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2014年第45卷第7期共收录52篇
1. Accession number:  20143017975989
  Title:  Study on the effects of packaging on food freezing
  Authors:  Wang, Guiqiang1 ; Zou, Pinghua1 ; Liu, Mingsheng1 ; Liu, Yongxin1 
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
  Corresponding author:  Wang, G. (wgq_hit@126.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  171-176
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  The effects of packaging on food freezing was investigated using both modeling and experimental methods. First, CFD method was employed to model the freezing condition of food in freezing chamber, including air temperature, air velocity and turbulent intensity, which was then used to calculate the surface heat transfer coefficient of food product. Empirical relations for free convection and radiation were used to simulate the heat transfer inside the air layer between food and packaging material. Fourier formula was applied to model the heat transfer inside food. Finally, an iteration scheme was used to combine all parts together. Freezing experiments were conducted in a small freezer to verify the model, which showed encouraging agreements on freezing curves of food at different locations. Packaging has a big influence on food freezing, food with different packaging differs greatly in freezing process. The thermal resistance of air layer in packaging changes in a reverse trend of food temperature drop.
  Number of references:  19
  Main heading:  Freezing
  Controlled terms:  Air  -  Heat transfer  -  Iterative methods  -  Mathematical models  -  Packaging  -  Packaging materials
  Uncontrolled terms:  Air layers  -  Empirical relations  -  Experimental methods  -  Food freezing  -  Freezing conditions  -  Freezing experiments  -  Surface heat transfer coefficient  -  Turbulent intensities
  Classification code:  641.2 Heat Transfer  -  694.1 Packaging, General  -  694.2 Packaging Materials  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  822.2 Food Processing Operations  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.6 Numerical Methods
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.027
  Database:  Compendex

2. Accession number:  20143017975980
 Title:  Simulation of salt leaching in coastal saline soil denoting sand columns based on COMSOL
  Authors:  Sun, Xueyan1, 2 ; Li, Pinfang1 ; Li, Baoguo1 ; Xue, Yuanxia2 ; Shao, Lei2 
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (North China), Ministry of Agriculture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
 2  Yantai Research Institute, China Agricultural University, Yantai 264670, China
  Corresponding author:  Li, B. (libg@cau.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  111-117 124
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Based on COMSOL (3.5), two-dimensional transient cross-sectional models were used to investigate water and solute transport in the soil column coupled with variable sand column forms, with "a" denoting no sand column, "b" with one vertical middle sand column, "c" with one long slanged sand column, "d" with two long slanged X-shaped sand columns. The results showed that sand column obviously increased the transport efficiency of water and salt, which may attribute to the higher hydraulic conductivity and higher diffusion coefficients in sand columns than clay-loam coastal saline. The efficiency of sand column depends on its position and its angle accordingly. The slanted columns were overall superior to the vertical ones in transport efficiency. Generally, "d" is the best type, "c" is the second best and "b" is the third, according to the efficiency of salt leaching and the efficiency of the utilization of water resources.
  Number of references:  23
  Main heading:  Sand
  Controlled terms:  Diffusion  -  Efficiency  -  Leaching  -  Saline water  -  Solute transport  -  Water resources
  Uncontrolled terms:  Coastal saline  -  Coastal saline soils  -  COMSOL 2-D  -  Cross-sectional models  -  Mathematical simulations  -  Sand columns  -  Transport efficiency  -  Two-dimensional transient
  Classification code:  444 Water Resources  -  505 Mines and Mining, Nonmetallic  -  533.1 Ore Treatment  -  913.1 Production Engineering  -  931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity  -  931.1 Mechanics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.018
  Database:  Compendex

3.  Accession number:  20143017975996
  Title:  Experiment and numerical simulation of layer resistance parameters in dryer
  Authors:  Zhang, Ye1 ; Li, Changyou1 ; Ma, Xingzao1 ; Li, Jianmin1 ; Zou, Xiangjun1 ; Wang, Runfa1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory of Key Technology on Agricultural Machine and Equipment, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
  Corresponding author:  Li, C. (lichyx@scau.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  216-221 208
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Ventilation resistance characteristic of grain layer is the key influence factor to the drying uniformity and energy consumption, is also the theoretical foundation parameter for layer design and fan selection. The traditional empirical formulas of ventilation resistance of grain layer are low precision and ignore the complicated changes and nonlinear uncertainty problems of grain layer porous media. The pressure loss factors were discussed based on the traditional Ergun model. By testing the airflow resistance on test platform, dividing the air velocity into subsections by the exploratory analysis method, and introducing an error influence factor λ, a new pressure field model of variable layer was derived based on the Ergun model. The optimal resistance characteristic curve was given, and the relationship between the ventilation resistance and layer thickness was built. The results show that when the air velocity is less than 0.2 m/s, the λ is 1; when the velocity is between 0.2 m/s and 0.4 m/s, the λ is 0.89; and when the velocity is between 0.4 m/s and 0.6 m/s, the λ is 0.79.
  Number of references:  21
  Main heading:  Air
  Controlled terms:  Dryers (equipment)  -  Energy utilization  -  Porous materials  -  Velocity  -  Ventilation
  Uncontrolled terms:  Airflow resistance  -  Exploratory analysis  -  Layer resistance  -  Nonlinear uncertainties  -  Resistance characteristics  -  Revised  -  Theoretical foundations  -  Ventilation resistance
  Classification code:  525.3 Energy Utilization  -  643.5 Ventilation  -  802.1 Chemical Plants and Equipment  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  931.1 Mechanics  -  951 Materials Science
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.034
  Database:  Compendex

4.  Accession number:  20143017975994
  Title:  Specificity and inhibition kinetics of polyphenol oxidase from honeysuckle
  Authors:  Luo, Lei1 ; Zhou, Yanyan1 ; Zhu, Wenxue1 ; Yang, Bin1 ; Qu, Zheng1 ; Kang, Xinyan1 
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Food and Biological Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, China
  Corresponding author:  Luo, L. (13623896431@139.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  202-208
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  The aim of this work was to study substrate speciflcity and inhibition kinetics of ascorbic acid, 4-hexylresorcinol, L-cysteine and citric acid on PPO obtained from honeysuckle. The results show that the best substrate is chlorogenic acid because of the lowest Km value 0.0059 mmol/L; ascorbic acid, 4-hexylresorcinol and L-cysteine demonstrate reversible inhibition, and their IC50 values are 0.062, 0.053, 0.140 mmol/L. Citric acid shows irreversible inhibition to PPO with IC50 value of 0.048 mmol/L. Lineweaver-Burk plotting show that ascorbic acid, 4-hexylresorcinol and L-cysteine are mixed-type, non-competitive and anti-competitive inhibitors, with the inhibition constants KI of 1.620, 4.587, 0 mmol/L, and KIS of 1.995, 0, 3.780 mmol/L, respectively.
  Number of references:  24
  Main heading:  Kinetics
  Controlled terms:  Amino acids  -  Ascorbic acid  -  Citric acid
  Uncontrolled terms:  Honeysuckle  -  Inhibition constants  -  Inhibition kinetics  -  Inhibitor  -  Irreversible inhibitions  -  Polyphenol oxidase  -  Reversible inhibitions  -  Substrate specificity
  Classification code:  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.032
  Database:  Compendex

5.  Accession number:  20143017976007
  Title:  Numerical and experimental studies on fluid-solid interaction heat transfer of heavy vertical lathe rotary-table
  Authors:  Yang, Xiaodong1 ; Shao, Junpeng1 ; Mu, Xiaoning1 ; Zhu, Jian1 
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Mechanical and Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080, China
  Corresponding author:  Shao, J. (sjp566@sina.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  292-299
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  The thermal load and heat transfer performance of heavy vertical lathe rotary-table was numerically investigated by adopting fluid-solid interaction (FSI) method which makes external boundary conditions into internal. Flow field of air and temperature distributions of workbench, base and hydrostatic oil film were presented in the velocity range of 5~50 r/min. The simulation results show that the velocity rising not only causes temperature of oil film increasing significantly, but also causes its carrying capacity decreased. What's more, the velocity rising strengthens the convection of cooling surfaces and the heat dissipation of base is undervalued above 25 r/min, so the temperature of cooling surface is not significantly increased which aggravates heat concentration. FSI method turns the external heat transfer boundary conditions into internal boundary conditions, which makes the simulation more close to actual situation. Meanwhile, numerical simulation results are consistent with the results of infrared thermal imager temperature measurement, which validate the numerical simulation, expand the application domain of FSI method, also lead lathe cooling situation analysis more reliable and accurate.
  Number of references:  16
  Main heading:  Computer simulation
  Controlled terms:  Air  -  Boundary conditions  -  Cooling  -  Heat convection  -  Lathes  -  Lubricating oils  -  Numerical models  -  Solid state physics  -  Temperature measurement
  Uncontrolled terms:  External boundary conditions  -  External heat transfer  -  Fluid solid interaction  -  Heat transfer performance  -  Infrared thermal imager  -  Internal boundary conditions  -  Numerical and experimental study  -  Vertical lathes
  Classification code:  603.1 Machine Tools, General  -  607.1 Lubricants  -  641.2 Heat Transfer  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  921 Mathematics  -  933 Solid State Physics  -  944.6 Temperature Measurements
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.045
  Database:  Compendex

6. Accession number:  20143017975965
  Title:  Satisfactory optimization design of integrated control system for vehicle's SAS and EPS
  Authors:  Yang, Xiaofeng1 ; Wang, Ruochen1 ; Meng, Xiangpeng1 ; Shi, Dehua1 ; Chen, Long1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Institute of Automobile Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
  Corresponding author:  Yang, X. (yangxf18@ujs.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  13-18
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Conventional optimization theory cannot work without the optimal solution. In order to improve this situation, a mathematic model for the design of semi-active suspension (SAS) and electric power steering (EPS) integrated control system was established based on satisfactory optimization theory. Then the satisfactory optimization method of SAS and EPS integrated control system was proposed. On this basis, SAS and EPS integrated control system and real vehicle road test system were designed. Real vehicle road test was conducted based on the simulation and then the effect on the dynamic performance of car was analyzed. The results show that the theoretical research is consistent with the test results. The peak value and the standard deviation of the front suspension deflection are reduced by 14.00% and 14.56%, respectively, meaning that the impact of suspension on the car-body become smaller. The peak of tire displacement is reduced by 11.34% so that the tire-ground performance is increased. The peaks of the suspension yaw acceleration and the roll angle are decreased by 13.60% and 14.41%, respectively. And their standard deviations are decreased by 15.80% and 16.08%, respectively, which means that the car's handling stability is greatly enhanced.
  Number of references:  15
  Main heading:  Suspensions (components)
  Controlled terms:  Automobile suspensions  -  Control systems  -  Integrated control  -  Optimization  -  Roads and streets  -  Site selection  -  Statistics  -  Testing
  Uncontrolled terms:  Conventional optimization  -  Electric power steering  -  Handling stabilities  -  Optimization design  -  Optimization theory  -  Semi active suspension  -  Suspension deflection  -  Theoretical research
  Classification code:  402 Buildings and Towers  -  403 Urban and Regional Planning and Development  -  406.2 Roads and Streets  -  423.2 Non Mechanical Properties of Building Materials: Test Methods  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  632.1 Hydraulics  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  921.5 Optimization Techniques  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.003
  Database:  Compendex

7.  Accession number:  20143017975987
  Title:  Design and test on an experimental aerobic composting reactor system
  Authors:  Zhang, Anqi1 ; Huang, Guangqun1 ; Zhang, Shaoying1 ; Yang, Zengling1 ; Han, Lujia1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
  Corresponding author:  Han, L. (hanlj@cau.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  156-161
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Considering the main problems of the small working volume, less functional on real-time monitoring and feedback control of current experimental composting reactor system, an experimental type of aerobic composting reactor system was designed and manufactured on the basis of existing research. According to the principle of statics and thermodynamics, the key functional units of the composting reactor system were optimized. Automatic control system for the aerobic composting reactor was introduced for a better control of composting process. Testing experiments were carried out to check the usability of the designed composting reactor system. The period of composting temperature higher than 50°C lasted 8.1, 7.2 and 4.8 days for each layer in the reactor system, respectively. The final pH value is less than 8 for composting materials of all layers. The final germination index (GI) for composting product of each layer are higher than 85%, respectively. All the three results show that the composting reactor performs well.
  Number of references:  17
  Main heading:  Feedback control
  Controlled terms:  Thermodynamics
  Uncontrolled terms:  Aerobic composting  -  Composting process  -  Composting reactors  -  Composting temperature  -  Germination index  -  Property tests  -  Reactor  -  Real time monitoring
  Classification code:  641.1 Thermodynamics  -  731.1 Control Systems
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.025
  Database:  Compendex

