Treatment and Disposal  -  454 Environmental Engineering  -  454.3 Ecology and Ecosystems  -  482 Mineralogy  -  503 Mines and Mining, Coal  -  503.1 Coal Mines  -  524 Solid Fuels  -  531 Metallurgy and Metallography  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.012 
  Database:  Compendex

28. Accession number:  20153801280763
  Title:  Parameter identification of automotive ESP hydraulic system based on genetic algorithm 
  Authors:  Zhang, Jiaxu1, 2 ; Li, Jing1   
  Author affiliation:  1  State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, Changchun, China
 2  Research and Development Center, China FAW Group Corporation, Changchun, China 
  Corresponding author:  Li, Jing 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  308-313 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  ESP hydraulic system is an important actuator for the active safety control system of vehicle. In the Matlab/Simulink environment, the real-time simulation model of ESP hydraulic system, which contains unknown characteristic parameters, is established on the strength of its structural principle. In order to identify the unknown characteristic parameters, several test cases that cover passive and active pressurization modes of the model are executed in the real vehicle experiment environment, and the collected vehicle measurements are divided into two groups. The unknown characteristic parameters of the model are identified with genetic algorithm by using one group as reference data. The model is compiled and downloaded to the real-time simulation system, which is named dSPACE AutoBox. Using the valve currents and pump motor signals of another group of measurements as the inputs of the model, the brake wheel cylinder pressures of the same group of measurements are compared with the outputs of the model. The results show that the real-time simulation model of ESP hydraulic system with the identification results of characteristic parameters has high accuracy, and can meet the requirements of establishing hardware in the loop simulation test environment for ESP system.  
  Number of references:  18 
  Main heading:  Parameter estimation 
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  Amphibious vehicles  -  Braking  -  Genetic algorithms  -  Hydraulic actuators  -  Hydraulic equipment  -  Identification (control systems)  -  MATLAB  -  Traction (friction)  -  Transients   -  Vehicles 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Active safety  -  Cylinder pressures  -  Hardware in-the-loop simulation  -  Hydraulic system  -  MATLAB/Simulink environment  -  Real time simulations  -  Real-time simulation models  -  Reference data 
  Classification code:  432 Highway Transportation  -  602 Mechanical Drives and Transmissions  -  632.2 Hydraulic Equipment and Machinery  -  674.1 Small Marine Craft  -  682.1.1 Railroad Cars  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  732.1 Control Equipment  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.042 
  Database:  Compendex

29. Accession number:  20153801280759
  Title:  Analysis of fractional vegetation coverage changes and its influence factors during farmland returned to forest period in Yan'an City 
  Authors:  Zhu, Huili1, 2 ; Yang, Gaihe1 ; Han, Lei3  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  School of Geology Engineering and Geomatics, Chang'an University, Xi'an, China
 3  School of Earth Science and Resources, Chang'an University, Xi'an, China 
  Corresponding author:  Yang, Gaihe 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  272-280 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Based on the dimidiate pixel model, the changes of fractional vegetation coverage and its influence factors were analyzed by using the MODIS vegetation index in 2000-2012 during the period of returning farmland to forest in Yan'an City. The results indicated that the fractional vegetation coverage in Yan'an City was increased by 53.9%, which was changed from 43.4% to 66.8%. Fractional vegetation coverage in the districts and counties of Yan'an City was increasing in fluctuation, and those of Zichang County, Yanchuan County and Yanchang County were increased greatly by 212.8%, 134.2% and 127.8%, and those of Huanglong County and Huangling County were increased by 28.9% and 29.2%, respectively. The fractional vegetation coverage was generally improved steadily and remarkably, and the area with remarkable improvements took 74.04% of the total research area, inconspicuous improvements took 23.91% and remarkable degenerations took 2.05%; the area with high coverage and moderate coverage in the research area were increased while the area with low coverage was decreased. In the early stage, the area of returning farmland to forest can be listed in descending order as follow: low coverage area, high coverage area, and moderate coverage area, while in the later stage the descending order are: high coverage area, moderate coverage area and low coverage area, which showed that the coverage structure in the research area was improving. The changes of coverage were influenced little by precipitation amount from June to August, and it had strong positive correlation with the accumulated conversion area of farmland to forest. Therefore, it can be concluded that the implementation of returning farmland to forest increased the vegetation coverage and improved the structure of fractional vegetation coverage. As plants are more and more capable of adjusting to the environmental changes, the inter-annual variations of precipitation have decreasing influences on the fractional vegetation coverage.  
  Number of references:  24 
  Main heading:  Vegetation 
  Controlled terms:  Farms  -  Forestry  -  Image resolution  -  Remote sensing 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Dynamic changes  -  Environmental change  -  Farmland returned to forest  -  Influence factors  -  Interannual variation  -  MODIS vegetation indices  -  Positive correlations  -  Vegetation coverage 
  Classification code:  731.1 Control Systems  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  742 Cameras and Photography  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  821.0 Woodlands and Forestry 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.038 
  Database:  Compendex

30. Accession number:  20153801280725
  Title:  Implementation of delinted cottonseeds color sorter based on FPGA 
  Authors:  Yu, Shuhua1 ; Liu, Yanli1 ; Wang, Shipu1 ; Du, Hongyun1   
  Author affiliation:  1  Tianjin Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Tianjin, China 
  Corresponding author:  Du, Hongyun 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  20-26 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Currently the phenomenon of red-seed (the maturity of cottonseed is low) exists in the cottonseed processing. Most of the domestic cottonseed processing companies still rely on artificial monitoring to check the red-seed. However, visual inspection of workers exists some problems such as low automation level, large subjective factors and high labor costs. And breakage of cottonseed germination rate and other issues were resulted from the process of cottonseed processing. To solve these problems, a bilateral dual CCD (Charge-coupled device) detection and FPGA (Field-programmable gate array) sorting approach were presented. Through the analysis and design of the image acquisition module, data transmission module and sorting module, and combined with simulation and test trials, the effect of color sorter system was verified. Among them, the image acquisition module can acquire the maturity and integrity information of delinted cottonseeds by using color linear CCD and monochrome linear CCD sampling. Data transmission module is to complete the transfer task of data collection. Sorting module is based on cottonseed maturity and integrity information to sort discriminant delinted cottonseed quality. The results showed that color sorter system can complete the cottonseeds feature information collection, data transmission and sorting discrimination work, which met the color sorter design requirements.  
  Number of references:  25 
  Main heading:  Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) 
  Controlled terms:  Charge coupled devices  -  Color  -  Compensation (personnel)  -  Data acquisition  -  Data communication systems  -  Data transfer  -  Image acquisition  -  Integrated circuit design  -  Light transmission  -  Oilseeds   -  Sorting  -  Wages 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Acquisition modules  -  CCD detection  -  Cottonseed quality  -  Delinted cottonseeds  -  Feature information  -  Fpga(field programmable gate array)  -  Integrity  -  Maturity 
  Classification code:  714.2 Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits  -  721.3 Computer Circuits  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  912.4 Personnel 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.004 
  Database:  Compendex

