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2016年第47卷第6期共收录54篇
1. Analysis of lamina emergent slider mechanisms based on series Triple-LET
Accession number: 20162602544402
Authors: Qiu, Lifang (1); Yin, Siqi (1); Xie, Zhongtian (1); Yang, Debin (1)
Author affiliation: (1) School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing; 100083, China
Corresponding author: Yang, Debin(ydb@ustb.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 381-386
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: A new kind of flexure hinge, which was used on LEMs, named Triple-LET was proposed via connecting three outside LET flexure hinges, and its 3D structure was designed and analyzed. The equivalent bending stiffness of the Triple-LET flexure hinge was deduced and a modified coefficient was presented to optimize the results. Based on the modified formula of equivalent bending stiffness, the theoretical calculation of the design example was deduced, and the finite element simulation model of the design example was established and analyzed. Through comparing theoretical calculation results with finite element simulation results of the design example, the feasibility of the Triple-LET flexure hinge was verified. In order to verify the availability of the new flexure hinge in practical application, the Triple-LET flexure hinge was applied to a lamina emergent slider mechanism. The pseudo-rigid-body model of the lamina emergent slider mechanism was established based on the modified equivalent bending stiffness, and the physical model of the lamina emergent slider mechanism was made of beryllium bronze material based on the series Triple-LET flexure hinge. The theoretical calculation results and experimental results were basically consistent, therefore, the correctness of the theoretical model and the feasibility of the design example were verified, and it also indicated that the lamina emergent slider mechanism can implement large deformation and maintain a good stability in working status. 
Number of references: 21
Main heading: Finite element method
Controlled terms: Availability - Bronze - Compliant mechanisms - Design - Hinges - Stiffness
Uncontrolled terms: Bending stiffness - Finite element simulation model - Finite element simulations - Flexure hinge - Lamina emergent mechanisms - Modified coefficient - Pseudo-rigid body models - Theoretical calculations
Classification code: 544.2 Copper Alloys
Copper Alloys
- 921.6 Numerical Methods
Numerical Methods
- 931.1 Mechanics
Mechanics
- 951 Materials Science
Materials Science
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.050
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
2. Experiment on biomass rotary gasifier with bed material
Accession number: 20162602544379
Authors: Yu, Chunjiang (1); Zhai, Xianghe (1); Xie, Guilin (1); Zhou, Yusheng (1); Tu, Hanchao (1)
Author affiliation: (1) State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou; 310027, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 207-214 and 221
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: In order to combine the traditional rotary mechanical disturbance characteristic with the inert bed material heat storage properties, a new type of rotary gasifier was designed. On the basis of the new type of rotary gasifier, a staged gasification and combustion experimental platform was designed and the thermal state test of the system was completed. The effects of rotational speed, equivalence ratio, temperature and other parameters on the gasification reaction system were investigated. The experimental results showed that when rotary furnace speed was controlled at 1~4 r/min, the rotary furnace mixed disturbance characteristics were enhanced with the increase of rotary speed, and temperature distribution was more uniform in the furnace, different parameters were improved in the experimental range, good gas production was got at rotary furnace speed of 3 r/min. When temperature was controlled in the range of 550~700, the gasification parameters were increased with the increase of temperature, and gas calorific value and gasification efficiency were affected greatly by temperature. Under the experimental conditions with temperature of 600~650, the calorific value of combustible gas, gasification efficiency and other indicators were greatly improved. The equivalent ratio (ER) was changed in the range of 0.2~0.4, and it had great impact on gas production of the indicators, with the increase of equivalence ratio, the gas production rate and bed temperature were increased to a certain degree, the change trend of other gasification parameters were firstly increased and then decreased, good gasification results were obtained with ER of 0.3. The typical result showed that gas composition of rotary gasifier was close to that of the fluidized bed, considering the sensible enthalpy, the gasification efficiency was about 79.3% and the carbon conversion rate was about 81.3%. The gasifier energy balance was calculated, and the output efficiency of the system was 86.8%, with heat dissipation as main energy loss way. It was found from the separation of the bottom ash with bed material that about 86% of the total ash content was remained in the bed material area, and more than 90% of it was distributed in the bottom of the bed material area. Experimental results were optimized by controlling the variables for operation and design of new type of gasifier improvement to provide reference. 