8. Accession number:  20143017975997
  Title:  State-of-the-art and developing strategies of agricultural internet of things
  Authors:  Ge, Wenjie1 ; Zhao, Chunjiang2, 3  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, China
 2  Beijing Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing 100097, China
 3  Key Laboratory of Information Technology in Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100097, China
  Corresponding author:  Zhao, C. (zhaocj@nercita.org.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  222-230 277
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Agricultural internet of things (Ag-IoT) is the highly integrated and comprehensive application of the new generation of information technology in agricultural field. Ag-IoT is playing an important leading role in the agricultural informationization of China. It has changed the traditional agricultural production mode, and it is also promoting the transformation from the traditional agriculture to intelligent and precision agriculture. The concept of Ag-IoT and its technical system framework were firstly introduced. Then the research status and advances of sensing technologies, communicating technologies and key application technologies used in Ag-IoT were reviewed in detail. The challenges and problems existing in the development of Ag-IoT in China were further analyzed. Based on the analysis, countermeasures for the applications and development of Ag-IoT of China in many aspects were proposed, such as research priorities, development layout, advancing directions, application models and mechanisms for sustainable development.
  Number of references:  83
  Main heading:  Internet of things
  Controlled terms:  Agriculture  -  Information technology  -  Sensors  -  Silver
  Uncontrolled terms:  Ag-IoT  -  Agricultural productions  -  Application technologies  -  Developing strategy  -  Precision Agriculture  -  Research priorities  -  State-of-the-art  -  Strategy
  Classification code:  547.1 Precious Metals  -  801 Chemistry  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  903 Information Science
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.035
  Database:  Compendex

9. Accession number:  20143017975998
  Title:  Canopy NDVI analysis and yield estimation for cotton in different nitrogen treatments
  Authors:  Li, Xinwei1 ; Yu, Bingfeng1 ; Lü, Xin1 ; Tian, Min1 ; Shi, Honggang1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology Agriculture of Xinjiang Bingtuan, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, China
  Corresponding author:  Lü, X. (lvshz@126.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  231-236
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  The field experiment was carried out in three cotton growing seasons from 2011 to 2013. Cotton canopy normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was obtained by GreenSeeker at full-bud stage, flowering stage, full-boll stage, early-wadding stage. Yields, from different nitrogen application rates, were collected at harvest stage and compared with each other. Canopy NDVI, changing with nitrogen application level and growth period, were analyzed, separately. Furthermore, the correlation analysis was done between yield and canopy NDVI. Yield estimation models were established for cotton based on NDVI value. Results indicate that, in the four growth stages, with N rates increasing, canopy NDVI value presents a trend of "low-high-low". And the correlation coefficient between canopy NDVI and yield is 0.713 7, 0.847 9, 0.897 9, 0.692 6, respectively, and significantly positive correlative at flowering stage(P=0.003 4) as well as full-boll stage (P=0.000 8). Regression between predicted yield and measured yield values of the year of 2013 shows that the correlation coefficient is maximum at full-boll stage (R2=0.908 2), and the root mean square error(RMSE) is 301.67 kg/hm2, while the relative error (5.15%) is minimum. The results suggest that it is especially feasible to use canopy NDVI to estimate yield of cotton at the full-boll stage.
  Number of references:  25
  Main heading:  Cultivation
  Controlled terms:  Cotton  -  Mean square error  -  Nitrogen
  Uncontrolled terms:  Canopy  -  Correlation coefficient  -  NDVI  -  Nitrogen application rates  -  Nitrogen treatment  -  Normalized difference vegetation index  -  Root mean square errors  -  Yield estimation
  Classification code:  731.1 Control Systems  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  821.4 Agricultural Products
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.036
  Database:  Compendex

10. Accession number:  20143017976011
  Title:  Theory analyses of double stator symmetrical type multi-pump and multi-speed motor
  Authors:  Wen, Desheng1 ; Yang, Jie1 ; Zheng, Zhenquan1 ; Zhang, Sanxi1 ; Zhang, Kaiming1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Heavy Machinery Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
  Corresponding author:  Wen, D. (wendesheng@ysu.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  321-324 312
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  A double-stator symmetrical type multi-pump and multi-speed motor is designed based on the principles of existing symmetrical constant pumps and constant motors. In the shell, a rotor is corresponding to two stators, so the multi-speed motor can work independently and synchronously. As an example, we describe the structure and working principle of the double-acting symmetrical-type double-stator multi-speed motor, define its symbolic representation method, and analyze the output flow features of the multi-pump and the output speed and torque features of the multi-speed motor. The speed of the multi-speed motor under different combinations of multi-pump and multi-speed motor is analyzed. The results show symmetric type double-stator multi-speed motor can output many different speeds and torques. The study establishes a basis for applications of double-stator multi-pump and multi-speed motor system on machine tools, mobile machineries and so on.
  Number of references:  16
  Main heading:  Speed
  Controlled terms:  Machinery  -  Pumps  -  Stators  -  Torque motors
  Uncontrolled terms:  Different speed  -  Differential connection  -  Double stator  -  Flow charac-teristics  -  Mobile machinery  -  Motor systems  -  Symbolic representation  -  Torque characteristic
  Classification code:  601 Mechanical Design  -  618.2 Pumps  -  705.1 Electric Machinery, General  -  705.3 Electric Motors  -  931.1 Mechanics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.049
  Database:  Compendex

11. Accession number:  20143017975976
  Title:  Finite element analysis and experimental verification of bionic press roller in reducing adhesion and resistance
  Authors:  Tong, Jin1 ; Zhang, Qingzhu1 ; Chang, Yuan1 ; Li, Mo1 ; Zhang, Leilei1 ; Liu, Xin1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025, China
  Corresponding author:  Tong, J. (jtong@jlu.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  85-92
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  A finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit was used to model three-dimensional soil compaction process. Drucker-Prager Cap (DPC) model was used as soil constitutive model. The behavior of the soil-bionic press roller interface was investigated and compared with a conventional roller. Simulation results show that the artificial strain energy is approximately 0.1% of the internal energy, indicating that hourglassing exerted very little influence on the simulation results. For the conventional press roller and bionic press roller, the relative error of traction resistance between the simulation and soil bin test results are 11.47% and 2.38%, respectively. The simulation results agree well with the experimental results. It proves that the finite element model is reliable. The Mises stress nephogram, the contact area between soil and press roller and the displacement nephogram are adopted to compare the simulation results of the two press rollers. The simulation results show that contact stress between the bionic roller and soil is significantly higher than that of conventional roller, which is beneficial for crushing clods. The contact area between bionic roller and soil is 79.05% lower than that of conventional roller, which is helpful to reduce soil adhesion. Also this result is proved by the soil bin test results, which shows that the bionic roller can reduce 52.78% of soil adhesion. Adjacent ridge structures of the bionic roller can properly constrain the flow of soil, thus avoiding the hilling phenomenon in compaction process. The two press rollers show little variance in vertical displacement and have similar compaction resistance, but bionic roller is more conducive to compact topsoil. The soil displacement in the direction of roller width caused by the conventional roller is greater than that of the bionic roller, which makes the conventional roller consume more power. The soil bin test results show that the bionic roller lowers the resistance by 28.66% as compared with conventional roller.
  Number of references:  20
  Main heading:  Rollers (machine components)
  Controlled terms:  Adhesion  -  Bionics  -  Compaction  -  Finite element method  -  Presses (machine tools)  -  Soil mechanics  -  Soils
  Uncontrolled terms:  Artificial strains  -  Drucker-Prager Cap models  -  Experimental verification  -  Finite element codes  -  Press rollers  -  Reducing adhesion and resistances  -  Traction resistance  -  Vertical displacements
  Classification code:  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  536.1 Powder Metallurgy Operations  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  603.1 Machine Tools, General  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  801 Chemistry  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  951 Materials Science
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.014
  Database:  Compendex

12. Accession number:  20143017975973
  Title:  Griping force control using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems
  Authors:  Zhou, Jun1 ; Yang, Xiaorong1 ; Zhu, Shuping1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Intelligent Agricultural Equipment, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210031, China
  Corresponding author:  Zhou, J. (zhoujun@njau.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  67-72
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  An intelligent controller using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system was developed to control the force of gripping fruits and vegetables of an agricultural robot. The inputs of the controller are the current griping force and the detail coefficients of discrete wavelet transform of the signal from slipping sensor fixed on the robotic end effector. The output of the controller is the displacement of fingers of the end effector. Firstly, a subtractive clustering was applied to generate a fuzzy model, and the radius of the clustering was adjusted to optimize the fuzzy rules. Then methods of sampling training data were introduced, and a hybrid training algorithm consisting of the gradient descent and least square algorithms was implemented to tune antecedent parameters and consequent part of the model. Finally, the experiments of controlling the griping force were carried out. It shows that the controller is able to adapt itself to differences of the fruits and vegetables in mass and surface friction characteristics. Moreover the controlling overshoot of griping force is restrained successfully and less than 0.8N, which prevented the grasping of fruits and vegetables from mechanical destruction.
  Number of references:  19
  Main heading:  Controllers
  Controlled terms:  Agriculture  -  Discrete wavelet transforms  -  End effectors  -  Fruits  -  Fuzzy systems  -  Least squares approximations  -  Tracking (position)  -  Vegetables
  Uncontrolled terms:  Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system  -  Agricultural robot  -  ANFIS  -  Gripping force  -  Intelligent controllers  -  Least square algorithms  -  Mechanical destruction  -  Subtractive clustering
  Classification code:  716.2 Radar Systems and Equipment  -  731.5 Robotics  -  732.1 Control Equipment  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  921.3 Mathematical Transformations  -  921.6 Numerical Methods  -  961 Systems Science
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.011
  Database:  Compendex

13. Accession number:  20143017975974
  Title:  Goal seeking of autonomous mobile robot with obstacle avoidance using heuristic dynamic programming
  Authors:  Fang, Xiao1, 2 ; Zheng, Dezhong1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Institute of Electrical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
 2  Department of Electrical Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, United States
  Corresponding author:  Zheng, D. (1076694895@qq.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  73-78
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) design for autonomous mobile robot was put forward to solve the goal seeking with obstacle avoidance problem. A method of sensor detecting was proposed, and the method for system normalizing the sensors' inputs information was discussed. The input/output signal and reinforcement signal were defined, and a self-learning strategy for robot seeking the goal with obstacle avoidance was proposed. A continuous reinforcement signal to improve the system's preferential decision between goal seeking and obstacle avoidance was designed. To verify the learning ability of our algorithm, three different simulation experiments were designed: same goal with different initial points and directions, same initial states with different goals, moving goal. The simulation results show that the HDP approach presents an effective learning ability for autonomous mobile robot on goal seeking with obstacle avoidance problem.
  Number of references:  24
  Main heading:  Navigation
  Controlled terms:  Dynamic programming  -  Mobile robots  -  Reinforcement learning  -  Sensors
  Uncontrolled terms:  Autonomous Mobile Robot  -  Continuous reinforcement  -  Effective learning  -  Goal-seeking  -  Heuristic dynamic programming  -  Initial state  -  Learning abilities  -  Reinforcement signal
  Classification code:  716.3 Radio Systems and Equipment  -  723.4 Artificial Intelligence  -  731.5 Robotics  -  801 Chemistry  -  921.5 Optimization Techniques
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.012
  Database:  Compendex

14. Accession number:  20143017975978
  Title:  Investigation on load matching characteristics of photovoltaic centrifugal pumps
  Authors:  Liu, Houlin1 ; Cui, Jianbao1 ; Tan, Minggao1 ; Wu, Xianfang1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
  Corresponding author:  Liu, H. (liuhoulin@ujs.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  98-102
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  With the aim to optimize the centrifugal pump load matching characteristics with a photovoltaic system, a method to estimate the system configurations was established at first. In sunny conditions, the basic parameters of centrifugal pumps in the highest solar radiation level were obtained through this method. Several sets of centrifugal pumps with different ratios between rated flow and maximum flow were matched with the PV system, and the system performances in different conditions were analyzed. According to the results of comparisons, a group of load characteristic parameters were selected for selecting pump model and testing. Results show that the more oblique of the characteristic curve of centrifugal pumps, the more suitable for the PV system. The efficiency of this system increases with the ratio between maximum flow and rated flow, and is higher when the ratio is between 1.1~1.2. This study provides a reference for PV centrifugal pumps load model selection and optimization.
  Number of references:  17
  Main heading:  Centrifugal pumps
  Controlled terms:  Load testing  -  Photovoltaic cells  -  Sun
  Uncontrolled terms:  Basic parameters  -  Characteristic curve  -  Load characteristics  -  Matching  -  Photovoltaic  -  Photovoltaic centrifugal pumps  -  Photovoltaic systems  -  System configurations
  Classification code:  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  618.2 Pumps  -  657.2 Extraterrestrial Physics and Stellar Phenomena  -  741.3 Optical Devices and Systems
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.016
  Database:  Compendex