31. Accession number:  20153801280741
  Title:  Spatial variability of soil moisture in kiwi field under different sampling density conditions 
  Authors:  Xing, Xuguang1 ; Zhao, Wen'gang1 ; Liu, Ye1 ; Ma, Xiaoyi1   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:  Ma, Xiaoyi 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  138-145 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  A study on spatial variability of soil moisture for micro-scales was conducted in a kiwi field in Yangling region. The mesh generation was formed based on the separation distance of 8 m, 2 m and 0.5 m in the 40 m×40 m field. The spatial distribution and variation of soil moisture in 0~60 cm soil layers under different sampling densities were analyzed based on classical statistics and geo-statistics theories. Results showed that as for three micro-scales of 40 m×40 m (L), 8 m×8 m (M) and 2 m×2 m (S), the variability of soil moisture in 0~60 cm soil layers was weak and moderate in horizontal direction, and it decreased with the decrease of scale and the increase of depth. Meanwhile, the variability of soil moisture in 0~60 cm soil layers was also weak and moderate in vertical direction. A strong and significant spatial correlation was found in soil moisture in these three scales, and the semi-variance models for soil moisture varied with scales. This meant that semi-variance models for soil moisture in L scale could be simulated by spherical and exponential models; semi-variance models for soil moisture in M scale could be simulated by linear model; and semi-variance models for soil moisture in S scale could be simulated by Gaussian, exponential and linear models. Besides, the reasonable sampling amount in L scale was less than actual amount, but the reasonable sampling amounts in both M and S scales were more than actual amount. And as for L, M and S scales, the reasonable sampling amount in 0~30 cm layer was more than actual amount, but the reasonable sampling amount in 30~60 cm layer was less than actual amount. These results indicated that a reasonable layout of sampling point needs to be further optimized. In Yangling region, a significant difference of the spatial distribution of soil moisture could be found in the north and south of local kiwi field due to topography. These results could provide some guidance for irrigation and water control in precision agriculture.  
  Number of references:  19 
  Main heading:  Soil surveys 
  Controlled terms:  Birds  -  Fruits  -  Mesh generation  -  Moisture  -  Sampling  -  Soil moisture  -  Soils  -  Spatial distribution  -  Water supply systems 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Classical statistics  -  Micro-scale  -  Precision Agriculture  -  Separation distances  -  Soil-water distribution  -  Spatial correlations  -  Spatial variability  -  Vertical direction 
  Classification code:  446.1 Water Supply Systems  -  461 Bioengineering and Biology  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  801 Chemistry  -  801.4 Physical Chemistry  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  822 Food Technology  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.4 Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.020 
  Database:  Compendex

32. Accession number:  20153801280723
  Title:  Lint cotton pseudo-foreign fiber detection based on visible spectrum computer vision 
  Authors:  Wang, Xin1, 2 ; Li, Daoliang1, 3 ; Yang, Wenzhu4 ; Li, Zhenbo1, 5  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  Computer Network Center, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 3  Beijing ERC for Internet of Things in Agriculture, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 4  College of Mathematics and Computer, Hebei University, Baoding, China
 5  Key Laboratory of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Li, Daoliang 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  7-14 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The quality and level of lint cotton are degraded because there are many foreign fibers and other harmful non-fiber trashes which are mixed into it in the process of plantation, production, transportation and machining. It will bring direct economic loss to textile industry. In order to improve the quality of lint cotton and increase the detection rate of foreign fibers, a pseudo-foreign fiber detection method based on visible spectrum machine vision was proposed. Lint cotton was made of thin layer after opening, and then transferred to the detection passage. Images of cotton layer with foreign fibers and pseudo-foreign fibers were snapshot by two line-scan cameras installed by the side of detection passage, and then it was stored into the industrial personal computer's hard disk of experimental platform. Algorithms of image block and threshold were applied to extract pseudo-foreign fibers target areas, and statistical features in color, shape and texture of these target areas were calculated. Three classifiers: BP neural network, one to one directed acyclic graph linear kernel SVM and RBF kernel SVM were used to separate the two categories of cotton impurities. Results showed that 99.15% of the pseudo-foreign fibers can be accurately identified, and the performance of RBF kernel SVM was the best among the three classifiers. With average recognition rate of 95.60%, the RBF kernel SVM can meet the online detection requirements of lint cotton trashes.  
  Number of references:  33 
  Main heading:  Fibers 
  Controlled terms:  Computer vision  -  Cotton  -  Directed graphs  -  Error detection  -  Losses  -  Neural networks  -  Personal computers  -  Radial basis function networks  -  Support vector machines  -  Textile industry 
  Uncontrolled terms:  BP neural networks  -  Direct economic loss  -  Directed acyclic graph (DAG)  -  Experimental platform  -  Foreign fiber  -  Industrial personal computers  -  Shape and textures  -  Statistical features 
  Classification code:  721.1 Computer Theory, Includes Formal Logic, Automata Theory, Switching Theory, Programming Theory  -  722.4 Digital Computers and Systems  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  812 Ceramics, Refractories and Glass  -  817 Plastics and Other Polymers: Products and Applications  -  819.1 Natural Fibers  -  819.6 Textile Mills, Machinery and Equipment  -  911.2 Industrial Economics  -  921.4 Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.002 
  Database:  Compendex

33. Accession number:  20153801280756
  Title:  Total phosphorus content estimation models of summer maize leaves based on hyperspectral remote sensing 
  Authors:  Liu, Bingfeng1 ; Li, Jun1 ; He, Jia1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:  Li, Jun 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  252-258 and 280 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  An on-site field experiment of four phosphorus fertilizer rates treatments and two cultivars of summer maize was conducted at Northwest A&F University in 2012-2014. Crop canopy normalized spectra and total phosphorus content of maize leaves were measured at jointing, huge bellbottom, silking, filling and milk stages. Nine normalized spectra wavelengths and combinations of canopy hyperspectral remote sensing of the first and second year data were chosen to establish linear, log, quadratic and exponential function regression relationships between leaf total phosphorus content and spectra parameters for each cultivar. Four models with high determination coefficients and F values of each cultivar at each growth stage were chosen to verify the models with the third year data of normalized spectra and total phosphorus content of two cultivars separately. The models with the smallest root mean square error and relative error were taken as the best models. The results showed that the spectra parameter for the best fitting regression relationship with leaf total phosphorus content were the normalized spectra of (830+880) nm, (830+940) nm and (880+1100) nm at the jointing, bellbottom and filling stages of maize, respectively.  
  Number of references:  21 
  Main heading:  Remote sensing 
  Controlled terms:  Exponential functions  -  Mean square error  -  Phosphorus 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Determination coefficients  -  Diagnosis model  -  HyperSpectral  -  Hyperspectral remote sensing  -  Maize  -  Phosphorus fertilizer  -  Regression relationship  -  Root mean square errors 
  Classification code:  731.1 Control Systems  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.035 
  Database:  Compendex