Number of references: 22
Main heading: Gasification
Controlled terms: Ash handling - Biomass - Calorific value - Carbon - Energy dissipation - Fluidized bed combustion - Fluidized beds - Furnaces - Gases - Heat storage
Uncontrolled terms: Bed materials - Carbon conversion rate - Experimental conditions - Experimental platform - Gas calorific values - Gasification efficiency - Gasification reaction - Gasifiers
Classification code: 521.1 Fuel Combustion
Fuel Combustion
- 525.4 Energy Losses (industrial and residential)
Energy Losses (industrial and residential)
- 691.1 Materials Handling Equipment
Materials Handling Equipment
- 802.3 Chemical Operations
Chemical Operations
- 804 Chemical Products Generally
Chemical Products Generally
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.027
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
3. Internal pressure fluctuation characteristic of low specific speed mixed flow pump
Accession number: 20162602544358
Authors: Zhai, Jie (1, 2); Zhu, Baoshan (1, 2); Li, Kai (3); Wang, Xuhe (1, 2); Cao, Shuliang (1, 2)
Author affiliation: (1) State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing; 100084, China; (2) Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing; 100084, China; (3) Special Equipment Co., Ltd., CSIC, Wuhan; 430064, China
Corresponding author: Zhu, Baoshan(bszhu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 42-46
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Experiment and numerical simulation research were conducted on a designed mixed flow pump with the low specific speed of 148.8. By comparing the mixed-flow pump performances at different flow rates, the numerical results and the test results were in good agreement. Monitoring points in the internal flow field were set to capture the pressure fluctuations from rotor-stator interface to the guide vane exit in both the experiment and the numerical simulation. Through analyzing the pressure fluctuations of mixed flow pump at the different flow rates, the pressure fluctuations in guide vane were mainly affected by impeller rotation, and the frequency was impeller blade frequency. From rotor-stator interface to the guide vane exit, the average pressure was increased gradually, and the amplitude of pressure fluctuations gradually became weaker. At the off-design points, the pressure fluctuations became more complex. At low flow rate, there were many low frequencies of the vortex fluctuation with low amplitude, which was consistent with flow field in the test. At high flow rate, the main frequency was also the impeller blade frequency, and there were some low frequencies of the vortex fluctuation with low amplitude, which were better than the low flow rate. These results can be useful for further optimization design of mixed flow pump. 
Number of references: 16
Main heading: Rotors
Controlled terms: Computer simulation - Flow fields - Flow rate - Impellers - Numerical models - Stators - Vortex flow
Uncontrolled terms: Internal flow field - Low specific speed - Mixed flow pump - Numerical simulation research - Optimization design - Pressure fluctuation - Rotor-stator interface - Vortex fluctuations
Classification code: 601.2 Machine Components
Machine Components
- 631 Fluid Flow
Fluid Flow
- 631.1 Fluid Flow, General
Fluid Flow, General
- 705.1 Electric Machinery, General
Electric Machinery, General
- 723.5 Computer Applications
Computer Applications
- 921 Mathematics
Mathematics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.006
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
4. Dynamics analysis of 5UPS/PRPU parallel machine tool with redundant actuation based on kane equation
Accession number: 20162602544400
Authors: Lu, Ling (1); Yao, Jiantao (1, 2); Gu, Weidong (1, 2); Liang, Longxiao (1); Xu, Yundou (1, 2); Zhao, Yongsheng (1, 2)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao; 066004, China; (2) Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Parallel Robot and Mechatronic System, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao; 066004, China
Corresponding author: Yao, Jiantao(jtyao@ysu.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 366-372
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: In order to further study and solve the problems of the driving force coordination of parallel machine tool with redundant actuation, build a control system based on dynamics and realize the force-position hybrid control, the original 5UPS/PRPU parallel machine tool was taken as research object, and a drive for middle PRPU constraint branch was increased to make it a redundant actuation branch. Finally, the 5UPS/PRPU parallel machine tool with redundant actuation was built. The Kane equation of higher computation efficiency was taken to establish the dynamics model. The mechanical structure was introduced, the kinematics property of the parallel machine tool was analyzed from the three aspects of speed, partial speed and acceleration. The dynamics model of the system was established, and the redundant driving force was solved. By using ADAMS software, the no-load translation example driving force was simulated and compared with the no-load translation example driving force obtained by Kane dynamic model of the parallel machine tool. The results showed that the simulated and calculated driving forces were very similar, the maximum deviation absolute value was only 0.068N. It proved the validity of Kane dynamical model and obtained the mechanism of driving force coordination and distribution. Redundant actuation can effectively reduce the peak value of driving force of the parallel machine tool and make the driving forces change slowly during the motion process. Besides, it has the advantages of high rigidity, high bearing capacity, good stability and so on. The correct establishment of the dynamic model was the prerequisite of realizing real-time control strategy. It was of great significance to the research on redundant actuation of the parallel machine tool. 