15. Accession number:  20143017975972
  Title:  Infrared distance measurement used for cotton picker robot
  Authors:  Wang, Ling1 ; Zou, Xiaoyu1 ; Liu, Siyao1 ; Chen, Binglin2 ; Zhu, Hongchao1 ; Zhu, Rongjie1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Jiangsu Province Engineering Lab for Modern Facility Agriculture Technology and Equipment, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210031, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Crop Regulation, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
  Corresponding author:  Wang, L. (Lingw@njau.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  61-66
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  In order to detect cotton position on a plant, an infrared distance measurement device and the computer image processing technology, combined with the growth characteristics of cotton, were used to measure the distance of single cotton. The infrared measurement model was established in the distance of 0.7 m to 1.6 m. The distance image of plant surface point cloud was obtained with the measurement accuracy of 0.008 5 m. The Gaussian filter size was designed with the standard deviation of 0.65. 1D Gaussian filter was used to smooth the plant image and 2D Gaussian filter was used to obtain the gradient image. With the strong threshold of 0.2 m and the weak threshold of 0.08 m, the closed loop edge was constructed based on Canny edge detection operator. The image of cotton area was extracted by morphological operations, and the cotton sticks background was removed. Peak filter was used to weaken the adhesion and overlap of the cotton image. The cotton distance image was segmented based on watershed algorithm to extract the single cotton image and obtain the distance. The results show that the image recognition rate of single cotton on the plant is 91.3% and the correlation coefficient between the infrared and artificial measurement results is 0.992 2, which provides parameters for cotton picker robot to plan motor path.
  Number of references:  16
  Main heading:  Cotton
  Controlled terms:  Edge detection  -  Image processing  -  Mathematical morphology  -  Robots  -  Watersheds
  Uncontrolled terms:  Canny edge detection  -  Canny Operators  -  Computer image processing  -  Correlation coefficient  -  Growth characteristic  -  Infrared measurements  -  Morphological operations  -  Water-shed algorithm
  Classification code:  444.1 Surface Water  -  716 Telecommunication; Radar, Radio and Television  -  731.5 Robotics  -  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  819.1 Natural Fibers  -  921 Mathematics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.010
  Database:  Compendex

16. Accession number:  20143017976014
  Title:  Flooding prediction based on characteristics of hydrogen pressure Drop in PEMFC
  Authors:  Song, Mancun1 ; Pei, Pucheng1 ; Zeng, Xia1 ; Zha, Hongshan1 
  Author affiliation:  1  State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  Corresponding author:  Pei, P. (pchpei@tsinghua.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  340-346
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Flooding diagnosis is the key issue of PEM fuel cell. Flooding prediction through hydrogen pressure drop is investigated in this study on a two-piece PEMFC stack. Pressure drop is a key parameter to diagnose water content of PEM fuel cell. The hydrogen pressure drop is more suitable for flooding prediction because it can reflect not only the content but also the water harm on PEM fuel cell. Furthermore, the ideal hydrogen pressure drop is calculated through the operation conditions. Flooding experiments are organized and a two-level characteristic on hydrogen pressure drop is observed. At first, the actual hydrogen pressure drop keeps steady nearly the same as the ideal value, and the voltage is pretty high and constant. Next, the hydrogen pressure drop rises gradually because of the appearance of water droplets. Then, the hydrogen pressure drop performs the second steady level because the water droplets form a liquid film. Finally, the hydrogen pressure drop rises quickly and the voltage drops rapidly as the formation of slug flow. Combining with the visualization results of water droplet accumulation in channels and the tendency of hydrogen pressure drop and voltage, the flooding process can be divided into four continuous periods, which are proper period, humid period, transitional period and flooding period. The growth rate of the hydrogen pressure drop is defined and four groups of flooding experiments are completed, in which the effects of current, temperature, pressure and hydrogen stoichiometry can be discussed. Experiment results show that current and temperature influence little on the growth rate of two levels, while the effect of pressure and hydrogen stoichiometry is remarkable. Increasing the gas pressure can improve the ability for anti-flooding in PEMFC, increasing the hydrogen stoichiometry will waste hydrogen as consideration. The hydrogen purge can take a part for a while in the flooding period to prevent the fuel cell from falling into total flooding, while it does not change the operation conditions which lead to flooding. The hydrogen pressure drop should be controlled before the transitional period. The moist section can be planned out in the first half of the humid period based on hydrogen pressure drop. In the moist section, PEM fuel cell is supposed to be far from the occurrence of flooding. Adjusting the fuel cell stack working temperature may be an effective method to realize the flooding prediction.
  Number of references:  20
  Main heading:  Pressure drop
  Controlled terms:  Damage detection  -  Experiments  -  Floods  -  Forecasting  -  Hydrogen  -  Liquid films  -  Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)  -  Stoichiometry
  Uncontrolled terms:  Effect of pressure  -  Hydrogen pressures  -  Operation conditions  -  Prediction-based  -  Temperature influence  -  Transitional period  -  Visualization results  -  Working temperatures
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  422 Strength of Building Materials; Test Equipment and Methods  -  702.2 Fuel Cells  -  801.4 Physical Chemistry  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  901.3 Engineering Research  -  914.1 Accidents and Accident Prevention  -  921 Mathematics  -  931.1 Mechanics  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.052
  Database:  Compendex

17. Accession number:  20143017975975
  Title:  Design of nonlinear leveling control system for paddy land leveler
  Authors:  Chen, Junmei1 ; Zhao, Zuoxi2 ; Chen, Jiaqi2 ; Yu, Long2 ; Ye, Juan1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Guangdong Institute of Science and Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Key Technology on Agricultural Machine and Equipment, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
  Corresponding author:  Chen, J. (cjmaaa@126.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  79-84
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  A leveling control system is necessary for keeping the plow level during the laser-controlled paddy field leveler's operation. A nonlinear double closed-loop control scheme is proposed to minimize the overshooting in the controlled inclination angle, where the angular speed control and inclination angle of the plow are controlled in the inner and outer loop, respectively. The overshooting minimization is achieved by manipulating the angular speed of the plow according to the remaining path nonlinearly to the level position so that the plow approaches to the level position with zero angular speed. Also included are the hydro-mechanical plant's transfer function analysis for the leveler and the overall control system design. Such an control system was implemented incorporating AHRS(heading and heading reference system) and TMS320F28035 microcontroller, and lab and field tests with a prototype paddy land leveler show that the plow would respond to leveling error quickly, returning to the level position asymptotically with a maximum leveling deviation within ±1°.
  Number of references:  17
  Main heading:  Agricultural machinery
  Controlled terms:  Control systems
  Uncontrolled terms:  Angular speed control  -  Double closed-loop control  -  Inclination angles  -  Leveling control systems  -  Nonlinear PID  -  Paddy fields  -  Reference systems  -  Transfer function analysis
  Classification code:  731.1 Control Systems  -  821.1 Agricultural Machinery and Equipment
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.013
  Database:  Compendex

18. Accession number:  20143017976010
  Title:  Modeling and parameter identification of linear guideway in NC machine tool
  Authors:  Yang, Yong1 ; Zhang, Weimin2 ; Chen, Xiguang1 
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China
 2  Sino-German College, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
  Corresponding author:  Yang, Y. (yangyong5114360@163.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  313-320
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Based on theoretical modeling, dynamic test and multi-objective optimization technique, a parameter identification method of generalized joints was proposed. The method first considered the double coupling characteristics between joints and machine tool parts, and then constructed the generalized equivalent joint model of linear guideway. By structure condensation technique, more accuracy and higher efficiency of computation were achieved. Finally, the whole structure dynamic model in impedance form under constraint condition was derived. This model combines the theoretical modeling, dynamic test and multi-objective optimization problem to identify the joints parameters based on transfer function and impedance information acquisition. The verification examples show that this identification method is effective, the errors of modal frequency and frequency response function are very small, and the identification accuracy is high.
  Number of references:  23
  Main heading:  Multiobjective optimization
  Controlled terms:  Frequency response  -  Guideways  -  Identification (control systems)  -  Machine tools  -  Mathematical models
  Uncontrolled terms:  CNC  -  Contact pair  -  Frequency response functions  -  Information acquisitions  -  Linear guideway  -  Multi-objective optimization problem  -  Multi-objective optimization techniques  -  Parameter identification methods
  Classification code:  433 Railroad Transportation  -  603.1 Machine Tools, General  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.5 Optimization Techniques
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.048
  Database:  Compendex

19. Accession number:  20143017975995
  Title:  Effect of protein concentration on the film formation of tilapia skin gelatin at high temperature
  Authors:  Weng, Wuyin1 ; Wu, Feifei1 ; Kazufumi, Osako2 ; Su, Wenjin1  
  Author affiliation:  1  Bioengineering College, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021, China
 2  Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan
  Corresponding author:  Su, W. (wjsu@jmu.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  209-215
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  With the aim to clarify the film-forming characteristics of fish skin gelatin at high temperature, the effect of protein concentration of film-forming solution on the properties of edible films based on the tilapia skin gelatin was investigated. The gelatin was extracted from tilapia skins which were obtained from fresh fish during fillet processing. The obtained gelatin were swollen in distilled water for 30 min and then dissolved at 60°C to obtain the film-forming solutions (FFS). Glycerol as a plasticizer was added at the concentration of 20% of gelatin, and the concentration of gelatin dry basis in FFS was adjusted to 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Air bubbles in FFS were removed by a hybrid mixer. Subsequently, the FFS was cast onto a rimmed silicone resin plate (50 mm ×50 mm) and dried at 100°C for 30 min, and the obtained films were then conditioned at (25±0.5)°C and (50±5)% RH for 48 h. After having been peeled off, the resulting gelatin films were used for the determination of mechanical properties, water resistance properties and heat shrinkage (HS). Furthermore, the formation mechanism of skin gelatin films was elucidated by electrophoretic analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR). As a result, the tensile strength (TS) and HS of gelatin films prepared at 25°C (Control) could reach up to 67.72 MPa and 48.75%, with the matter solubility (MS) and protein solubility (PS) of films was 22.97% and 15.59%, respectively. When film-forming solution with protein concentration of 5% was dried at 100°C, the TS and HS of the resulting films was decreased to 8.99 MPa and 8.13%, while the MS and PS was increased to 33.36% and 37.47%, respectively. However, the values above were all gradually close to those of the control with increasing the protein concentration to 40% in the film-forming solution. On the other hand, based on the analyses with DSC and FT/IR for the gelatin films, it was found that the triple-helical structure of tilapia skin gelatin was destroyed when the film-forming solution with lower protein concentration was dried at high temperature, resulting in the gelatin films obtained with poor mechanical properties and water resistance ability.
  Number of references:  34
  Main heading:  Proteins
  Controlled terms:  Differential scanning calorimetry  -  Dye-sensitized solar cells  -  Fish  -  Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  -  Heat resistance  -  Hydraulic structures  -  Mechanical properties  -  Silicones  -  Solubility  -  Tensile strength
  Uncontrolled terms:  Edible films  -  Electrophoretic analysis  -  Film-forming solutions  -  High temperature drying  -  Protein concentrations  -  Triple helical structures  -  Water resistance properties  -  Water-resistances
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  422 Strength of Building Materials; Test Equipment and Methods  -  441 Dams and Reservoirs; Hydro Development  -  461 Bioengineering and Biology  -  471 Marine Science and Oceanography  -  611 Hydroelectric and Tidal Power Plants  -  801 Chemistry  -  801.4 Physical Chemistry  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  816 Plastics and Other Polymers: Processing and Machinery  -  817 Plastics and Other Polymers: Products and Applications  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  822 Food Technology  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids  -  951 Materials Science
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.033
  Database:  Compendex