34. Accession number:  20153801280765
  Title:  Optimization of rotary valve parameters based on improved PSO algorithm 
  Authors:  Tang, Bin1 ; Jiang, Haobin1 ; Chen, Long1 ; Geng, Guoqing1  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Automobile and Traffic Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  319-326 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to improve comprehensive steering performance, the approach based on simulated annealing modified particle swarm algorithm (SA-PSO) for parameters optimization of rotary valve was proposed. Models of vehicle dynamics, steering system, high-speed road feel and energy consumption were built. The quantitative indexes of low-speed steering portability, high-speed road feel, energy consumption of rotary valve were derived. Optimization problem with minimal root of quadratic sum of the indexes of steering portability, road feel and energy consumption were defined as objective function, and the scope of the parameters as constraints was put forward. The fitness function of particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) modified by simulated annealing theory was constructed. The global optimal solution of rotary valve parameters was obtained by using the improved PSO algorithm. SA-PSO and PSO optimization results were presented, which indicated that the improved PSO provided stronger global convergence and faster convergence speed. The correctness of optimization method was verified through contrastive analysis of the steering performance above-mentioned under optimized parameters and other two sets of parameters. Finally, the experiments of lemniscate steering, high-speed steering and energy consumption were carried out. The results demonstrate that comprehensive steering performance is optimal with optimized parameters of rotary valve.  
  Number of references:  16 
  Main heading:  Particle swarm optimization (PSO) 
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  Amphibious vehicles  -  Automobile steering equipment  -  Automobiles  -  Energy utilization  -  Optimization  -  Parameter estimation  -  Roads and streets  -  Simulated annealing  -  Speed   -  Transportation  -  Valves (mechanical) 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Correctness of optimizations  -  Global optimal solutions  -  Parameters optimization  -  Particle swarm algorithm  -  Particle swarm optimization algorithm  -  PSO algorithms  -  Rotary valves  -  Steering systems 
  Classification code:  406.2 Roads and Streets  -  431 Air Transportation  -  432 Highway Transportation  -  433 Railroad Transportation  -  434 Waterway Transportation  -  525.3 Energy Utilization  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  662.1 Automobiles  -  662.4 Automobile and Smaller Vehicle Components  -  674.1 Small Marine Craft  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.5 Optimization Techniques  -  931.1 Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.044 
  Database:  Compendex

35.Accession number:  20153801280728
  Title:  Specific design and experiment of axial-flow pump based on CFD 
  Authors:  Zhou, Jiren1 ; Tang, Fangping1 ; Shi, Lijian1 ; Xie, Rongsheng1 ; Zhou, Hanlong1  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Hydraulic Energy and Power Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  42-47 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The change of head range of the running condition is relatively large in Lingcheng Pump Station. It can be found that the hydraulic model test of South-to-North Water Diversion Project on the same test-bed can meet the basic requirements of running condition when making axial-flow pump selection analysis for the pump station. But it has its irrationality: when the design head is according to high efficiency, the maximum head lacks safety margin; when the maximum head is satisfied, the design head is not within the high efficiency area. Thus, a specific design for Lingcheng hydraulic model based on CFD calculation was done. By changing the cascade dense degree and the airfoil placed angle, the method of multi-operation optimization was adopted to make the final design scheme, which can meet the running requirements of Lingcheng Pump Station. Then numerical simulation study of the final specific-designed hydraulic model was conducted. At its design condition, the head was 5.48 m and the efficiency achieved 86.3% of maximum value. Head increased with the decrease of flow rate, in the calculation of minimum flow rate as 240 L/s, it did not reach the saddle area condition, when head reached 8.46 m, and the efficiency was still in the acceptable range. In a word, the simulation results showed that the specific-designed hydraulic model had higher efficiency and satisfied the highest head requirement of Lingcheng Pump Station. Finally, the experiment results showed that the specific design of axial-flow pump based on CFD was accurate and reliable, and it can meet the special water level requirements of Lingcheng Pump Station. At the same time, specific design research is necessary for the large pump station renewal and reconstruction.  
  Number of references:  15 
  Main heading:  Computational fluid dynamics 
  Controlled terms:  Axial flow  -  Design  -  Efficiency  -  Experiments  -  Flood control  -  Hydraulic models  -  Pumps  -  Sanitary sewers  -  Water levels 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Axial flow pump  -  Higher efficiency  -  Hydraulic model test  -  Large pump station  -  Numerical calculation  -  Numerical simulation studies  -  Running conditions  -  South-to-North water diversion project 
  Classification code:  408 Structural Design  -  452.1 Sewage  -  454.1 Environmental Engineering, General  -  614.2 Steam Power Plant Equipment and Operation  -  618.2 Pumps  -  631 Fluid Flow  -  632.1 Hydraulics  -  901.3 Engineering Research  -  913.1 Production Engineering 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.007 
  Database:  Compendex

36. Accession number:  20153801280739
  Title:  Effects of aeration on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and soil microbes for muskmelon in plastic greenhouse 
  Authors:  Li, Yuan1 ; Niu, Wenquan1, 2 ; Zhang, Mingzhi2 ; Xue, Lu2 ; Wang, Jingwei1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:  Niu, Wenquan 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  121-129 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to study the influence of lateral depth of subsurface drip irrigation, aeration frequency and irrigation amount on soil enzyme activities and soil microbes of muskmelon grown in greenhouse, the experiment was carried out with orthogonal test design and using an air compressor to aerate the roots of muskmelon. Results showed that: (1) Aeration had a significant impact on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial quantity. According to the influencing degree on quantity of rhizosphere soil bacteria and actinomycetes, these factors can be arranged as follow (descending): aeration frequencies, depths of subsurface drip irrigation and irrigation amount; for the catalase, urease and fungi amounts, the order of these factors (descending) was: depths of subsurface drip irrigation, aeration frequencies and irrigation amount. (2) The optimal lateral depth of subsurface drip irrigation was 25 cm. (3) The greatest bacteria amounts and urease activities could be obtained through aerating once a day; the greatest fungi amounts and catalase activities could be obtained through aerating once every two days. (4) Catalase activity and actinomycetes quantity can reach the maximum when soil water content was attended to 80% of the field capacity; urease activity and bacteria quantity can reach the maximum when irrigation amount was attended to 90% of the field capacity.  
  Number of references:  37 
  Main heading:  Irrigation 
  Controlled terms:  Bacteria  -  Enzyme activity  -  Enzymes  -  Fungi  -  Greenhouses  -  Microorganisms  -  Soil moisture  -  Soils  -  Subirrigation 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Aeration frequency  -  Irrigation level  -  Muskmelon  -  Orthogonal test design  -  Plastic greenhouse  -  Soil enzyme activity  -  Soil microbes  -  Subsurface drip irrigation 
  Classification code:  461.2 Biological Materials and Tissue Engineering  -  461.9 Biology  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  821.6 Farm Buildings and Other Structures 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.018 
  Database:  Compendex