Number of references: 25
Main heading: Machine tools
Controlled terms: Dynamic models - Dynamics - Real time control
Uncontrolled terms: Computation efficiency - Kane dynamic models - Kane equation - Kinematics properties - Mechanical structures - Parallel machine tool - Real-time control strategy - Simulation analysis
Classification code: 603.1 Machine Tools, General
Machine Tools, General
- 731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications
Automatic Control Principles and Applications
- 921 Mathematics
Mathematics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.048
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
5. Parameter calibration method of articulated arm coordinate measuring machine
Accession number: 20162602544118
Authors: Wang, Xueying (1); Wang, Hua (1); Lu, Yi (1); Zhang, Peipei (1)
Author affiliation: (1) Institute of Precision Measurement and Control, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou; 310018, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 408-412
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: The parameters calibration of the articulated arm coordinate measuring machine is the key to ensure the working accuracy of the measuring machine. The disadvantages in the process of the parameters calibration for articulated arm coordinate measuring machine are as follows: complex calibration method and algorithms, poor operability and costly calibration tools production. To solve this problem, the symmetry point method was used to calibrate the parameters of the articulated arm coordinate measuring machine. This calibration method can separate the parameters and make the calibration process more simply. Firstly, the mathematical model of the articulated arm coordinate measuring machine was established based on the quasi spherical coordinate system. The quasi spherical coordinate system was proposed based on the D-H method. This mathematical model can be used to make the parameters orthogonal between the joints. Then, the kinematics equation was deduced. The fixing device was designed according to the requirement of experiment. The experiment was performed on the ROMER Infinite 2.0 articulated arm coordinate measuring machine. The standard ball with a diameter of 15.8754 mm was used to test the accuracy of the calibration parameters. The experimental results were as follows: a5=78.312 mm, a7=25.962 mm, b3=747.489 mm, b5=531.880 mm, b7=178.383 mm, d7=176.484 mm. Through experiments, the relative error of the standard ball diameter was 0.3836%. The results of the experiments showed that this symmetry point method was feasibility and the experimental results were accurate. It establishes the foundation for improving the measuring accuracy of the articulated arm coordinate measuring machine. 
Number of references: 22
Main heading: Calibration
Controlled terms: Coordinate measuring machines
Uncontrolled terms: Articulated arm coordinate-measuring machines - Calibration parameters - Calibration process - Kinematics equation - Parameter calibration - Parameters calibrations - Point methods - Spherical coordinate systems
Classification code: 943.3 Special Purpose Instruments
Special Purpose Instruments
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.054
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
6. Multifractal and multi-scale correlation characteristics of crop information of corn field in black soil region
Accession number: 20162602544373
Authors: Liu, Jilong (1, 2); Zhou, Yan (1); Fu, Qiang (1, 2); Ren, Gaoqi (1); Ma, Xiaoyi (3); Sun, Weijing (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Water Conservancy and Architecture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin; 150030, China; (2) Collaborative Innovation Center of Grain Production Capacity Improvement in Heilongjiang Province, Harbin; 150030, China; (3) College of Hydraulic and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi; 712100, China
Corresponding author: Fu, Qiang(fuqiang@neau.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 163-170 and 162
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Quantitative expression of spatial and temporal variability of crop information is an important step to realize distributed control of water and soil resources in precise agriculture. In order to reveal spatial and temporal variability of crop information in corn field in black soil region, multifractal characteristics of crop information, multi-scale correlations between crop information of different sampling dates and the ones between different crop information were studied with multifractal and joint multifractal methods based on the results of experiments in 48 m×48 m field in Xiangfang Experimental Base of Northeast Agricultural University. The results showed that multifractal characteristic of corn chlorophyll content was not obvious, and stem diameter and plant height had obvious multifractal characteristics. As sampling date changed, the local information that caused spatial variability of chlorophyll content and stem diameter were different, the ones that caused spatial variability of plant height were the same, spatial variability intensity of chlorophyll content and stem diameter was firstly decreased and then increased, and that of plant height was reduced gradually. At the single scale and multi-scale, when sampling date was different, correlation degrees between chlorophyll contents were different, there was difference in correlation degrees between stem diameters, and correlation degrees between plant heights were different; there was difference in sorting of correlation degree of chlorophyll content, stem diameter and plant height. As sampling date changed, correlation degrees between different crop information at the single scale and multi-scale were different, which were decreased gradually. Compared with research results at the single scale, the correlation degrees between chlorophyll contents were increased, the ones between stem diameters were enhanced, the ones between different crop information were augmented, and correlation degrees between plant heights were sometimes increased or decreased at multi-scale. 