20. Accession number:  20143017976005
  Title:  Modeling and control of parallel manipulator driven by linear ultrasonic motors
  Authors:  Zhang, Quan1 ; Zhu, Benliang2 ; Zhou, Liping1 ; Jin, Jiamei1 ; Zhang, Jianhui1 
  Author affiliation:  1  State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
 2  School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, Q. (quanzhang@nuaa.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  278-285
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  The demand for precise positioning manipulators with a large workspace has increased dramatically due to their role in semiconductor manufacturing, medical surgery and automatic micro-assembly. In this paper, a planar parallel manipulator (PPM) actuated by three linear ultrasonic motors (LUSMs) for high accuracy positioning is designed. With the aim to realize accurate trajectory tracking control of the proposed 3-PRR PPM, a model and contour error based controller is developedaccording to the dynamic model of the parallel manipulator. The dynamic modeling procedure is as follows: firstly, based on the closed-loop constraints of the parallel structure, kinematic analysis of the manipulator is carried out, and the inverse kinematics solution is obtained. Then thevelocities and accelerations of each part, such as rigid linkage, sliders of the motor, and the moving platform, are analyzed in order to derivethe corresponding Jacobian matrices between different coordinates.Finally, the dynamic model of the parallel manipulator is developed using virtual work principle. In a motion trackingtask, it is much more important to minimize the component of the error vector that is the normal with respect to the reference trajectory. This component of the error vector is referred to as the contour error. According to contour error theory, minimizing independent axial errors may not minimize the contour error and conversely, it is possible to have a small contour error while having large axial errors. Hence the contour error based control method is adopted to achieve precise motion tracking in this paper. The contour errorsof three planar degrees of freedom are formulated based on tangential approximation approach, and then a model and contour error based controller is developed using the feedback linearization principle. The stability of the proposed control law is proved based on Lyapunov theory. To guarantee the accuracy of the proposed control algorithm, a kinematic calibration is performed to obtain the real kinematic parameters before the control experiment. The actual position of the moving platform is captured by the CCD camera, and the error cost function is optimized by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Experimental results show that, the trajectory tracking errors of X and Y axes can be reduced to 15 μm using the proposed controller, which improves the motion tracking accuracy of the moving platform. The results also present that the tangential approximation approach has the better ability to approximate the real contour error.
  Number of references:  15
  Main heading:  Controllers
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  Calibration  -  Dynamic models  -  Inverse kinematics  -  Jacobian matrices  -  Linear motors  -  Manipulators  -  Motion control  -  Navigation  -  Particle swarm optimization (PSO)   -  Semiconductor device manufacture
  Uncontrolled terms:  Contour error  -  Inverse kinematics solutions  -  Linear ultrasonic motor  -  Parallel manipulators  -  Particle swarm optimization algorithm  -  Planar parallel manipulators  -  Semiconductor manufacturing  -  Trajectory tracking control
  Classification code:  705.3 Electric Motors  -  714.2 Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits  -  716.3 Radio Systems and Equipment  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  731.3 Specific Variables Control  -  731.5 Robotics  -  732.1 Control Equipment  -  921 Mathematics  -  921.1 Algebra  -  931.1 Mechanics  -  941 Acoustical and Optical Measuring Instruments  -  942 Electric and Electronic Measuring Instruments  -  943 Mechanical and Miscellaneous Measuring Instruments  -  944 Moisture, Pressure and Temperature, and Radiation Measuring Instruments
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.043
  Database:  Compendex

21. Accession number:  20143017976002
  Title:  Design and improvement of the communication protocol for wireless sensor networks in peach garden
  Authors:  Lu, Chen1 ; Qu, Wentai2 ; Yang, Xianglong1 ; Wang, Chunlong1 ; Cao, Hong1 ; Jia, Shengyao1 
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
 2  Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100, China
  Corresponding author:  Qu, W. (wentaiqu@zju.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  260-266
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  With the aim to deploy wireless sensor networks and accommodate to application in a peach garden, the frequency of 2 470 MHz was selected, a distance of 40m was defined as a reliable communication distance based on the monitoring of variance of packet deliver rate in long term, the result and analysis of short term monitoring of packet delivery rate showed that quality of wireless links changed greatly in short term and there were no significant correlation between them. Then a communication protocol was designed based on the requirement of application and the characteristics of links: with the aim to reduce power consumption of listening , the flooding time synchronization protocol was improved and flooding-stable root time synchronization protocol was designed; as the link quality changes greatly in short time the collection tree protocol was improved to enhance the packet deliver efficiency, a comparatively complete communication protocol was designed by combining these two protocols above. After that the protocol was implemented with nesC language in TinyOS, finally field tests were carried out in the peach garden, the result shows that the time synchronization errors are less than 10 ms in the whole net, the packet delivery rate of communication protocol is 8%~15% higher than that of communication protocol based on MultihopLQI. A TelosB node can run 264 d, with the supply power of two AA batteries, indicating that the communication protocol achieves very low power consumption.
  Number of references:  17
  Main heading:  Fruits
  Controlled terms:  Floods  -  Routing protocols  -  Synchronization  -  Wireless sensor networks
  Uncontrolled terms:  Collection tree protocols  -  Flooding time synchronization protocols  -  Low-power consumption  -  Packet Delivery  -  Peach garden  -  Reliable communication  -  Time synchronization errors  -  Time synchronization protocols
  Classification code:  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  732 Control Devices  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  914.1 Accidents and Accident Prevention  -  961 Systems Science
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.040
  Database:  Compendex

22. Accession number:  20143017976000
  Title:  Estimating stand volume of Xylosma racemosum forest based on texture parameters and derivative texture indices of ALOS imagery
  Authors:  Liu, Jun1 ; Bi, Huaxing1 ; Zhu, Peilin2 ; Sun, Jing3 ; Zhu, Jinzhao1 ; Chen, Tao4 
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
 2  College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
 3  Department of Urban Planning and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm 10044, Sweden
 4  National Marine Consulting Center, State Oceanic Administration, Beijing 100860, China
  Corresponding author:  Bi, H. (bxh@bjfu.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  245-254
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  The Xylosma racemosum forest located in Huairou District of Beijing was chosen as research objects, texture parameters as well as derivative texture indices of different window sizes from ALOS fusion imagery with resolution of 2.5 m were measured. Stepwise multiple regression models were developed to describe the relationship between textures (including texture parameters and derivative texture indices) and field measurements of stand volume. The main objective was to compare estimation accuracy between model established by texture parameters and that by derivative texture indices, select the most effective Xylosma racemosum stand volume estimate model and select the most effective window size. Results indicate that the value of adjusted R2 of fitting models established by derivative texture indices were better than those of texture parameters at the same window size, the value of adjusted R2 of stand volume model could be improved significantly by combination of texture parameters and derivative texture indices at the same window size, the optimal estimation model of Xylosma racemosum stand volume was obtained when all of the texture parameters and derivative texture indices of all window sizes were introduced into stepwise multiple regression, 11×11 was the optimal window size with the largest adjusted R2 for fitting Xylosma racemosum stand volume by texture parameters and derivative texture indices generated at one single window size.
  Number of references:  47
  Main heading:  Textures
  Controlled terms:  Forestry  -  Parameter estimation  -  Regression analysis  -  Remote sensing
  Uncontrolled terms:  Field measurement  -  Optimal estimations  -  Optimal window size  -  Research object  -  Stand volume  -  Stepwise multiple regression  -  Texture parameters  -  Xylosma racemosum
  Classification code:  731.1 Control Systems  -  821.0 Woodlands and Forestry  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics  -  933 Solid State Physics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.038
  Database:  Compendex

23. Accession number:  20143017975993
  Title:  Heat-induced soybean protein aggregates and rheological properties of their concentrated suspensions
  Authors:  Fu, Yuying1 ; Wu, Xiao1 ; Pan, Weichun1 ; Jiang, Meidu1 ; Lu, Jinli1 
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035, China
  Corresponding author:  Fu, Y. (webfu@126.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  196-201 195
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  The effect of aggregate characteristics on rheological properties of soy protein dispersions was studied. Aggregated protein was produced by heating a solution of soybean protein isolate (SPI) at 0.04 g/mL and 0.09 g/mL. The higher protein concentration resulted in a larger aggregate size with a higher intrinsic viscosity and a higher accessibility of thiol groups. The protein fraction in native SPI had the smallest size and the lowest intrinsic viscosity. The same trend was observed for the shear viscosity after concentrating the suspensions containing aggregates to around 0.14 g/mL. Suspensions containing aggregates that were produced from a higher concentration possessed a higher viscosity. After reheating the concentrated suspensions, the suspension from the 0.09 g/mL aggregate system produced the weakest gel, followed by the one from 0.04 g/mL, while the native SPI yielded the strongest gel. Our results prove that the process of soybean protein aggregation opens a new door to manipulate the gel strength of concentrated protein systems, without having to alter the concentration of the protein.
  Number of references:  24
  Main heading:  Aggregates
  Controlled terms:  Concentration (process)  -  Proteins  -  Rheology  -  Suspensions (fluids)
  Uncontrolled terms:  Aggregate characteristics  -  Aggregated protein  -  Concentrated suspension  -  Intrinsic viscosity  -  Protein concentrations  -  Rheological property  -  Soybean protein isolates (SPI)  -  Soybean proteins
  Classification code:  406 Highway Engineering  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.1 Organic Compounds  -  931.1 Mechanics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.031
  Database:  Compendex

24. Accession number:  20143017975988
  Title:  Application of numerical simulation in the research of food freezing process
  Authors:  Cheng, Fang1 ; Yang, Xiaomei1 ; You, Zhaohong1 ; Hong, Hanmei1 
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Biosystem Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
  Corresponding author:  Cheng, F. (fcheng@zju.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  162-170
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Accurate calculation and prediction of food freezing process is important for product quality control, device design and energy cost reduction. However, it is a great challenge to find a general method to describe and forecast this process because of its complex mechanism. With the development of computer performance, the application of numerical simulation has gained more and more attention in study of food freezing process. Based on the analysis of food freezing process mechanism, the development of numerical simulation methods and their applications in food freezing processes were summarized, so as to provide some guidance for the further research and application of this technology.
  Number of references:  62
  Main heading:  Freezing
  Controlled terms:  Computer simulation  -  Food processing  -  Numerical models  -  Quality control
  Uncontrolled terms:  Accurate calculations  -  Complex mechanisms  -  Computer performance  -  Energy cost reduction  -  General method  -  Numerical simulation method  -  Product quality control  -  Research and application
  Classification code:  723.5 Computer Applications  -  822.2 Food Processing Operations  -  913.3 Quality Assurance and Control  -  921 Mathematics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.026
  Database:  Compendex

25. Accession number:  20143017975990
  Title:  Design and application of control charts in pork sensory quality during cold chain logistics
  Authors:  Liu, Shouchun1, 2 ; Zhao, Chunjiang1, 2 ; Yang, Xinting2 ; Qian, Jianping2 ; Wang, Guoli1 ; Zhong, Saiyi3 
  Author affiliation:  1  National Engineering Research Center for Agricultural Product in Modern Logistics, Ji'nan 250103, China
 2  Beijing Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing 100097, China
 3  College of Food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524005, China
  Corresponding author:  Zhao, C. (zhaocj@nercita.org.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  177-182
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  In order to scientifically monitor sensory quality changes of chilled pork during cold chain logistics, the sensory characteristics of pork samples from distribution center, short-distance supermarket and long-distance supermarket during the progress of cold chain logistics were investigated, including odor, color, springiness, cooking odor and overall acceptability of pork samples. The distribution and the probability of different sensory indicators scores were studied by normality test. The key evaluation indicators was obtained by using sensitivity analysis and regression analysis, then according to its data distribution characteristics and its diagnostic value to overall acceptability, the control charts were designed to visualize the fluctuation of sensory characteristics distinctly. The results showed that: overall, there were significant difference in the sensory quality of pork samples from distribution centers, short-distance supermarket and long-distance supermarket; color is the sensitive indicator to evaluate overall acceptability, and its mean-standard deviation control chart were designed; there were more sensory quality fluctuations in distribution center, and its process capability index was lower, thus it was need to improve quality management. The product quality fluctuation and its qualified ratio were distinctly visualized by mean-standard deviation control chart, and it would provide scientific management method for monitoring pork appearance changes in cold chain logistics.
  Number of references:  14
  Main heading:  Sensory perception
  Controlled terms:  Flowcharting  -  Meats  -  Probability distributions  -  Quality management  -  Regression analysis  -  Retail stores  -  Statistics  -  Warehouses
  Uncontrolled terms:  Chilled pork  -  Cold chain logistics  -  Control charts  -  Design and application  -  Evaluation indicators  -  Process capability indices  -  Scientific management  -  Sensory characteristics
  Classification code:  402.1 Industrial and Agricultural Buildings  -  402.2 Public Buildings  -  461.4 Ergonomics and Human Factors Engineering  -  723.1 Computer Programming  -  822.3 Food Products  -  913.3 Quality Assurance and Control  -  922.1 Probability Theory  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.028
  Database:  Compendex

26. Accession number:  20143017975963
  Title:  Dynamic performance of hydro-viscous drive clutch with double-piston
  Authors:  Liao, Xiangping1 ; Gong, Guofang1 ; Wang, He1 ; Zhou, Tianyu1 
  Author affiliation:  1  State Key Lab of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
  Corresponding author:  Liao, X. (520joff@163.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  1-6
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  In order to solve the uneven wear problem of frictional disks of HVD clutch and improve its response speed, a new HVD clutch with double-piston structure is proposed, and its working principle is analyzed. Based on mathematics model of frictional disks, the oil dynamic balance function and transfer function for the new HVD clutch are obtained, and its dynamic characteristics is studied by theory analysis and simulation. The results show that compared with the ordinary HVD clutch with singular-piston, the new HVD clutch has a faster response speed. The response time can reduce from 52 s to 22 s when the output speed is given as 80 rad/s.
  Number of references:  15
  Main heading:  Clutches
  Controlled terms:  Computer simulation  -  Friction  -  Pistons
  Uncontrolled terms:  Analysis and simulation  -  Dynamic balance  -  Dynamic characteristics  -  Dynamic performance  -  Hydro-viscous drives  -  Mathematics model  -  Response speed  -  Wear problems
  Classification code:  602.2 Mechanical Transmissions  -  612.1.1 Internal Combustion Engine Components  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  931.1 Mechanics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.001
  Database:  Compendex