37. Accession number:  20153801280740
  Title:  Erosion control effects of cornstalk mulching on loess hillslope with gully 
  Authors:  Xu, Ximeng1 ; Zheng, Fenli1, 2 ; Qin, Chao1 ; Wu, Hongyan1  
  Author affiliation:  1  State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling; Shaanxi, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zheng, Fenli 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  130-137 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Active-stage gully erosion processes can result in steep rise of sediment yield, thus seeking effective ways has important implications for the prevention of slope gully erosion. To quantitatively evaluate the cornstalk mulching effects on controlling soil erosion on loess hillslope with gully, a series of artificial simulated rainfall experiments were conducted to study the effects of different combinations of cornstalk mulching positions (one was whole plant buffer mulching on the head of the gully and the other was filling the gully with clipped short cornstalk) on the gully erosion on loess hillslope under the typical high intensity erosive rainfall (on the Loess Plateau) condition. The results showed that the runoff amount was reduced by 7.2%~13.8%, while the sediment yield and the average runoff sediment concentration were reduced by 8.3%~46.2% and 19.1%~49.6%, respectively. Treatment H+G (ephemeral gully head + all gully covered) and H+MG+RH (ephemeral gully head + main gully + rill head covered) got the best effect with reductions of 45.0% and 46.2% in reducing slope sediment yield, respectively. It was obvious that cornstalk mulching reduced sediment yield by changing the runoff-sediment relationship instead of reducing the runoff amount. The whole plant buffer mulching on the gully head was more effective between two mulching positions. Cornstalk mulching on different positions can reduce the channel runoff velocity, sediment transport capacity as well as runoff erosivity, which was meaningful for reducing soil erosion. For example, cornstalk buffer mulching on gully head and filling gully can both reduce the runoff velocity more than 42.6%. As a result, once gullies appeared on the loess hillslope, cornstalk mulching on active-stage gully head would be the best way to control gully erosion. Much better effects can be exhibited when gully itself was mulched with clipped short cornstalk at the same time.  
  Number of references:  31 
  Main heading:  Landforms 
  Controlled terms:  Erosion  -  Rain  -  Runoff  -  Sediment transport  -  Sedimentation  -  Sediments 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Cornstalk  -  Gully erosion  -  Loess hillslope  -  Mulching position  -  Simulated rainfall 
  Classification code:  443.3 Precipitation  -  444.1 Surface Water  -  481.1 Geology  -  483 Soil Mechanics and Foundations  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  802.3 Chemical Operations 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.019 
  Database:  Compendex

38. Accession number:  20153801280749
  Title:  Ethanol fractional precipitation and ultrasonic modification of pumpkin polysaccharides 
  Authors:  Wang, Libo1 ; Xu, Yaqin1 ; Yu, Zeyuan2 ; Wang, Taiheng1 ; Li, Lubin1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China
 2  College of Horticulture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China 
  Corresponding author:  Yu, Zeyuan 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  206-210 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  Pumpkin polysaccharides were extracted with hot water and deproteinized by Saveg method. After rehydration with distilled water, soluble polysaccharides were successively fractionated by different gradient concentrations of ethanol(0~30%, 30%~60%, 60%~80%)into three precipitation fractions, named PSP-30, PSP-60 and PSP-80. Contents of sugar, protein and monosaccharide composition were determined, UV and IR spectroscopy analysis were run simultaneously to determine their spectroscopy properties. The results indicated that all three fractions were combined with a certain amount of protein, and uronic acid was not found. PSP-30 and PSP-60 were composed of mannose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose, but PSP-80 was composed of mannose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and galactose. Each of these fractions all had good scavenging effect on DPPH free radical, and PSP-60 removal rate was the highest, its removal rate was 61.90% at concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, PSP-60 was treated with different frequencies ultrasonic, the mol ratios of these monosaccharides and antioxidant activity were changed. The results confirm that ultrasonic can cause monosaccharide transformation and biological activity change of polysaccharides. However, there is no regularity between the increase of ultrasound frequency and the monosaccharide composition after transformation. So the effect of ultrasound on polysaccharide structure is still a task to be studied.  
  Number of references:  14 
  Main heading:  Glucose 
  Controlled terms:  Bioactivity  -  Ethanol  -  Free radicals  -  Polysaccharides  -  Proteins  -  Spectrum analysis  -  Ultrasonics 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Anti-oxidant activities  -  Fractional precipitation  -  Gradient concentration  -  Monosaccharide composition  -  Polysaccharide structure  -  Spectroscopy property  -  Structure modification  -  Ultrasound frequency 
  Classification code:  461.6 Medicine and Pharmacology  -  753.1 Ultrasonic Waves  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  921 Mathematics  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.028 
  Database:  Compendex

39. Accession number:  20153801280766
  Title:  Design of supervisor of Petri nets based on generalized mutual exclusion constraints 
  Authors:  Liu, Jiufu1 ; Zhou, Jianyong1 ; Liu, Wenliang1 ; Liu, Haiyang2 ; Yang, Zhong1 ; Wang, Zhisheng1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Automation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China
 2  College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  327-332 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The deadlock avoidance policy of flexible manufacturing system (FMS) was investigated. In order to achieve deadlock avoidance policy and the most use of resource, the method of designing optimal supervisor based on generalized mutual exclusion constraints was presented, the preliminary constrains in the form of linear inequalities were explored, the legal marking set and boundary illegal marking set were gained by reachability analysis and the mixed integer linear programming was built to obtain generalized mutual exclusion constraints as the optimal supervisor by branch and bound method. The system model of FMS was built with Petri net. Based on the occupation and release of resource in the machining process, research was made on application in robot processing system. Both the proposed method and the ones in other literature were adopted to model the process and make comparisons of control performance. The result showed that the optimal supervisors generated from the algorithm could gain stricter constrains and more simplified model, and achieve deadlock avoidance policy that can forbid illegal markings with a maximally permissive way, which proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.  
  Number of references:  16 
  Main heading:  Branch and bound method 
  Controlled terms:  Crime  -  Flexible manufacturing systems  -  Integer programming  -  Manufacture  -  Petri nets  -  Supervisory personnel 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Control performance  -  Deadlock avoidance  -  Generalized mutual exclusion constraint  -  Linear inequalities  -  Machining Process  -  Mixed integer linear programming  -  Reachability analysis  -  Robot processing 
  Classification code:  912.4 Personnel  -  913.4 Manufacturing  -  913.4.1 Flexible Manufacturing Systems  -  921.4 Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory  -  921.5 Optimization Techniques  -  971 Social Sciences 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.045 
  Database:  Compendex

40. Accession number:  20153801280735
  Title:  Simulation of infiltration characteristics with various soil configurations in Shanxi-Shaanxi-Inner Mongolia energy zone 
  Authors:  Zhen, Qing1, 2 ; She, Xiaoyan1 ; Zhang, Yinglong3 ; Han, Fengpeng1 ; Zhang, Xingchang1   
  Author affiliation:  1  State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dry-Land Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling; Shaanxi, China
 2  University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
 3  Yulin Desert King Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Yulin, China 
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, Xingchang 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  90-96 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The soil infiltration characteristic is one of the most important soil physical properties. The structure and texture of the soil configuration in Shanxi-Shaanxi-Inner Mongolia energy zone are quite complex which results in different infiltration properties. The infiltration characteristics of different soil configurations were analyzed by one-dimensional vertical infiltration experiment. The results showed that soil infiltration characteristics were strongly influenced by soil configuration, and the infiltration capacity was decreased in the order of aeolian sandy soil, loess soil and soft rock. The mixed and layered addition of soft rock to aeolian sandy soil and loess soil both could extend infiltration time and reduce infiltration rate. The infiltration process of soil containing calcites and gangue was inhibited under the high bulk density condition. Layered structure soil had a lower infiltration capacity than that of homogeneous soil. The relationship between cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancing distance could be well expressed as a linear function model. Kostiakov infiltration model could better fit the infiltration process with different configurations (R<sup>2</sup>>0.93) than that of Philip model. The results provided an experimental evidence for soil water movement process and also offered a technical support for the reconstruction and reclamation of mining soils in Shanxi-Shaanxi-Inner Mongolia energy zone.  
  Number of references:  24 
  Main heading:  Infiltration 
  Controlled terms:  Sand  -  Sediments  -  Soil moisture  -  Soils 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Cumulative infiltrations  -  Energy regions  -  Infiltration capacity  -  Infiltration characteristic  -  Infiltration modeling  -  Layered Structures  -  Mixed structure  -  Soil physical property 
  Classification code:  483 Soil Mechanics and Foundations  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.014 
  Database:  Compendex