Number of references: 18
Main heading: Crops
Controlled terms: Agriculture - Chlorophyll - Fractals - Plants (botany) - Soils
Uncontrolled terms: Black soil regions - Chlorophyll contents - Multi-scale - Multifractal characteristics - Multifraction - Precise agriculture - Spatial and temporal variability - Spatial variability
Classification code: 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 804.1 Organic Compounds
Organic Compounds
- 821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
- 821.4 Agricultural Products
Agricultural Products
- 921 Mathematics
Mathematics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.021
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
7. Applicability of simultaneous heat and water model for monitoring late frost injury of winter wheat
Accession number: 20162602544387
Authors: Liu, Junming (1); Wang, Nian (1); Wang, Pengxin (1); Hu, Xin (2); Huang, Jianxi (1); Pan, Peizhu (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) Wheat Research Institute, Shangqiu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Shangqiu; 476000, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 265-274
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: The late frost injury of winter wheat usually occurs during the jointing-heading stage and may result in severe yield loss in large areas, thus it is of significant importance to monitor and assess late frost injury of winter wheat real-timely and accurately. The simultaneous heat and water (SHAW) model is a detailed process model of heat and water movement in plant-snow-residue-soil system, and it has the capability to simulate heat and water transfer within the canopy. The SHAW model was applied to simulate air temperature within winter wheat young ear layer at the sensitive period after jointing stage in Shangqiu City on the basis of field experiment in 2015, and it was also adopted to monitor occurrence and damage level of late frost injury combining with the days after jointing stage. The results indicated that the air temperature within young ear layer (20~60 cm) was accurately simulated as a whole, in which about 44.7% and 72.5% of the absolute errors of simulated value were less than 1 and 2, respectively, and the simulated air temperature at night was better than that in the daytime. Compared with the minimum air temperature measured at the height of 1.5 m at the meteorological station, the simulated minimum air temperature within the young ear layer of winter wheat and the low temperature duration can well express the low temperature environment of young ear when late frost injury was occurred. There were large differences among the minimum air temperature measured at the meteorological station, the minimum air temperature measured at 2 m height in the winter wheat fields and within the young ear layer because of the influence of field microclimate. The method which transformed air temperature data from the meteorological station into air temperature data at 2 m height in the winter wheat fields was better than the method which used air temperature data from the meteorological station as driving data of SHAW model directly, the minimum air temperature simulated by the former method was close to the measured one, and the late frost injury level evaluated by using the former method was in good agreement with the field surveyed one. Therefore, using SHAW model to monitor late frost injury of winter wheat is feasible and applicable, and compared with the traditional monitoring index of air temperature data from the meteorological station it can enhance the accuracy for monitoring the occurrence and damage level of late frost injury. 
Number of references: 28
Main heading: Atmospheric temperature
Controlled terms: Crops - Meteorology - Shaw process - Temperature
Uncontrolled terms: Air temperature - Applicability - Late frost injury - Shaw model - Winter wheat
Classification code: 443.1 Atmospheric Properties
Atmospheric Properties
- 534.2 Foundry Practice
Foundry Practice
- 641.1 Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
- 821.4 Agricultural Products
Agricultural Products
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.035
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
8. Neural network predictive control for dissolved oxygen based on levenberg-marquardt algorithm
Accession number: 20162602544391
Authors: Li, Minghe (1); Zhou, Lei (1); Wang, Jian (2)
Author affiliation: (1) School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan; 243002, China; (2) Anhui Huaqi Environment Protection Technology Co., Ltd., Maanshan; 243000, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 297-302
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is of great importance to wastewater treatment due to its influence on effluent quality and operational costs. However, the DO concentration is difficult to be controlled owing to the time-varying and nonlinear characteristics. Considering these issues, a neural network predictive controller (NNPC) based on Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm was proposed. Firstly, a simplified DO model was established after reasonable hypotheses and constrains in terms of activated sludge model No. 1 (ASM1) proposed by International Water Association (IWA). Then the NNPC was applied to the simplified DO model through system identification with BP neural network and model prediction. Furthermore, the LM algorithm integrated the advantages of the gradient steepest descent and Newton methods was used to improve the general BP neural network, which overcame the drawbacks of falling into local minimum easily and slow convergence speed. The simulation results indicated that the improved neural network had good performance in system identification with error less than 3%. Compared with conventional PID control and model predictive control (MPC), the NNPC achieved smoother and better tracking performance and brought obvious improvement. Finally, two measured disturbances were added and good adaptability and robustness were obtained by NNPC. In this way, this method not only can achieve the standard of effluent water quality, but also can reduce the energy consumption of aeration significantly. 