27. Accession number:  20143017975964
  Title:  Research on accumulator charging characteristics of hydraulic brake system
  Authors:  Guo, Rui1, 2 ; Chang, Ronglei1 ; Zhao, Jingyi1 ; Bu, Dan1 ; Li, Xiaogang3 
  Author affiliation:  1  Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Heavy Machinery Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
 2  Jiangsu To Morning Machinery Group Co., Lianyungang 222000, China
 3  Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging and Stamping Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
  Corresponding author:  Guo, R. (guorui@ysu.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  7-12 18
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Charging characteristics of accumulator play an important role in the safety and reliability of hydraulic braking system. The charging characteristics of an electro-hydraulic braking system and its key structural element, priority unloading valve, were studied. In the charging process of accumulator of the braking system, the mechanisms of the priority unloading valve and its system components were analyzed to establish the mathematical model for it and to build the simulation and test platform for the charging system. The dynamic characteristics of the accumulator charging system were studied; the changing laws of the parameters such as pressure, flow and time, were gained; and the response law of the priority valve to accumulator charging characteristics was revealed. The research results show that the designed priority unloading valve can meet the requirements of accumulator charging characteristics.
  Number of references:  17
  Main heading:  Hydraulic accumulators
  Controlled terms:  Electric charge  -  Hydraulic brakes  -  Mathematical models  -  Unloading
  Uncontrolled terms:  Accumulator  -  Accumulator charging systems  -  Charging characteristics  -  Dynamic characteristics  -  Electro-hydraulic braking  -  Hydraulic brake systems  -  Hydraulic braking  -  Structural elements
  Classification code:  601.1 Mechanical Devices  -  602 Mechanical Drives and Transmissions  -  674.1 Small Marine Craft  -  701.1 Electricity: Basic Concepts and Phenomena  -  921 Mathematics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.002
  Database:  Compendex

28. Accession number:  20143017975967
  Title:  Gear shift strategy for a new 8-speed automatic transmission
  Authors:  Liu, Yang1 ; Wang, Shuhan1 ; Lu, Xi1 ; Song, Tingbin2 ; Wei, Wenshu2 ; Xu, Xiangyang1 
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
 2  Engineering Technology Research Center, Shengrui Transmission Co., Ltd., Weifang 261205, China
  Corresponding author:  Wang, S. (wsh@buaa.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  26-34
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  In order to achieve engineering application for a new 8-speed automatic transmission, a simplified dynamic model for hydraulic automatic transmission was built and key control parameters that affect shift quality were analyzed. For the four basic shift types, the ideal curves of shift clutch and engine control were set up. Based on torque estimation method, PI slip control algorithm and engine coordinated control theory, the control model and transmission controller were developed for three shift phases which included rapid-fill phase, torque phase and speed phase. In rapid-fill phase the command pressure at oncoming clutch was set as the kiss point at which point the oncoming clutch just transmits torque , in torque phase the torque change rate at off going clutch was controlled as similar as oncoming clutch based on torque estimation, in speed phase the engine torque reduction control was added to reduce the shift jerk. An environment of the rig and vehicle tests was built and the testing results obtained in extreme conditions can verify the accuracy and feasibility of this shift control strategy. The peak jerk during shift process was reduced significantly and the smooth gearshift was obtained. The strategy has high value for engineering application.
  Number of references:  15
  Main heading:  Torque
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  Applications  -  Clutches  -  Engines
  Uncontrolled terms:  Automatic transmission  -  Co-ordinated control  -  Engine control  -  Engineering applications  -  Extreme conditions  -  Shift controls  -  Shift strategy  -  Torque estimation
  Classification code:  421 Strength of Building Materials; Mechanical Properties  -  451.2 Air Pollution Control  -  602.2 Mechanical Transmissions  -  612 Engines  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  921 Mathematics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.005
  Database:  Compendex

29. Accession number:  20143017975982
  Title:  Defining agricultural management zones using remote sensing and GIS techniques for drip-irrigated cotton fields
  Authors:  Zhang, Ze1 ; Lü, Xin1 ; Lü, Ning1 ; Chen, Jian1 ; Li, Xinwei1 ; Feng, Bo2 
  Author affiliation:  1  Agricultural College, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, China
 2  The Committee of Shihezi National Agricultural Science and Technology Park, Shihezi 832003, China
  Corresponding author:  Lü, X. (lxshz@126.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  125-132
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Fuzzy c-means clustering was used to define soil-nutrient management zones. Remote sensing (RS) data, soil sampling data, and a combination of both were tested to identify which data source was the best for partitioning optimum zones, using a geographical information system and various statistical techniques. The study area was a region of large-scale drip-irrigated cotton cultivation in China. For all three data sources, the area was portioned into three zones. With the aim to confirm the resulting zones, the coefficient of variation of the nutrient index was calculated for the RS data, soil data, and combination of both types of data. There was no significant difference among the results calculated using the three data types. The least spatial variation in soil nutrient content was found within the same management zones, with larger variation between zones. The highest degree of conformity (91.36%) with zones derived using actual cotton production data was found for the management zones defined using the combination of RS and soil data. Using soil nutrient data alone, the degree of conformity was lower, at 84.40%. The lowest conformity (75.46%) was found for the zones based on the RS data alone (using the normalized difference vegetation index). The method proposed here, using fuzzy c-means clustering and a combination of RS and soil sampling data, can be useful in determining zones for optimal fertilizer application and resource management in cotton systems.
  Number of references:  23
  Main heading:  Information management
  Controlled terms:  Cotton  -  Cultivation  -  Fuzzy clustering  -  Fuzzy systems  -  Geographic information systems  -  Irrigation  -  Nutrients  -  Remote sensing  -  Sampling  -  Soils
  Uncontrolled terms:  Agricultural management  -  Coefficient of variation  -  Drip irrigation  -  Fuzzy C means clustering  -  Management zones  -  Normalized difference vegetation index  -  Remote sensing and GIS  -  Statistical techniques
  Classification code:  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.3 Database Systems  -  731.1 Control Systems  -  801 Chemistry  -  821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control  -  903.2 Information Dissemination
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.020
  Database:  Compendex

30. Accession number:  20143017975999
  Title:  Extraction of small river information based on object-oriented classification
  Authors:  Liu, Wei1 ; Wang, Conghua1 ; Zhao, Erping1 ; Du, Hejuan1 
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Information Engineering, Tibet University for Nationalities, Xianyang 712082, China
  Corresponding author:  Liu, W. (remote2009@126.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  237-244
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  A hybrid method for small river-water extraction using TM images, covering Hengshan County in Shaanxi Province and acquired in August 20, 2010 and August 2, 1986, is proposed. After the pretreatment of the original image data, WFS feature space is built. Then, WFS is segmented to remove the influence of background spectral interference by aid of overlay analysis with thematic maps, such as present land use map, topographic map and drainage map. Next, the multispectral images containing the preliminary water distribution information are processed with LBV transformation and object-oriented segmentation. Further, the precise extraction of river water can be achieved by using SVM supervised classification and mathematical morphology open-close operator. Finally, water dynamic analysis is accomplished by adopting the precise water change information acquired from the above results. Results show that using the method provided can get precise water distribution information in Hengshan County, especially can improve the identification accuracy for small river. The map accuracy of water extraction results in 1986 and 2010 are 0.921 and 0.875, respectively, and the user's accuracy are 0.913 and 0.862, respectively. The hierarchical extraction method proposed is feasible and reliable for small river-water extraction, can reduce the error of loess hilly and gully region identification, significantly.
  Number of references:  28
  Main heading:  Extraction
  Controlled terms:  Image segmentation  -  Landforms  -  Maps  -  Mathematical morphology  -  Rivers  -  Sediments  -  Water resources  -  Water supply systems
  Uncontrolled terms:  Hierarchical extraction  -  Identification accuracy  -  Loess hilly and gully region  -  Multispectral remote sensing  -  Object oriented classification  -  Object-oriented segmentation  -  Spectral interference  -  Supervised classification
  Classification code:  444 Water Resources  -  444.1 Surface Water  -  446.1 Water Supply Systems  -  481.1 Geology  -  483 Soil Mechanics and Foundations  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  802.3 Chemical Operations  -  902.1 Engineering Graphics  -  921 Mathematics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.037
  Database:  Compendex

31. Accession number:  20143017975971
  Title:  Fruit quality detection based on machine vision technology when picking litchi
  Authors:  Xiong, Juntao1 ; Zou, Xiangjun2 ; Liu, Nian2 ; Peng, Hongxing2 ; Li, Jinhong1 ; Lin, Guichao2 
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Informatics, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
 2  Key Lab of Key Technology on Agricultural Machine and Equipment, Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
  Corresponding author:  Zou, X. (xjzou1@163.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  54-60
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  In order to judge fruit quality real-timely, three conditions of litchi fruit, immature, mature and appearance rot after mature, were analyzed by using the fruit images of different growth periods in natural environment. The YCbCr color space model was selected and the exploratory analysis method was used to analyze and estimate the Cr component of litchi images of different parts, different illuminations and different growing periods, and the threshold ranges of Cr components of mature and immature litchi fruits was determined; for mature litchi, the fruit edge detection and Hough circle fitting processing were carried out on the Cr component diagram to mark litchi fruits. And then the texture statistics and the method that combining the color feature and area ratio of different parts of litchi fruit were used to judge litchi fruit deterioration. Finally, the vision intelligent judgment for the immature, mature and appearance rot of litchi fruit was realized and an intelligent system to identify litchi fruit quality was built. The test results show that the accuracy of identify litchi fruit quality is 93%.
  Number of references:  30
  Main heading:  Computer vision
  Controlled terms:  Edge detection  -  Error detection  -  Fruits  -  Intelligent systems
  Uncontrolled terms:  Color features  -  Component diagrams  -  Exploratory analysis  -  Fruit quality  -  Litchi  -  Natural environments  -  Picking  -  Ycbcr color spaces
  Classification code:  716 Telecommunication; Radar, Radio and Television  -  721.1 Computer Theory, Includes Formal Logic, Automata Theory, Switching Theory, Programming Theory  -  723.4 Artificial Intelligence  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  821.4 Agricultural Products
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.009
  Database:  Compendex

32. Accession number:  20143017976008
  Title:  Pose registration technology of complex surfaces based on the maximum-entropy principle
  Authors:  Tan, Gaoshan1, 2 ; Zhang, Liyan1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
 2  School of Mathematics and Physics, Anhui University of Technology, Ma'anshan 243002, China
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, L. (zhangly@nuaa.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  300-305
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  The pose registration between 3D measured data and freeform surface design model is the key to complex surface machining and inspection. In order to realize fast and accurate surface registration, a method based on the maximum-entropy principle was proposed. A unified mathematics model was developed based on the analyses of machining localization and the registration problem of quality evaluation of parts. The efficient numerical algorithm for the unified model was researched. Based on the maximum entropy principle, the registration problem established on the min-max criterion was converted to a perturbed problem with the entropy function as the perturbation. As a result, the non-differentiable object function is perfectly substituted with the maximum entropy function. This provides a possibility to improve the efficiency of solving registration problems. Experimental results about the allowance distribution and the error inspection show the validity and practicability of the method.
  Number of references:  18
  Main heading:  Problem solving
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  Maximum entropy methods
  Uncontrolled terms:  Complex surface machining  -  Free-form surface design  -  Maximum-entropy principle  -  Min-max  -  Numerical algorithms  -  Quality evaluation  -  Registration problems  -  Surface registration
  Classification code:  716.1 Information Theory and Signal Processing  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  921 Mathematics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.046
  Database:  Compendex