41. Accession number:  20153801280620
  Title:  Experiment on tri-plunger pump performance in organic Rankine cycle system 
  Authors:  Yang, Xufei1 ; Zou, Jinghuang1 ; Qi, Fengliang1 ; Xu, Jinliang2   
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China
 2  School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Xu, Jinliang 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  367-371 and 378 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is one of the key technologies to fulfill the efficient utilization of low grade heat sources. Working fluid circulating pump is the main power consumption component of ORC system. However, the overall pump efficiency as low as 7%~20% was reported in the experimental study. To solve this problem, an experimental system for heat recovery from low grade heat source was constructed, R123 was selected as working fluid, a scroll expander was used to produce work, and a tri-plunger pump was selected as working fluid circulating pump. The conductive oil was heated by electric heater to simulate low grade heat source. The maximum expander shaft power and thermal efficiency were 2.16 kW and 5.35% at the heat source temperature of 140, respectively. The range of overall pump efficiency was about 22%~30%, which was 1.5~4.3 times of that reported in the references. The isentropic efficiency and mechanical efficiency of the pump were 60%~69% and 37%~45%, respectively. Analysis results showed that the reason for low mechanical efficiency of the pump was due to the fact that the pump operating parameters were deviated far from the rated parameters. Additionally, cavitation could weaken pump isentropic efficiency and reduce the working fluid flow rate at the same time. Critical sub-cooling temperature as high as 21 was obtained at the pump inlet to prevent the cavitation. The study results identified that tri-plunger pump can be recommended in the ORC system.  
  Number of references:  20 
  Main heading:  Pumps 
  Controlled terms:  Cavitation  -  Efficiency  -  Flow of fluids  -  Fluids  -  Rankine cycle  -  Waste heat 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Low grade heat sources  -  Organic Rankine cycles  -  Plunger pumps  -  Pump efficiency  -  Subcoolings 
  Classification code:  618.2 Pumps  -  631 Fluid Flow  -  641.1 Thermodynamics  -  643.1 Space Heating  -  913.1 Production Engineering 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.051 
  Database:  Compendex

42. Accession number:  20153801280732
  Title:  Online control system of spray boom height and balance 
  Authors:  Wei, Xinhua1 ; Shao, Jing1 ; Miao, Dandan1 ; Li, Lin1 ; Xie, Xiaowei2  
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Ministry of Education, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
 2  Nantong Huanghai Chemical Machinery Co., Ltd., Nantong, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  66-71 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to ensure the application effect and avoid spray boom scratching crops in the work process, spray boom and plant canopy need to be maintained approximately parallel and proper distance. An online control system of spray boom height and balance was designed. The online control system used ultrasonic sensors to detect the height from ground to spray boom. The controller caculates the direction and speed of hydraulic cylinders by comparing the set spray boom height with the actual spray boom height which was detected by ultrasonic sensors. Then the controller sends out control signals of hydraulic cylinders to adjust spray boom height and balance. The structure of boom sprayer and the composition and working principle of spray boom height and balance hydraulic system were described. The software and hardware design of spray boom height and balance online control system were elaborated, and a spray boom height signal filtering algorithm of branches and leaves interference was designed and the online control method of spray boom height and balance was elaborated. The online control system of spray boom height and balance was tested by ground test and field test. Ground test showed that the system could effectively improve the spray boom height change caused by step excitation pavement. The spray boom height change could be controlled within ±3 cm. Field test showed that the spray boom height signal filtering procedure could effectively filter occasional interference of a small amount of cotton branches and leaves and realize online control of spray boom height and balance.  
  Number of references:  18 
  Main heading:  Controllers 
  Controlled terms:  Control systems  -  Cylinders (shapes)  -  Hydraulic equipment  -  Mechanical actuators  -  Plants (botany)  -  Signal filtering and prediction  -  Signal interference  -  Signal processing  -  Social networking (online)  -  Ultrasonic applications   -  Ultrasonic sensors 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Application effect  -  Boom sprayer  -  Digital filtering  -  Hydraulic cylinders  -  On-line controls  -  Online control systems  -  Software and hardwares  -  Spray booms 
  Classification code:  408.2 Structural Members and Shapes  -  461.9 Biology  -  632.2 Hydraulic Equipment and Machinery  -  716.1 Information Theory and Signal Processing  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  732.1 Control Equipment  -  753.3 Ultrasonic Applications 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.011 
  Database:  Compendex

43. Accession number:  20153801280750
  Title:  Antioxidant activity and characteristics of simulated gastrointestinal digestion hydrolysate from filefish Navodon septentrionalis skin protein 
  Authors:  Zhou, Cunshan1 ; Qin, Xiaopei1 ; Yu, Xiaojie1 ; Yang, Hua2 ; Hu, Jiali1 ; Ma, Haile1   
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
 2  College of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo, China 
  Corresponding author:  Ma, Haile 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  211-216 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  To evaluate the antioxidant activity and the characteristics of hydrolysate from gastrointestinal digestion (in vitro simulated gastric, intestinal digestion) of filefish Navodon septentrionalis skin protein, the antioxidant activity of digestive products (reducing power, OH radical-scavenging rate, O<inf>2</inf><sup>-</sup> radical-scavenging rate, DPPH·radical-scavenging rate) and product characteristics (amino acids composition, molecular weight distribution) were analyzed. The results showed that: the antioxidant characteristics of amino acids of the fish skin protein was rich in 29.6%; the substrate concentration was 8 mg/mL, the hydrolysate had higher antioxidant activity; the antioxidant peptides produced mainly in the simulated duodenal digestion phase, DPPH radical-scavenging rate was 83.29%, and in this phase, seven more kinds of free amino acids in the product were found than those of raw materials. All kinds of free amino acid content were increased significantly, at the same time, molecular peptides product weight distribution concentrated in the 200~5000 Da, and the main peptides were at 2152 Da and 1352 Da which might be responsible for its antioxidant activity. The oligopeptide fraction of molecular size of 200~5000 Da, revealed the highest potential capacity to scavenge free radicals and binding irons. It appears as promising ingredient to formulate functional foods with antioxidant activity.  
  Number of references:  16 
  Main heading:  Free radicals 
  Controlled terms:  Amino acids  -  Antioxidants  -  Molecular weight distribution  -  Peptides  -  Proteins  -  Scavenging 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Amino acids compositions  -  Anti-oxidant activities  -  Antioxidant peptides  -  Gastrointestinal digestion  -  Intestinal digestion  -  Potential capacity  -  Product characteristics  -  Substrate concentrations 
  Classification code:  461.9 Biology  -  612.1 Internal Combustion Engines, General  -  801 Chemistry  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.1 Organic Compounds 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.029 
  Database:  Compendex