Number of references: 20
Main heading: Dissolved oxygen
Controlled terms: Activated sludge process - Algorithms - Dissolution - Effluent treatment - Effluents - Energy utilization - Model predictive control - Neural networks - Newton-Raphson method - Oxygen - Predictive control systems - Religious buildings - Steepest descent method - Three term control systems - Wastewater treatment - Water quality
Uncontrolled terms: Activated sludge model - Dissolved oxygen concentrations - International Water Association - Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm - Measured disturbances - Neural network predictive controls - Nonlinear characteristics - Predictive controller
Classification code: 402.2 Public Buildings
Public Buildings
- 445.2 Water Analysis
Water Analysis
- 452 Municipal and Industrial Wastes; Waste Treatment and Disposal
Municipal and Industrial Wastes; Waste Treatment and Disposal
- 525.3 Energy Utilization
Energy Utilization
- 731.1 Control Systems
Control Systems
- 802.3 Chemical Operations
Chemical Operations
- 804 Chemical Products Generally
Chemical Products Generally
- 921 Mathematics
Mathematics
- 921.6 Numerical Methods
Numerical Methods
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.039
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
9. Review of soil nutrient transport in runoff and its controlling measures
Accession number: 20162602544362
Authors: Wang, Quanjiu (1, 2); Yang, Ting (1, 3); Liu, Yanli (1, 3); Zhao, Guangxu (1, 3); Zhang, Pengyu (1, 3)
Author affiliation: (1) State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-Hydraulic Engineering in Arid Area, Xi’an; 710048, China; (2) State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi; 712100, China; (3) Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-Electric Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an; 710048, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 67-82
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: With the impact of rainfall, soil nutrient transported along soil particles and water into surface runoff. It decreased soil fertility, polluted water resources in surface and ground, and then induced a series of ecological environmental problems, which attracted more attentions of researchers at home and abroad. The objectives of the study mainly focused on the development of both the mechanism and controlling measures of soil nutrient transport proposed by researchers all over the world. For the mechanism, the impact of different factors on soil nutrient transport was mainly discussed, and the empirical models and physical based mathematical models were also discussed. Besides, all mentioned physical based models were based on the inner mechanism of nutrient transfer, including the theory of mixing depth, convection and dispersion, the impact of raindrop and water scouring. For the controlling measures, methods protecting soil and nutrients from erosion and runoff were proposed with consideration of serious erosion phenomenon in China. Meanwhile, the existed problem and further study work were also discussed. 