33. Accession number:  20143017976006
  Title:  Hybrid rate-dependent hysteresis model in giant magnetostrictive actuaor
  Authors:  Liu, Xiaoliang1 ; Wu, Yijie1 ; Zhang, Yizhi1 ; Peng, Huanghu1 
  Author affiliation:  1  The State Key Lab of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
  Corresponding author:  Wu, Y. (wyj1116@zju.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  286-291
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  The hysteresis of giant magnetostrictive actuator has the property of rate-dependence. A new model for the rate-dependent hysteresis was proposed by using hybrid modeling method. The model is composed of a linearity element and a rate-dependent hysteresis element. First, the rate-independent hysteresis of the system was modeled by modified PI model when 2 Hz sinusoidal signal was employed to excite the system. Second, the coupling response of the linearity and the hysteresis elements was decoupled by the method of combining the inversion of the rate-independent hysteresis model and fitting method when 100 Hz sinusoidal signal was employed to excite the system. Then, a new rate-dependent hysteresis model was proposed and implemented on the above bases. At last, the hybrid rate-dependent hysteresis model was obtained by connecting the linearity element and the rate-dependent hysteresis element in series. Compared with rate-independent hysteresis model and hybrid rate-independent hysteresis model, the proposed hybrid model is more accurate than other models.
  Number of references:  16
  Main heading:  Hysteresis
  Controlled terms:  Hysteresis loops  -  Magnetostrictive devices
  Uncontrolled terms:  Giant magnetostrictive  -  Giant magnetostrictive actuator  -  Hybrid modeling methods  -  Pi models  -  Rate-dependent  -  Rate-dependent hysteresis  -  Rate-independent hysteresis  -  Sinusoidal signals
  Classification code:  704 Electric Components and Equipment  -  714 Electronic Components and Tubes  -  921 Mathematics  -  961 Systems Science
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.044
  Database:  Compendex

34. Accession number:  20143017975966
  Title:  Semi-active control of automotive air suspension based on fractional calculus
  Authors:  Wu, Guangqiang1, 2 ; Huang, Huanjun1 ; Ye, Guanghu1 
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Automotive Studies, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China
 2  Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
  Corresponding author:  Wu, G. (wuguangqiang@tongji.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  19-25
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  In order to study the application of fractional calculus in the control of semi-active air suspensions, a 4-DOF nonlinear dynamic model of semi-active air suspension system was built. A modified Oustaloup filter algorithm was adopted to simulate fractional calculus. The simulation model of semi-active suspension with fractional-order sky-hook damping was developed. And its simulation results were compared with those of passive suspension and semi-active suspension with integral-order sky-hook damping. The comparison results indicate that in contrast to passive suspension, when the car is running at the speed of 20 m/s on grade B road, the integral-order and fractional-order sky-hook damping control strategies reduce weighted RMS (root-mean-square) values of vehicle body vertical acceleration by 31.9% and 43.9%, and decrease RMS values of pitching angular acceleration by 23.1% and 30.7%. The results further show that the semi-active control based on fractional calculus could suppress vehicle body resonance more effectively.
  Number of references:  16
  Main heading:  Suspensions (components)
  Controlled terms:  Automobile suspensions  -  Calculations  -  Computer simulation  -  Hooks  -  Vehicles
  Uncontrolled terms:  Air suspension  -  Angular acceleration  -  Fractional-order calculus  -  Ride comforts  -  Semi active suspension  -  Semi-active air suspensions  -  Sky-hook damping  -  Vertical accelerations
  Classification code:  432 Highway Transportation  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  632.1 Hydraulics  -  693.1 Cranes  -  721 Computer Circuits and Logic Elements  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  921 Mathematics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.004
  Database:  Compendex

35. Accession number:  20143017975979
  Title:  Internal flow and pressure pulsation characteristics of screw axial-flow pumps
  Authors:  Zhu, Rongsheng1 ; Long, Yun1 ; Lin, Peng2 ; Jiang, Xusong1 ; He, Bo1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
 2  School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
  Corresponding author:  Zhu, R. (jsgqby@sina.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  103-110
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  For the study of screw pump internal flow and pressure pulsation characteristics, ICEM-CFD was applied to structure mesh generation for flow components, and the steady and unsteady simulations were carried out by CFX software to get the pump internal flow and the pressure pulsations of the monitoring points. The results are as follows: under 0.8Q condition, there is local high-pressure area and whirlpools existing at the junction of the hub and the blade, which gradually decrease and eventually disappear as the flow rate increasing; under the design condition and 1.2Q condition, the internal pressure and velocity distributions gradually become uniform, the flow is stable and the inflow is smooth. The pressure coefficient fluctuation amplitudes of the inlet and outlet of guide vane are significantly greater than that of the impeller and have obvious peaks and troughs; the pressure pulsation mainly generates in the low frequency region, reduces with a cyclical trend, and its amplitudes are generated at the frequencies that are the whole-number multiple of the natural frequency. Among the monitoring points, the pressure pulsation amplitude of the inlet is the largest, and the amplitude of blade rim side is larger than that of the hub side. Pressure fluctuation amplitudes of monitoring points at the outlet are uniform and small. In the whole process of pump operation, the smooth downward flow head curve and power curve are obtained, and there is no saddle area and overload phenomenon occurred. These meet the design requirements. Prediction curves are basically consistent with the experimental curves. It indicates that the numerical simulation is accurate and has certain value for spiral axial flow pump design.
  Number of references:  16
  Main heading:  Design
  Controlled terms:  Computational fluid dynamics  -  Computer simulation  -  Experiments  -  Numerical models
  Uncontrolled terms:  Axial flow pump  -  Fluctuation amplitudes  -  Internal flows  -  Low frequency regions  -  Pressure and velocity distributions  -  Pressure coefficients  -  Pressure pulsation  -  Unsteady simulations
  Classification code:  408 Structural Design  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  901.3 Engineering Research  -  921 Mathematics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.017
  Database:  Compendex

36. Accession number:  20143017975981
  Title:  Basin scale spatial distribution of soil air permeability and analysis of its impact factors
  Authors:  Wang, Weihua1 ; Wang, Quanjiu2 ; Zhang, Zhipeng1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Faculty of Modern Agricultural Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China
 2  Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-electric Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China
  Corresponding author:  Wang, Q. (wquanjiu@163.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  118-123
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  In order to define the spatial distribution of soil air permeability and do correlation analysis of its impact factors in basin scale, researches in Jinghui irrigation district at the middle of Shaanxi province were made. Based on the spatial analysis function of geographic information systems, the results show that the optimal fitting model for air permeability is an exponential model, and the statistical method is suitable to simulate the spatial structure and variation characteristics of soil air permeability. The bulk density, saturated moisture content, saturated degree and soil air permeability's spatial autocorrelation C/(C C0) are all greater than 0.9. It shows the spatial heterogeneity induced by the autocorrelation has a strong degree in the spatial heterogeneity of the study scale. Recommend sampling distances of air permeability is 7.5 km. Significant correlation is found between bulk density and soil air permeability, and the absolute value of Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.595. High correlation is found between soil air permeability and saturated degree, and the absolute value of Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.959. The bulk density and the saturated degree are proved to be the main impact factors by interactive correlation analysis between air permeability and soil physical parameters. The influence ranges of bulk density and soil saturation degree on air permeability are both from -20 km to 20 km at 95% confidence level.
  Number of references:  20
  Main heading:  Air permeability
  Controlled terms:  Autocorrelation  -  Geographic information systems  -  Soils  -  Spatial distribution  -  Spatial variables measurement
  Uncontrolled terms:  Basin scale  -  Impact factor  -  Interactive correlation  -  Soil air permeabilities  -  Spatial variability
  Classification code:  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  723.3 Database Systems  -  819.5 Textile Products and Processing  -  921 Mathematics  -  922 Statistical Methods  -  943.2 Mechanical Variables Measurements
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.019
  Database:  Compendex

37. Accession number:  20143017975970
  Title:  Design and coordinated motion simulation of transplanting robot for column cultivation
  Authors:  Liu, Jizhan1 ; Liu, Wei1 ; Mao, Hanping1 ; Xi, Ning2 ; Li, Pingping3 
  Author affiliation:  1  Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Ministry of Education, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
 2  Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, United States
 3  College of Forest Resources and Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
  Corresponding author:  Liu, J. (liujizhan@163.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  48-53 72
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  A transplanting robot aiming at the new spiral culture column was developed. The electromagnet type and structure parameters of the double-needle electromagnet-driven end-effector were decided with geometrical and force-balance analyses. The coordinated motion simulations of plug tray seedling transplanting robot for column cultivation were carried out on a virtual prototype to find out the optimal structure parameters of the manipulator, the optimal layout of the system and the time sequence of coordinated motions of different components. And the flow diagram of coordinated motion was constructed. Tests of the real prototype indicate that the horizontal and vertical positioning errors of the manipulator are 2.24 and 0.63 mm, respectively, and the success rate of transplanting achieves 94.7%. The working efficiency of transplanting to columns no higher than 1.2 m achieves 750 hills per hour, and the seedling picking-up time is only 0.2 s, which can meet the practical requirements of automatic transplanting of column cultivation.
  Number of references:  28
  Main heading:  Manipulators
  Controlled terms:  Electromagnets  -  Machine design  -  Robots  -  Structural optimization
  Uncontrolled terms:  Coordinated motion  -  Force-Balance analysis  -  Optimal structures  -  Practical requirements  -  Seedling transplanting  -  Simulation  -  Structure parameter  -  Working efficiency
  Classification code:  601 Mechanical Design  -  704.1 Electric Components  -  731.5 Robotics  -  921.5 Optimization Techniques
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.008
  Database:  Compendex

38. Accession number:  20143017976009
  Title:  Analysis of eddy viscosity models in predicting flow field of high-speed water jet
  Authors:  Yang, Minguan1 ; Lu, Jin'gang1 ; Wang, Yuli2 ; Gong, Chen1 ; Yan, Longlong1 
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
 2  Department of Mechanics, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm 10044, Sweden
  Corresponding author:  Yang, M. (mgyang@ujs.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  306-312
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Three commonly used two-equation turbulence models were adopted. The computed velocity field was compared with the data from corresponding laser Doppler anemometer measurement to analyze the accuracy of these models. By adjusting the model parameters, the simulation data can fit into the experimental result. The optimal viscosity coefficients Cμ in these used eddy viscosity models were presented. It is shown that the RNG k-Ε model is more sensitive to Cμ, while the results from Standard k-Ε model vary almost linearly with the change of the Cμ value. Study on the simulated flow field gives that if the peak of turbulence kinetic energy appears within the radial span, it will affect the velocity distribution along the jet axis; otherwise, it will modify the velocity magnitude. The proposed numerical scheme reduces the physical complexities involved in ultra-high pressure injection process so that it can be applied to archive fast production from relevant CAE workflow.
  Number of references:  15
  Main heading:  Computer simulation
  Controlled terms:  Flow fields  -  Kinetics  -  Lasers  -  Navier Stokes equations  -  Velocity  -  Viscosity
  Uncontrolled terms:  Doppler  -  High speed water jet  -  High-speed water jets  -  Laser Doppler anemometers  -  Reynolds-averaged  -  Turbulence kinetic energy  -  Turbulent viscosity  -  Two-equation turbulence models
  Classification code:  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  744.1 Lasers, General  -  931.1 Mechanics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.047
  Database:  Compendex

39. Accession number:  20143017975985
  Title:  Plantation system evolution analysis of Hetao irrigation district in recent 50 years
  Authors:  Cao, Lianhai1, 2 ; Wu, Pute1 ; Zhao, Xining1 ; Wang, Yubao1 
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Resource and Environment Science, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
 2  School of Resource and Environment Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450045, China
  Corresponding author:  Wu, P. (gjzwpt@vip.sina.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  144-150
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Hetao irrigation district in Inner Mongolia was selected as the study site. The domination principle of synergetic was used for analysis. Order parameters were established in three subsystems of the plantation system: resources environment, socio-economic and plantation structure subsystem, respectively. The order degree and coordination degree of the system from 1960 to 2008 were calculated by a system identification model based on synergetic theory. Furthermore, the changes on the coordinating degree were analyzed as well as the synergy and difference features. The threshold values were then put forward for informing reasonable plantation structure. The results show that the coordination degree of the plantation system presents fluctuation changes, but the changes are relatively low. Particularly, a break occurred in 2004 and shows significantly difference characteristics. Finally, a reasonable threshold interval of proportion for crop plantation was put forward. It is grain (47.82%, 62.66%) and economic crops (24.64%, 43.49%).
  Number of references:  27
  Main heading:  Irrigation
  Controlled terms:  Crops
  Uncontrolled terms:  Coordinating degree  -  Coordination degree  -  Hetao irrigation districts  -  Ordering degree  -  Resources environments  -  Synergetic and difference features  -  Synergetic theory  -  System identification models
  Classification code:  821.3 Agricultural Methods  -  821.4 Agricultural Products
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.023
  Database:  Compendex