44. Accession number:  20153801280726
  Title:  Numerical simulation and experiment on paddy ventilation resistance based on CFD-DEM 
  Authors:  Liu, Liyi1 ; Hao, Shiyang1 ; Zhang, Meng1 ; Liu, Dongmei1 ; Jia, Fuguo1 ; Quan, Longzhe1   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China 
  Corresponding author:  Quan, Longzhe 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  27-32 and 158 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  To explore the change rule of paddy layer ventilation resistance, guiding the tube network of ventilation drying warehouse design and fan selection, a numerical model of two varieties of paddy was constructed based on discrete element theory. The changing regulation of ventilation resistance of paddy at a series of wind velocities and paddy layer depths in a vertical tube was simulated by the coupled CFD-DEM model. The results showed that, when the apparent wind speed was constant, the resistance of paddy layer showed nonlinear increasing (R<sup>2</sup>>0.99) relationship with the increase paddy layer depth; when paddy layer depth was constant, the resistance of paddy layer showed a quadratic nonlinear increasing (R<sup>2</sup>>0.98) relationship with the increase of the apparent wind speed. Different varieties of paddy were under the same condition, and the layer resistance had the same change trend, but the numerical values was different, the ventilation resistance of long grain type was smaller than short grain type. By building test equipment, the simulation results of the experimental verification, paired t test results showed no significant difference was found, and the numerical simulation and experimental results agreed. The results testified that the numerical simulation of ventilation resistance in paddy was feasible by the method of CFD-DEM. The fitting equation obtained can be used for calculating barn ventilation resistance and guiding the tube network of in-store drying system design, fan selection, paddy ventilation resistance simulation and engineering practice. In the design and operation on barn drying system, the apparent wind speed is appropriate at 0.2~0.3 m/s, paddy layer depth is not more than 1.5 m, the difference of grain type should be considered when calculating the ventilation resistance.  
  Number of references:  18 
  Main heading:  Ventilation 
  Controlled terms:  Computational fluid dynamics  -  Computer simulation  -  Drying  -  Equipment testing  -  Farm buildings  -  Numerical methods  -  Numerical models  -  Wind 
  Uncontrolled terms:  DEM  -  Design and operations  -  Engineering practices  -  Experimental verification  -  Fitting equations  -  Numerical values  -  Paddy  -  Ventilation resistance 
  Classification code:  402.1 Industrial and Agricultural Buildings  -  443.1 Atmospheric Properties  -  642.1 Process Heating  -  643.5 Ventilation  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.005 
  Database:  Compendex

45. Accession number:  20153801280724
  Title:  Image restoration of locust slices based on nearest unit matching 
  Authors:  Li, Li1 ; Guo, Shuangshuang1 ; Mei, Shuli1 ; Zhang, Nannan1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  15-19 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The stored microscopic images of locust slices often turn out to be folded owning to improper operations during experiments. As these images cannot be reproduced in practice, it is necessary to restore the images of the folded slices to accurately reflect the original biological tissues of the locusts. The nearest unit matching method was used to restore the damaged images of locust slices. A sequence of images of slices was first magnified by a factor of two to extract the feature points from the folded slices and the reference slices using SIFT (Scale-invariant feature transform) algorithm. The initial matching pairs were determined using the k-d tree strategy and the incorrect matching pairs were eliminated using RANSAC (Random sample consensus) algorithm. The folded area and the rest of the image were then divided into sub-cells respectively. By comparing the number of matched pairs near the folded sub-cell, the matching sub-cells in the image were determined. The space mapping model was established between matching pairs associated with the nearest slice sub-cell of each folded sub-cell by using the least square method. The matching blocks within the reference slice of the folded sub-cell were selected based on the space mapping model. The method was tested by using different locust slices compared with the traditional image restoration methods. Then the common image restoration evaluating indicators were used, such as the peak signal to noise ratio and the mean square error to compare and evaluate the image restoration results. The experimental results showed that the method yielded more feature points and the established space mapping model could better adapt to various veins of the slices with accurate segmentation and restoration of images of damaged slices.  
  Number of references:  19 
  Main heading:  Image matching 
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  Cells  -  Cytology  -  Image reconstruction  -  Image segmentation  -  Least squares approximations  -  Mapping  -  Mean square error  -  Restoration  -  Signal to noise ratio   -  Trees (mathematics) 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Folds  -  Locust slices  -  Nearest unit matching  -  Peak signal to noise ratio  -  Random sample consensus  -  Restoration of images  -  Scale invariant feature transform algorithms  -  Scale invariant feature transforms 
  Classification code:  402 Buildings and Towers  -  409 Civil Engineering, General  -  461.2 Biological Materials and Tissue Engineering  -  716.1 Information Theory and Signal Processing  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  902.1 Engineering Graphics  -  921 Mathematics 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.003 
  Database:  Compendex

46.Accession number:  20153801280768
  Title:  Spatial circular arc and elliptic arc interpolation based on differential model 
  Authors:  Liu, Huan1, 2 ; Liu, Qiang1, 2 ; Zhou, Shengkai1, 2 ; Li, Chuanjun1, 2 ; Yuan, Songmei1, 2  
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Mechanical Engineering & Automation, Beihang University, Beijing, China
 2  Beijing Engineering Technological Research Center of High-Efficient & Green CNC Machining Process and Equipment, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Liu, Qiang 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  338-343 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  To improve the application range, computational efficiency and accuracy of current circular arc and elliptic arc interpolation, the differential model was introduced to represent the spatial circular arc and elliptic arc, and the corresponding interpolation methods were proposed with the ability of interpolating arbitrary spatial circular arcs and elliptic arcs. In spatial circular arc interpolation, zero radial error and zero feedrate fluctuation can be achieved. In spatial elliptic arc interpolation, zero radial error and relative low feedrate fluctuation can be achieved. Meanwhile, the method unified the clockwise and anticlockwise interpolation of circular arc and elliptic arc interpolation with no quadrant judgment process, thus the algorithm flows were very simple and efficient. The recursion formulas for generating sampling points in the proposed methods can be deformed to a series of simple arithmetics, thus high computational efficiency can be obtained. The simulation and comparison analysis demonstrated the proposed methods were superior to other methods. Finally, the methods were implemented on a self-developed open CNC platform, which were successfully applied to workpiece machining. The feasibility and applicability of the proposed methods were verified by simulation and experimental results.  
  Number of references:  20 
  Main heading:  Interpolation 
  Controlled terms:  Computational efficiency  -  Computer control systems  -  Numerical control systems 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Arc interpolation  -  Circular arc interpolation  -  Comparison analysis  -  Computer numerical control system  -  Differential models  -  Feed rate fluctuations  -  Interpolation method  -  Recursion formulas 
  Classification code:  731.1 Control Systems  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.047 
  Database:  Compendex