Number of references: 93
Main heading: Nutrients
Controlled terms: Erosion - Rain - Runoff - Soil conservation - Soils - Solute transport - Water pollution - Water resources
Uncontrolled terms: Empirical model - Environmental problems - Initial water contents - Model fitting - Nutrient transfer - Physical-based models - Slope - Surface runoffs
Classification code: 443.3 Precipitation
Precipitation
- 444 Water Resources
Water Resources
- 444.1 Surface Water
Surface Water
- 453 Water Pollution
Water Pollution
- 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 931 Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity
Classical Physics; Quantum Theory; Relativity
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.010
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
10. Design and test of testing control system for double rows intelligent tobacco topping machine
Accession number: 20162602544359
Authors: Liu, Shuangxi (1, 2); Li, Wei (2); Wang, Jinxing (1, 2); Qi, Wuzhen (2); Zhang, Xiaohui (1, 2); Zhang, Han (2)
Author affiliation: (1) Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Horticultural Machineries and Equipments, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian; 271018, China; (2) College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian; 271018, China
Corresponding author: Wang, Jinxing(jinxingw@163.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 47-52
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: At present, tobacco topping and sprout inhibition is mainly by artificial means, existing machinery can only be achieved ‘make it rigidly uniform’. In order to improve work efficiency of tobacco topping and sprout inhibition, to reduce labor intensity, the machine vision technology is applied to tobacco topping and sprout inhibition operation, to realize intelligent detection of tobacco height. Firstly, the color characteristics of tobacco leaves and tobacco flowers within the visible light band were analyzed, and the dyeing cloth similar to green leaves was selected as image background by using Pantone which can reduce the extraction difficulty of tobacco flower. Then the common camera was used as the image acquisition device, and the industrial control computer was used for processing the color characteristics of the collected image. Based on single line adaptive threshold value judgment method and taking volume as a unit, R value and G value of different characteristics were used to find the location of tobacco flowers, according to the proportion relationship to determine the specific topping height. Finally, the industrial machine was combined with microcontroller to control the stepper motor and solenoid valve, so as to realize the real-time online tobacco topping and sprout inhibition. The test shows that the intelligent tobacco topping and sprout inhibition machine operation efficiency is 2~3 seconds per tree, tobacco flower detection accuracy is about 96%, topping accuracy rate is about 90%, sprout inhibition accuracy rate is about 80%, the machine can meet the design requirement, and can effectively improve the operating efficiency and operation effect. 
Number of references: 13
Main heading: Tobacco
Controlled terms: Computer vision - Efficiency - Image acquisition - Image processing - Machinery - Solenoid valves - Stepping motors
Uncontrolled terms: Adaptive threshold values - Automatically detecting - Color characteristics - Industrial control computer - Industrial machines - Intelligent detection - Machine vision technologies - Operating efficiency
Classification code: 619 Pipes, Tanks and Accessories; Plant Engineering Generally
Pipes, Tanks and Accessories; Plant Engineering Generally
- 705.3 Electric Motors
Electric Motors
- 723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications
Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications
- 723.5 Computer Applications
Computer Applications
- 821.4 Agricultural Products
Agricultural Products
- 913.1 Production Engineering
Production Engineering
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.007
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
11. Design and analysis of coupled radial mechanism
Accession number: 20162602544401
Authors: Gao, Huifang (1); Liu, Jingfang (1); Yu, Yueqing (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing; 100124, China
Corresponding author: Liu, Jingfang(jfliu@bjut.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 373-380 and 356
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: A novel coupled mechanism was synthesized based on the particular geometrical construction and high symmetry of the regular tetrahedron. Firstly, two simple types of substitutive element component were designed and implanted in the location of all vertexes and edges contained in the regular solid respectively. An equivalent geometrical basic model was obtained with combination of the element parts connected by revolution joints according to frame of regular tetrahedron. The relative studies of the basic geometrical model with four congruent sub-structures were converted into a 6-bar closed-loop linkage. Secondly, the mobility of geometrical basic model was determined on the basis of independent motion shunting measurement method. The approach of adding chains was adopted to allocate the constraint sets and rearrange the components spatially when the closed-loop linkage was rigid on the basis of the screw theory. The element unit loop structure was abstracted by the means of modifying the constraint set of the 6-bar closed-loop linkage with the corresponding added chains symmetrically. Finally, the novel quasi-regular tetrahedron coupled mechanism was established with regroup of the identical elementary units according to the same way of combining the equivalent geometrical model. To define the motion of the new mechanism, a three-dimensional model was developed based on the SolidWorks for simulation analysis and the displacement variation of the output part and the other two symmetrical node components was provided by Matlab. The results showed that the new-designed coupled mechanism had two translational degrees of freedom which belonged to a plane perpendicular to the base and the three node components located in the vertexes had the same radial motion trend directed to the geometrical centre of the new structure. The mobility and the centripetal characteristic of the mechanism were verified correctively. This new structure can be applied to the executing structure of the deployable mobile robot. 