40. Accession number:  20143017975977
  Title:  Investigation on vortex strength function along midline of axial impeller airfoils
  Authors:  Yan, Jing1, 2 ; Kan, Nengqi1, 2 ; Zhou, Xucheng3 ; Wang, Li3 
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Energy and Environment, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Fluid and Power Machinery, Ministry of Education, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039, China
 3  Yongyi Pump Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610300, China
  Corresponding author:  Yan, J. (jingyan16@aliyun.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  93-97 143
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Singular point distribution method is an important approach in axial blade design for computing and shaping midline of axial impeller airfoils on a developed flow plane. The principle involved in this method is to place continuous vortices along the midline to replace airfoils, to induce a plane velocity field meeting the requirement of specified pump performance, and, finally, to form the required microbending airfoil midline. A proper strength function of vortex sheet is a primary to realize this object. It is found that the commonly defined strength function is only suitable for flow conditions in runner plane airfoils. We presented a new vortex strength function differing from the traditional one and justified the reasonableness of the new theorem by potential flow theories: the resultant velocity normal to the sheet is zero, in compliance with the fact that the flow can't penetrate the solid airfoil; the computed velocities at the front and rear points of the airfoil in a uniform stream indicate these two points are in agreement with Kutta-Chaplygin conditions. The paper formulates a new way for axial airfoil design.
  Number of references:  15
  Main heading:  Airfoils
  Controlled terms:  Design  -  Impellers  -  Velocity  -  Vortex flow
  Uncontrolled terms:  Axial flow impellers  -  Continuous vortices  -  Potential-flow theory  -  Pump performance  -  Resultant velocities  -  Singular point distribution methods  -  Singularity approach  -  Strength function
  Classification code:  408 Structural Design  -  601.2 Machine Components  -  631.1 Fluid Flow, General  -  652.1 Aircraft, General  -  931.1 Mechanics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.015
  Database:  Compendex

41. Accession number:  20143017975984
  Title:  Influence of surface application of biogas slurry on ammonia volatilization and dynamic distribution of soil nitrogen
  Authors:  Wang, Zhongjiang1 ; Cai, Kangni1 ; Wang, Lili1 ; Li, Wenzhe1 ; Wang, Guangyuan1 
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
  Corresponding author:  Wang, Z. (neauwzj@126.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  139-143
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  In order to investigate the law of ammonia volatilization and nitrogen infiltration in the process of biogas slurry surface application, the rules of ammonia volatilization of soil surface and the infiltration of total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and water in vertical soil profile were systematically explored by soil column experiments at room temperature. The experimental results show that the ammonia volatilization mainly happened in the first five days, which accounts for 97% of total amount. And the maximum daily ammonia volatilization is 93.24 mg/(L·d), which appeared from the second day to the third day. The infiltration rate of ammonia nitrogen lagged behind the water infiltration. The distributions of water, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen mainly exist in 0~5 cm soil. And the distribution area of nitrate nitrogen is 0~15 cm, bigger than that of ammonia nitrogen. The variation of ammonia nitrogen of topsoil has a high to low trend. And the whole variant trend of nitrate nitrogen of topsoil is opposite to the ammonia nitrogen.
  Number of references:  17
  Main heading:  Ammonia
  Controlled terms:  Biogas  -  Infiltration  -  Nitrates  -  Nitrogen  -  Soils
  Uncontrolled terms:  Ammonia volatilization  -  Biogas slurry  -  Distribution area  -  Dynamic distribution  -  Infiltration rate  -  Soil-column experiment  -  Surface applications  -  Water infiltration
  Classification code:  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  522 Gas Fuels  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  804.2 Inorganic Compounds
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.022
  Database:  Compendex

42. Accession number:  20143017975969
  Title:  Application of MIM technology in GDI injector production
  Authors:  Cheng, Qiang1 ; Zhang, Zhendong1 ; Guo, Hui2 ; Xie, Nailiu1 
  Author affiliation:  1  Institute of Automotive Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China
 2  College of Automotive Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, Z. (usstzzd@126.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  41-47
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Magnetic circuit parts as key components in GDI injector require highly processing technology, but the traditional metal cutting exists the problems of low efficiency, low precision, low material utilization rate and unstable performance, so the metal injection molding technology (MIM technology) was introduced into the GDI injector production. According to the forming characteristics of GDI injector and the performance requirements of the MIM technology, the Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy powder Fe73.5Cu1Nb3 Si13.5B9 was selected as the molding material of GDI injector magnetic circuit parts, and the structures of the magnetic circuit parts were optimized. Through tracking test of the whole sample production process, the advantages of the MIM technology compared with the traditional technology were analyzed. The MIM technology has advantages in manufacture, physicochemical properties, soft magnetic properties. The characteristics of the GDI injector based on different molding technique were compared by the method of 3D electromagnetic finite element simulation and experiment. The results show that, the simples which were processed by the MIM technology effectively reduce the influence of the skin effect and eddy current loss, accelerate the starting current rise rate, shorten the dynamic response time, increase the dynamic injection quantity and expand the linear range of dynamic fuel injection quantity. The comprehensive performance of GDI injector is improved significantly.
  Number of references:  18
  Main heading:  Technology
  Controlled terms:  Dynamic response  -  Magnetic circuits  -  Magnetic materials  -  Metal cutting  -  MIM devices  -  Molding
  Uncontrolled terms:  Circuit components  -  Comprehensive performance  -  Fe-based nanocrystalline  -  Finite element simulations  -  GDI injector  -  Metal injection molding  -  Performance requirements  -  Physicochemical property
  Classification code:  408.1 Structural Design, General  -  535.2 Metal Forming  -  604.1 Metal Cutting  -  701.2 Magnetism: Basic Concepts and Phenomena  -  708.4 Magnetic Materials  -  714.2 Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits  -  901 Engineering Profession
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.007
  Database:  Compendex

43. Accession number:  20143017975991
  Title:  Selection method of the time temperature indicator based on the contour lines
  Authors:  Ma, Changyang1 ; Fu, Zetian2 ; Yao, Mengmeng1 ; Zhang, Xiaoshuan1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
 2  College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, X. (zhxshuan@cau.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  183-188
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  In view of the situation that the kinetic model which is necessary for the traditional time temperature indicator (TTI) selection method is complex and inaccurate for the multiple regressions, a convenient and intuitive method based on the contour lines was proposed. The method is demonstrated in theory, and analyzed with the traditional method through an experiment about Muscat Hamburg grape and four kinds of TTI. The result shows that the TTI of Vitsab M25-2 could be considered as the best candidate to monitor firmness losses of Muscat Hamburg, and this is similar to the result from the traditional kinetic model. Meanwhile, the differences of the contour lines between the grape and TTIs are positive correlated with the differences between the activation energy of them, which confirms the reliability of the TTI selection method based on contour lines.
  Number of references:  19
  Main heading:  Contour measurement
  Controlled terms:  Activation energy  -  Kinetic parameters  -  Kinetic theory  -  Temperature measuring instruments
  Uncontrolled terms:  Contour line  -  Kinetic modeling  -  Multiple regressions  -  Selection methods  -  Time-temperature indicators
  Classification code:  931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity  -  943.3 Special Purpose Instruments  -  944.5 Temperature Measuring Instruments
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.029
  Database:  Compendex

44. Accession number:  20143017976013
  Title:  Design and application of a control algorithm for hydraulic lifting system of the hot platen in continuous flat press
  Authors:  Miao, Hu1 ; Zhou, Yucheng1, 2 ; Sheng, Zhenxiang3 ; Hou, Xiaopeng1, 2 ; Zhang, Guoliang1 ; An, Yuan1, 2 
  Author affiliation:  1  Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
 2  Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100091, China
 3  China Foma (Group) Co., Ltd., Beijing 100029, China
  Corresponding author:  Zhou, Y. (zhouyc@caf.ac.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  333-339
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  The hot platen needs to be lifted and descended integrally, and to be kept in horizontal level during the process which was realized by position synchronization control of multiple group hydraulic cylinders. It is a difficult point in control of continuous flat press. In order to solve this problem, a ramp type successive-approximation algorithm was proposed. The algorithm can dynamically select one group of hydraulic cylinder as "virtual main system", and the other groups as "slave system" according to the actual displacement of the hydraulic cylinders in any control cycle. Then the virtual main system can gradually approach the target value step-by-step with a certain ramp. At the same time the slave system tracks the virtual main system in real time, so that it can be realized that the multiple group hydraulic cylinders move synchronously during the lifting and descending process. The algorithm was simulated in Matlab. Then the algorithm was applied to the continuous flat press production line designed by China Foma (Group)Co., Ltd. Production practice indicates that the algorithm can solve the interaction and influence between the multiple group hydraulic cylinders in movement effectively. The synchronous error of the lifting and descending process is 0.5 mm and 0.6 mm respectively. The shock of hydraulic components is less, the process is smooth and the control precision can meet technological requirements.
  Number of references:  23
  Main heading:  Presses (machine tools)
  Controlled terms:  Algorithms  -  Approximation algorithms  -  Mechanical actuators
  Uncontrolled terms:  Design and application  -  Hot platen  -  Hydraulic components  -  Lifting systems  -  Position synchronization  -  Press production lines  -  Production practice  -  Wood-based panels
  Classification code:  603.1 Machine Tools, General  -  732.1 Control Equipment  -  921 Mathematics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.051
  Database:  Compendex

45. Accession number:  20143017976003
  Title:  Segmentation of wheat rust lesion image using PCA and Gaussian mix model
  Authors:  Tian, Jie1, 2 ; Han, Dong3 ; Hu, Qiuxia2 ; Ma, Xiaoyi1, 4  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
 2  College of Information Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
 3  College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa 74135, United States
 4  College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
  Corresponding author:  Ma, X. (xiaoyimasl@yahoo.com.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  267-271
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  In order to improve the segmentation accuracy and reduce the segmentation running time of Gaussian mixture model used on wheat lesion images, a segmentation method based on PCA and Gaussian mixture model was proposed. Firstly, in order to completely use the color information of an image, three primary color channels of the image were obtained through the principal component analysis (PCA) method from R, G, B or H, S, V color channels of this image. Secondly, the image was divided into many blocks, which were then sorted according to their mean pixel values. After sorting, those blocks lying in the front and the rear were selected to comprise a new pixel set by the Gaussian mixture model, and further, the corresponding Gaussian model parameters were obtained. Finally, the proposed method traveled all pixels in the image and classified each pixel into the corresponding Gaussian model category. Experimental results show that the proposed method has gained better promotions in segmentation error rate and running time compared with the traditional segmentation method and is effective for wheat leaf rust lesion segmentation.
  Number of references:  18
  Main heading:  Image segmentation
  Controlled terms:  Color  -  Gaussian distribution  -  Pixels  -  Principal component analysis
  Uncontrolled terms:  Gaussian Mixture Model  -  Image pitches  -  Lesion segmentations  -  PCA  -  Segmentation accuracy  -  Segmentation error rate  -  Three primary colors  -  Wheat rust lesion
  Classification code:  723.5 Computer Applications  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.041
  Database:  Compendex

46. Accession number:  20143017975986
  Title:  Influence of ozone disinfection on phosphorus form transformation in anaerobic swine wastewater
  Authors:  Wang, Feng1 ; Zhang, Yue1 ; Xue, Changliang1 ; Shi, Ya'nan1 ; Zhang, Keqiang1 ; Zhang, Longjiang2 
  Author affiliation:  1  Institute of Agro-environmental Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191, China
 2  Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042, China
  Corresponding author:  Wang, F. (wangfeng_530@163.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  151-155
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  As a kind of advanced oxidation technology, ozone aeration has been widely used in wastewater treatment and disinfection. Ozone aeration of piggery wastewater also significantly affects the forms of phosphorus and effectiveness, which have important effects on the utilization of pigfarm effluent regeneration in farmland. In order to study the influences of different durations of ozone aeration on the phosphorus content and form transformation in anaerobic swine wastewater, the experiment, sampling and measuring the content of phosphorus in different forms, was conducted on self-designed apparatus, with five different durations of ozone aeration, 0 min, 10 min, 20 min, 40 min, 60 min, respectively. The results show that different durations of ozone aeration remarkably affect the content of phosphorus in different forms in wastewater system. Specifically, the contents of total soluble phosphorus, soluble inorganic phosphorus, total organic phosphorus and particulate organic phosphorus show decline trends with the magnitudes of 30.28%, 41.80%, 34.92% and 79.53% at the end of aeration lasted for 60 min, respectively. By the contrary, the contents of soluble organic phosphorus, total particulate phosphorus and particulate inorganic phosphorus show upward trend, which increase by 105.11%, 46.74% and 123.86% at the end of 60 min (P<0.05), respectively. Meanwhile, the loss of gaseous phosphorus is also detected in the absorbing liquid with trace amount, which only occupying 0.38% of the total phosphorus. The total phosphorus content in the wastewater system is basically unchanged. The loss of available phosphorus and the recovery of particulate phosphorus in the swine wastewater after ozone aeration should be taken into consideration.
  Number of references:  24
  Main heading:  Water aeration
  Controlled terms:  Disinfection  -  Effluents  -  Ozone  -  Phosphorus  -  Wastewater treatment
  Uncontrolled terms:  Advanced oxidation technology  -  Available phosphorus  -  Inorganic phosphorus  -  Particulate phosphorus  -  Phosphorus contents  -  Phosphorus form  -  Swine wastewater  -  Waste water systems
  Classification code:  445.1 Water Treatment Techniques  -  452.3 Industrial Wastes  -  452.4 Industrial Wastes Treatment and Disposal  -  462 Biomedical Equipment  -  804 Chemical Products Generally
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.024
  Database:  Compendex