47. Accession number:  20153801280744
  Title:  Optimization of hydrothermal treatment of biomass and characterization of liquid product 
  Authors:  Gao, Ying1 ; Yu, Bo2 ; Chen, Hanping3 ; Wang, Xianhua3 ; Wu, Ke1 ; Yuan, Qiaoxia1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China
 2  School of Management and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
 3  State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China 
  Corresponding author:  Chen, Hanping 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  169-177 and 205 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The key parameters for biomass hydrothermal treatment were optimized for product distribution on the basis of a L<inf>16</inf> (4<sup>5</sup>) orthogonal experiment design. Results showed that biomass species, particle size and hydrothermal temperature significantly affected heavy oil yield. By contrast, the effect of biomass concentration was negligible. The maximum heavy oil yield was 28.00% at the optimal condition (biomass species, pine sawdust; hydrothermal temperature, 250; biomass particle size, 80~150 mesh; residence time, 15 min; concentration, 10 g of raw material and 110 g of water). In addition, cotton straw yielded the most liquid in the agricultural straws, although ash content was low. The cotton straw was treated in an autoclave reactor. The influences of temperature, residence time, catalysts and the size of cotton straw particles on product distribution were investigated. The increase in temperature reduced solid residue yield. Moreover, the heavy oil yield was increased firstly and then decreased. The yields of light oil and gas increased. Specifically, the yield of heavy oil was 16.98% at 250; it was maximized at 19.57% when temperature was 275. At this point, the solid residue yield was decreased from 32.14% to 23.00%. When the temperature range was between 275 and 325, the yields of heavy oil and solid residue did not change significantly. When residence time was less than 15 min, heavy oil yield was increased firstly and then decreased. This yield peaked at 24.14% when the residence time was 10 min. Meanwhile, the solid residue yield was decreased firstly and then increased. The yields of light oil and gas did not change considerably. When the residence time was extended to 30 min, the heavy oil yield was decreased to 10.86%. The solid residue yield was decreased firstly and then increased. Furthermore, the yield reached 28.67% when residence time was 25 min. Particle size had little influence on the hydrothermal conversion of cotton straw relative to the reaction temperature and time. The addition of catalysts increased heavy oil yield and reduced that of solid residue. The yields of light oil and gas did not change significantly. The influences of catalysts on heavy oil yield were ranked as follows: K<inf>2</inf>CO<inf>3</inf>>KOH>Na<inf>2</inf>CO<inf>3</inf>>Ca(OH)<inf>2</inf>>NaOH. When K<inf>2</inf>CO<inf>3</inf> was used as the catalyst, heavy oil yield was increased from 18.00% to 29.86%. The results of analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) indicated that the liquid product contained organic components, namely, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones and phenols. Among these components, acids, esters, phenols and their derivatives were dominant. The addition of catalysts increased oil yield and also affected the oil components. Specifically, acids and ketones were reduced and the pH value of the oil was increased. As a result, its quality was improved to a certain extent. The results can provide a reference for biomass hydrothermal treatment.  
  Number of references:  29 
  Main heading:  Residence time distribution 
  Controlled terms:  Autoclaves  -  Biomass  -  Catalysts  -  Cotton  -  Crude oil  -  Esters  -  Gas chromatography  -  Heavy oil production  -  Ionization of gases  -  Ketones   -  Liquid chromatography  -  Liquids  -  Mass spectrometry  -  Particle size  -  Phenols  -  Product design 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Biomass concentrations  -  Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopies  -  Heavy oil  -  Hydrothermal conversion  -  Hydrothermal temperature  -  Hydrothermal treatments  -  Orthogonal experiment design  -  Product distributions 
  Classification code:  512.1.2 Petroleum Deposits : Development Operations  -  523 Liquid Fuels  -  525.1 Energy Resources and Renewable Energy Issues  -  801 Chemistry  -  802.1 Chemical Plants and Equipment  -  803 Chemical Agents and Basic Industrial Chemicals  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  819.1 Natural Fibers  -  913.1 Production Engineering  -  922.1 Probability Theory  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.023 
  Database:  Compendex

48. Accession number:  20153801280730
  Title:  Investigation of instabilities of cavitation at low flow rate of centrifugal pump 
  Authors:  Lu, Jiaxing1 ; Yuan, Shouqi1 ; Ren, Xudong2 ; Liu, Yingying1 ; Si, Qiaorui1  
  Author affiliation:  1  National Research Center of Pumps, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
 2  School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China 
  Corresponding author:  Yuan, Shouqi 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  54-58 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to investigate the instabilities of cavitation at low flow rate of centrifugal pump, with the development of cavitation in a centrifugal pump, the characteristics of the internal flow, inlet and outlet pressure pulsations of the pump were researched through numerical simulation and experiment. It was found that the rotor-stator interaction between the volute tongue and impeller made a significant influence on the internal flow instabilities of a centrifugal pump under low flow rate condition. The vortexes generated by the influence of cavitation and volute tongue presented in opposite directions. The dominant frequency of the pump inlet pressure pulsations was two times shaft frequency, which migrated to low frequency with certain fluctuations with the development of cavitation. The peak which existed at two times blade passing frequency of the pump inlet pressure pulsations vanished when the cavitation developed to a certain degree. The dominant frequency of the pump outlet pressure pulsations was the blade passing frequency resulted from the rotor-stator interaction between the volute tongue and impeller. The peak which existed at two times shaft frequency presented intensive fluctuations. The broadband pulsations of both pump inlet and outlet pressure pulsations changed obviously with the decrease of available net positive suction head.  
  Number of references:  18 
  Main heading:  Pumps 
  Controlled terms:  Axial flow  -  Cavitation  -  Centrifugal pumps  -  Flow rate  -  Impellers  -  Rotors  -  Rotors (windings)  -  Stators 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Blade passing frequency  -  Dominant frequency  -  Inlet pressures  -  Net positive suction heads  -  Outlet pressures  -  Pressure pulsation  -  Rotor-stator interactions  -  Shaft frequency 
  Classification code:  601.2 Machine Components  -  618.2 Pumps  -  631 Fluid Flow  -  704.1 Electric Components  -  705.1 Electric Machinery, General 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.009 
  Database:  Compendex

49. Accession number:  20153801280751
  Title:  Influence of concentrations of emulsifier and magnesium salt contained in internal phase on stability of W/O emulsions 
  Authors:  Zhu, Qiaomei1 ; Han, Xiang2 ; Li, Jinlong3 ; Yin, Lijun1   
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  Rural Technology Development Center, Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission, Beijing, China
 3  School of Food and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Yin, Lijun 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  217-223 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  The effect of PGPR and added magnesium chloride hexahydrate on properties of W/O (water-in-oil) emulsions was investigated. W/O emulsions were formulated with 60% oil phase containing 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% PGPR and 40% aqueous phase containing magnesium salt at various concentrations from 0 to 12.0%. Stability of these W/O emulsions was studied with Turbiscan Lab Expert during 14-day storage. The result indicated that coalescence and sedimentation were the main reasons for destabilization. By increasing the concentrations of PGPR and magnesium chloride, TSI values of W/O emulsions decreased and therefore W/O emulsions became more stable with respect to coalescence. The stabilization mechanism was attributed to the decrease of emulsion droplets and the reduction in interfacial tension. Besides, interfacial viscoelastic measurements between soybean oil and water were conducted. The results indicated that stabilizing effect of PGPR and magnesium salt was not due to the rheological properties of interfacial film. The viscoelastic parameters of interfacial film increased at a lower concentration of magnesium salt (below 2%) while further increasing the concentration of magnesium salt to 6% led to a slight decrease of interfacial viscoelastic parameters. Increasing the concentration of PGPR from 0.5% to 2% led to a reduction in viscoelastic parameters.  
  Number of references:  21 
  Main heading:  Magnesium 
  Controlled terms:  Convergence of numerical methods  -  Emulsification  -  Emulsions  -  Particle size  -  Salts  -  Soybean oil  -  Viscoelasticity 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Interfacial property  -  Magnesium salts  -  Rheological property  -  Stabilization mechanisms  -  Stabilizing effects  -  Visco-elastic parameters  -  Viscoelastic measurements  -  Water in oil emulsions 
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  542.2 Magnesium and Alloys  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  943.2 Mechanical Variables Measurements 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.030 
  Database:  Compendex

50. Accession number:  20153801280746
  Title:  Effect of different biopretreatments on anaerobic digestion process performance of sludge 
  Authors:  Li, Xue1 ; Lin, Cong1 ; Sha, Jundong1, 2 ; Li, Xiang1, 3 ; Wang, Fei3  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  Beijing Yingherui Environmental Engineering Co., Ltd., Beijing, China
 3  Rural Energy & Environment Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Lin, Cong 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  186-191 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  With the rapid development of the sewage treatment, dewatered sludge, as an inevitable byproduct, is increasing its amount. Anaerobic digestion performance of dewatered sludge flocculated by polyacrylamide under different biopretreatments conditions were studied. The feeding concentration was 3% of total solid, and the digestion temperature was 35. The cumulative biogas yield, methane content, pH value, ammonia nitrogen content and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) were analyzed to explore the effect of fungus-Paecilomyces variotii on anaerobic digestion process. The result showed that biopretreatment of dewatered sludge prior to anaerobic digestion was an alternative method. Direct addition and 2 d biopretreatments can both enhance cumulative biogas yield and methane content with faster hydrolysis rate and better organic matter degradation rate. Compared with the pure sludge treatment, direct addition of Paecilomyces variotii was optimal, and its cumulative biogas production and methane production were increased by 85.79% and 42.76%, respectively. While 1 kg dewatered sludge can produce 12.69 L methane with an increase of 42.74% of sludge without pretreatment. The result would provide theoretical basis for solving the problem of dewatered sludge resourceful treatment.  
  Number of references:  24 
  Main heading:  Anaerobic digestion 
  Controlled terms:  Biogas  -  Chemical analysis  -  Chemical oxygen demand  -  Degradation  -  Dewatering  -  Methanation  -  Methane  -  Sewage treatment  -  Sludge digestion 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Anaerobic digestion process  -  Biopretreatment  -  Dewatered sludge  -  Digestion performance  -  Methane production  -  Organic matter degradations  -  Paecilomyces variotii  -  Process performance 
  Classification code:  452.2 Sewage Treatment  -  522 Gas Fuels  -  801 Chemistry  -  802.2 Chemical Reactions  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  804 Chemical Products Generally 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.025 
  Database:  Compendex

51. Accession number:  20153801280748
  Title:  Rehydration capacity and physical properties of ginger slices dried by microwave fluidization 
  Authors:  Lü, Weiqiao1 ; Han, Qinghua2 ; Li, Shujun2 ; Zhou, Haijun2 ; Sun, Lijuan3 ; Li, Yifan2  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
 2  Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences, Beijing, China
 3  Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China 
  Corresponding author:  Li, Shujun 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  200-205 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  In order to discuss the influence of microwave drying on dehydrated vegetable's rehydration capacity and application quality, the rehydration characteristics of dried ginger slices processed by microwave fluidized drying (MFD) with the microwave power of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 W/g and hot-air drying (AD) with the temperature of 75 were studied. With different temperatures of the soaking water, the dried ginger slices' rehydration capacities were different, and the difference among the samples from different drying processes decreased with the rise of temperature. In the stress characteristics determined by the dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), the hardness of the rehydrated ginger slices from MFD was great, and the differences among different microwave powers were not obvious. Through observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), it was found that the microstructure of the samples from MFD changed much more than that from hot-air drying, and the structure variation might influence the penetration and absorption capacity of the moisture. Rehydration capacity is an important indicator of the dried vegetables' quality. With the microwave-hot air combined drying, the microwave drying's efficiency was not decreased obviously, but the product quality was improved. The results indicated that the drying process and technology can be improved by the reference of above achievements.  
  Number of references:  17 
  Main heading:  Drying 
  Controlled terms:  Creep  -  Fluidization  -  Food additives  -  Microstructure  -  Microwave generation  -  Microwave heating  -  Microwaves  -  Scanning electron microscopy  -  Solar dryers  -  Stresses   -  Thermal processing (foods)  -  Vegetables 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Absorption capacity  -  Application quality  -  Dynamic mechanical analyzer  -  Ginger slices  -  Rehydration  -  Rehydration capacity  -  Rehydration Characteristics  -  Stress characteristics 
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  711 Electromagnetic Waves  -  711.1 Electromagnetic Waves in Different Media  -  714.2 Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  802.1 Chemical Plants and Equipment  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  803 Chemical Agents and Basic Industrial Chemicals  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  822.2 Food Processing Operations  -  933 Solid State Physics  -  951 Materials Science 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.027 
  Database:  Compendex

52. Accession number:  20153801280770
  Title:  Adaptive robust motion control of powder compaction press 
  Authors:  Feng, Ruilin1 ; Wei, Jianhua1   
  Author affiliation:  1  State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China 
  Corresponding author:  Wei, Jianhua 
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao 
  Volume:  46 
  Issue:  8 
  Issue date:  August 25, 2015 
  Publication year:  2015 
  Pages:  352-360 and 337 
  Language:  Chinese 
  ISSN:  10001298 
  CODEN:  NUYCA3 
  Document type:  Journal article (JA) 
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 
  Abstract:  High-performance pressing motion control of powder compaction press for improving the quality of green compacts was considered. With the aim to realize precise motion trajectory tracking control, physical modeling of the compacting force in powder densification process was developed and validated by iron-based powder compressibility test. A control oriented model was constructed to describe the system dynamics of the electro-hydraulic system of the powder compaction press by using the solenoid valves. Then a motion controller based on adaptive robust control (ARC) method was synthesized by back-stepping design with Lyapunov function. The controller took into consideration of the effect of parameter variations with the strongly nonlinear disturbance of compacting force coming from the powder press molding process and various hydraulic parameters as well as the effect of hard-to-model nonlinearities and uncertainties. The stability, tracking transient and final tracking accuracy of the system can be guaranteed by the controller. Experimental study was also carried out through a 1000 kN powder compaction press prototype. The pressing motion control of the prototype machine in the iron-based powder forming cylinder compact process was used as a case study. The analysis and experimental results showed that the proposed control method achieved satisfying control performance for the powder compaction press, validating the effectiveness of the proposed control approach in practical applications. In powder forming process the tracking errors were reduced almost down to the measurement resolution level (±0.04 mm). Furthermore, the dimensional accuracy in the height direction and the density uniformity of the compacts were improved.  
  Number of references:  19 
  Main heading:  Quality control 
  Controlled terms:  Compaction  -  Controllers  -  Hydraulic equipment  -  Hydraulic machinery  -  Lyapunov functions  -  Measurement errors  -  Motion control  -  Powders  -  Presses (machine tools)  -  Pressing (forming)   -  Robust control  -  Solenoid valves 
  Uncontrolled terms:  Adaptive robust control  -  Control oriented models  -  Effect of parameters  -  Electro-hydraulic system  -  Measurement resolution  -  Powder compactions  -  Press-molding process  -  Robust motion control 
  Classification code:  535.2.2 Metal Forming Practice  -  536 Powder Metallurgy  -  536.1 Powder Metallurgy Operations  -  603.1 Machine Tools, General  -  619 Pipes, Tanks and Accessories; Plant Engineering Generally  -  632.2 Hydraulic Equipment and Machinery  -  731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications  -  731.3 Specific Variables Control  -  732.1 Control Equipment  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  913.3 Quality Assurance and Control  -  921 Mathematics  -  922 Statistical Methods 
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2015.08.049 
  Database:  Compendex