47. Accession number:  20143017976001
  Title:  Evaluation of light use efficiency using the chlorophyll fluorescence spectra
  Authors:  Zhou, Li'na1, 2 ; Yu, Haiye1 ; Yu, Lianjun3 ; Zhang, Lei1 ; Sui, Yuanyuan1 ; Ren, Shun1 
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China
 2  College of Aninal Science and Technology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130600, China
 3  Changchun City Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun 130111, China
  Corresponding author:  Zhang, L. (z_lei@jlu.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  255-259
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Light use efficiency of rice leaves were analyzed using chlorophyll fluorescence spectra in the present research. First of all, photosynthetic rate (net CO2 assimilation rate) of individual leaves and incident photosynthetic active radiation were accessed, and photosynthetic light use efficiency was calculated with them. Meanwhile, laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra of leaves of rice under different light use efficiency were measured using a compact fiber-optic fluorosensor with a solid-state laser at 473 nm as exciting source and an integrated fiber-optic spectrometer at ambient temperature. Then, specific fluorescence spectral bands of leaves were selected to analyze light use efficiency. Significant relations of light use efficiency with F685, F732 and the fluorescence ratio F685/F732 were found, thus indicating functional relations among these parameters. The results show that the precision of the function based on the fluorescence ratio F685/F732 is higher. The assimilation process of CO2 is affected by stomatal conductance and the temperature of leaves is a signature of stomatal conductance. An inverse relation was also found between light use efficiency and temperature of leaves. So measured fluorescence spectra were fitted with a linear combination of regression function corrected by the temperature of leaves to predict light use efficiency, R2=0.885.
  Number of references:  21
  Main heading:  Efficiency
  Controlled terms:  Carbon dioxide  -  Emission spectroscopy  -  Fiber optics  -  Fluorescence  -  Regression analysis  -  Solid state lasers
  Uncontrolled terms:  Chlorophyll fluorescence  -  Fiber-optic spectrometers  -  Fluorescence ratio  -  Fluorescence spectral bands  -  Laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescences  -  Light use efficiency  -  Photosynthetic active radiations  -  Photosynthetic light
  Classification code:  714.2 Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits  -  741.1 Light/Optics  -  741.1.2 Fiber Optics  -  804.2 Inorganic Compounds  -  913.1 Production Engineering  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.039
  Database:  Compendex

48. Accession number:  20143017975992
  Title:  Numerical simulation and parameter optimization on performance of air curtain in cold stores
  Authors:  Xie, Jing1 ; Miao, Chen1 ; Du, Zizheng1 ; Zhu, Jinlin1 
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
  Corresponding author:  Xie, J. (jxie@shou.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  189-195
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Taking a cold store as the experimental objective, the inside environment, air curtain and outside environment of the cold store were simulated by a 3D coupled model. The unsteady simulation of the flow field of the air curtain was performed by using a CFD software and the temperature field inside the cold store was measured. The effects of the supply velocity, supply angle and jet width of the air curtain on its isolation ability were analyzed under the condition that the door and the air curtain were opened simultaneously. The results show that there is an optimal supply velocity and angle to make the air curtain has its best isolation performance and the temperature field inside the cold store has the smallest fluctuation. However, the jet width should not be too large. The optimal supply velocity, angle and jet width of the air curtain for this cold store are 8 m/s, 15° and 0.04 m, respectively.
  Number of references:  20
  Main heading:  Air curtains
  Controlled terms:  Computational fluid dynamics  -  Computer simulation  -  Computer software  -  Numerical models  -  Temperature
  Uncontrolled terms:  CFD softwares  -  Cold stores  -  Coupled modeling  -  Isolation performance  -  Parameter optimization  -  Performance  -  Unsteady simulations
  Classification code:  402 Buildings and Towers  -  641.1 Thermodynamics  -  723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications  -  723.5 Computer Applications  -  921 Mathematics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.030
  Database:  Compendex

49. Accession number:  20143017976012
  Title:  Ultrasonic attenuation model for porosity test of CFRP with variable thickness
  Authors:  Li, Zhao1 ; Zhou, Xiaojun1 ; Yang, Chenlong1 ; Wang, Jianlong1 ; Xu, Jianyong1 ; Zheng, Huifeng2 
  Author affiliation:  1  The State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
 2  College of Metrology and Measurement Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China
  Corresponding author:  Zhou, X. (cmeesky@163.com
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  325-332
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Based on the principle of ultrasonic transmission method with some hypothesis, a relationship model between porosity, the number of layers and the ultrasonic attenuation was established for different CFRP laminates. Firstly, under several assumed conditions, a relationship model between the number of layers and the ultrasonic attenuation was established without porosity. This model can reflect effect of other factors on the ultrasonic attenuation. Then, considering the effect of voids, the model was improved with the factor of porosity. Finally, using the test data of the porosity and ultrasonic attenuation for 5 different laminate test blocks, a fitting porosity mode was given. The analysis and test result show the model has enough precision and can certify the requirement of engineering test. This model can be used to test the porosity of different composite laminates in same bath and doesn't need to prepare too many samples, so it is convenient and fast, as well as cost saving. On the basis, a relationship model between porosity, thickness and ultrasonic attenuation was established by revising the porosity model. As for composites with variable thickness, it is needed to replace the number of layers by thickness. What's more, refraction phenomenon may occur while the ultrasound propagates at the back wall. So other factors should be revised. The analysis shows that, the included angle between the propagation direction and the normal direction of back wall plays an important part in the model. And the attention will increase rapidly with the angle increases. So the model is suitable for the composites with big curvature radiuses.
  Number of references:  15
  Main heading:  Porosity
  Controlled terms:  Carbon fibers  -  Laminated composites  -  Precision engineering  -  Thickness control  -  Ultrasonic waves
  Uncontrolled terms:  Carbon fiber composite  -  Composite laminate  -  Engineering tests  -  Propagation direction  -  Relationship model  -  Ultrasonic attenuation  -  Ultrasonic transmission methods  -  Variable thickness
  Classification code:  415 Metals, Plastics, Wood and Other Structural Materials  -  731.3 Specific Variables Control  -  753.1 Ultrasonic Waves  -  761 Nanotechnology  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.050
  Database:  Compendex

50. Accession number:  20143017976004
  Title:  Discrimination of lettuce leaves' nitrogen status based on hyperspectral imaging technology and ELM
  Authors:  Sun, Jun1 ; Wei, Aiguo1 ; Mao, Hanping2 ; Wu, Xiaohong1 ; Zhang, Xiaodong2 ; Gao, Hongyan2 
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
 2  Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
  Corresponding author:  Sun, J. (sun2000jun@ujs.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  272-277
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Discrimination of crop's nitrogen level can contribute to reasonable and effective fertilization. Lettuces of various nitrogen levels were planted in three soilless nutrient solutions of different nitrogen concentrations. In the rosette stage, 84 lettuce leaves of each nitrogen level were collected and scanned by the hyperspectral imaging acquisition system. In every hyperspectral image of lettuce leaf, four different positions of 60×60 pixel were selected as regions of interest (ROI). The average spectral data of the ROI were used as the original spectra of the leaf samples. The original spectra were preprocessed by the standard normal variate correction (SNV), and their dimensionalities were reduced through principal component analysis (PCA). ELM algorithm was used to establish model for the training samples, and then was compared with BP algorithm model and SVM algorithm model. The results show that the running time of ELM model is 0.623 04 s and its classification accuracy rate is 100%. During the same running time, the classification accuracy rate of ELM model is higher than that of SVM model. At the same classification accuracy rate, the running time of ELM model is shorter than that of BP model.
  Number of references:  17
  Main heading:  Spectroscopy
  Controlled terms:  Grain (agricultural product)  -  Imaging techniques  -  Nitrogen  -  Principal component analysis
  Uncontrolled terms:  Classification accuracy  -  Extreme learning machine  -  Hyperspectral Imaging  -  Hyperspectral imaging technologies  -  Lettuce leaf  -  Nitrogen concentrations  -  Nitrogen status  -  Standard normal variates
  Classification code:  741 Light, Optics and Optical Devices  -  746 Imaging Techniques  -  801 Chemistry  -  804 Chemical Products Generally  -  821.4 Agricultural Products  -  922.2 Mathematical Statistics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.042
  Database:  Compendex

51. Accession number:  20143017975968
  Title:  Research on coupling system and reverse decoupling control of test bench for energy storage system
  Authors:  Li, Yong1 ; Ma, Fei1 ; Kazerani, Mehrdad2 
  Author affiliation:  1  School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
 2  Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo N2L 3G1, Canada
  Corresponding author:  Ma, F. (yeke@ustb.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  35-40
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  A test bench composed by induction motor and dc motor is proposed to test the performance of power source on EVs. The test bench is a complex electromechanical coupling system with mechanical, electrical and magnet fields. The electromechanical coupling model of the system was built. The nonlinear system was linearized with the help of α-order integration inverse system. The adaptive fuzzy-neural network control was applied to the system based on the inverse system control. That also leads to a better decoupling simulation and experimental results. Both of the feedback of AC motor speed and DC motor torque follow the targets. The variations of voltage, current and power on the DC bus of the battery connected with induction motor can be observed, which provides the theoretical foundation for the research on the hybrid energy storage system.
  Number of references:  16
  Main heading:  Adaptive control systems
  Controlled terms:  Complex networks  -  DC motors  -  Electric vehicles  -  Electromechanical coupling  -  Energy storage  -  Induction motors
  Uncontrolled terms:  Adaptive fuzzy-neural networks  -  Coupling systems  -  Decoupling controls  -  Electromechanical coupling system  -  Energy storage systems  -  Hybrid energy storage systems  -  Test benches  -  Theoretical foundations
  Classification code:  432 Highway Transportation  -  701.1 Electricity: Basic Concepts and Phenomena  -  702 Electric Batteries and Fuel Cells  -  705.3.1 AC Motors  -  705.3.2 DC Motors  -  722 Computer Systems and Equipment  -  731.1 Control Systems
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.006
  Database:  Compendex

52. Accession number:  20143017975983
  Title:  Prediction model of soil water-salt based on hyperspectral reflectance characteristics
  Authors:  Wang, Haijiang1, 2 ; Zhang, Hualing1 ; Ren, Shaoting2 ; Li, Baoguo1  
  Author affiliation:  1  College of Resources and Environment, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China
 2  College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, China
  Corresponding author:  Li, B. (libg@cau.edu.cn
  Source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
  Abbreviated source title:  Nongye Jixie Xuebao
  Volume:  45
  Issue:  7
  Issue date:  July 2014
  Publication year:  2014
  Pages:  133-138
  Language:  Chinese
  ISSN:  10001298
  CODEN:  NUYCA3
  Document type:  Journal article (JA)
  Publisher:  Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
  Abstract:  Taking farmland of oasis in Xinjiang Manas as the example, in order to timely, accurately and dynamically monitor water and salinity of saline soils, the partial-least squares regression (PLSR) for model was applied to model the moisture and salt content of different moistures and salt soils based on hyperspectral analysis technique, the stability and predictive ability of the model was validated. The results show that the prediction precision of soil salinity and moisture were effectively improved through continuum removal (CR) and the logarithm of first order differential (lgR)' in 12 kinds of data transformation. The prediction models were better when soil salt content was less than 8.19 dS/m, Rcal2 were greater than 0.79, Rval2 were greater than 0.64, with no significant difference between RMSEP. The prediction precision was poor when soil salt content was greater than 10 dS/m with Rval2 less than 0.45 in the moisture prediction models. The better prediction accuracy when the moisture is less than 15%, Rcal2 were greater than 0.77, Rval2 were greater than 0.64, with RMSEP less than 4.6. The model prediction accuracy was poor when soil moisture greater than 15%. It was concluded that the large soil moisture, salt content will have a significant impact on salt-water prediction model.
  Number of references:  23
  Main heading:  Mathematical models
  Controlled terms:  Forecasting  -  Saline water  -  Soil moisture  -  Soils  -  Water content
  Uncontrolled terms:  First-order differentials  -  HyperSpectral  -  Hyperspectral analysis  -  Hyperspectral reflectance  -  Partial least squares  -  PLSR  -  Prediction model  -  Salinity
  Classification code:  444 Water Resources  -  483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics  -  921 Mathematics
  DOI:  10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2014.07.021
  Database:  Compendex