Number of references: 23
Main heading: Geometry
Controlled terms: Chains - Computational mechanics - Degrees of freedom (mechanics) - Discrete cosine transforms - MATLAB
Uncontrolled terms: Coupled mechanisms - Design and analysis - Geometrical construction - Geometrical modeling - Regular tetrahedron - Simulation analysis - Three-dimensional model - Translational degrees of freedoms
Classification code: 602.1 Mechanical Drives
Mechanical Drives
- 921 Mathematics
Mathematics
- 921.3 Mathematical Transformations
Mathematical Transformations
- 931.1 Mechanics
Mechanics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.049
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
12. Nozzle inner cavitation flow characteristics of non-normal fuel based on high pressure injection condition
Accession number: 20162602544396
Authors: Liu, Qi (1); Ouyang, Guangyao (1); Yang, Kun (1); Sun, Yupeng (2)
Author affiliation: (1) Academy of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan; 430033, China; (2) Dalian Navy Area Equipment Maintenance Supervisor Room, Dalian; 116041, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 333-339 and 289
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: In order to improve the breakup condition of oil beams and increase their initial turbulent kinetic energy at the exit of the nozzle, the high injection pressure of 180 MPa was used. The changing relationship between the physical properties of the non-normal fuel and the pressure under the influence of the high pressure injection was derived. The spraying flash photography test bench based on the high pressure constant vessel was set up. The three-dimensional CFD model of nozzle inner flow field was established on software AVL FIRE. The simulation model was modified according to the spraying test results. The three-dimensional flow state and cavitation flow characteristics of nozzle inner gas-liquid two-phase flow field were analyzed. The results show that when the temperature is constant, the density, the speed of sound and the bulk modulus of fuel increase with the ascent of pressure, the change of these physical parameters of non normal fuel is beneficial to the production of cavitation gas and enhance the cavitation effect; increasing the fuel injection back pressure restrains the flow of cavitation gas and fuel, so the cavitation effect is weakened; with the increase of nozzle diameter, the high speed region of fuel becomes more extensive and the cavitation effect becomes more prominent. The increase of the injection angle also helps to enhance the cavitation effect, but the effect is not obvious due to the limitation of the structure form. So the reasonable matching relationship between the nozzle diameter and injection angle is helpful to improve the initial turbulent kinetic energy intensity at the outlet of the nozzle, and obtain a better jet state. 
Number of references: 18
Main heading: Two phase flow
Controlled terms: Cavitation - Color photography - Computational fluid dynamics - Diesel engines - Flow fields - Fuels - High pressure effects - Kinetic energy - Kinetics - Nozzles - Pressure effects - Rocket nozzles - Turbulent flow
Uncontrolled terms: Cavitation effect - Flow charac-teristics - Gas - liquid two-phase flows - High injection pressures - High-pressure injection - Three-dimensional CFD model - Three-dimensional flow - Turbulent kinetic energy
Classification code: 612.2 Diesel Engines
Diesel Engines
- 631.1 Fluid Flow, General
Fluid Flow, General
- 631.1.1 Liquid Dynamics
Liquid Dynamics
- 742.1 Photography
Photography
- 931.1 Mechanics
Mechanics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.044
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
13. Synthesis and characterization of corn straw residue water retention agent
Accession number: 20162602544378
Authors: Wang, Yuxin (1); Wang, Yue (1); Wang, Pingzhi (1)
Author affiliation: (1) Key Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering in Structure and Environment, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 199-206
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: The synthesis principle of cellulose water retention agent is polymerization initiated by free radical and the grafting mechanism usually includes chain initiation, chain growth, chain termination, and oxidation. In the presence of initiator, the free radical is generated on the cellulose macromolecule skeleton firstly, and then with the help of chain transfer, the graft copolymer is formed by reacting with monomer. Applying N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide as crosslinker, potassium peroxydisulfate as free radical evocating agent, acrylic acid as grafting monomer, cellulose in corn straw biogas residue was purified by nitric acid-ethanol method to synthesize water retention agent. Through single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, the synthesis process was optimized, and the absorbency, infrared spectra and surface morphology of obtained water retention agent in the experiment were characterized. The experimental result showed that the optimal process of corn straw residue water retention agent was as follows: the mass ratio of acrylic acid to actived straw residue at 7, neutralization degree at 70.0%, the dosage of initiator (mass ratio to the monomer) and crosslinker (mass ratio to the monomer) at 2.0%, 0.1%, respectively. Furthermore, 9 min microwave moderate heating then 1 min higher heating were needed in the continuous experiment. Under this experimental conditions, the straw residue water retention agent had stronger water absorbency, and the maximum water absorption rate was 382.22 g/g as well as with a certain thermal stability. Infrared absorption spectrum showed that there were C-O stretching vibration peaks of acrylic at 1200 cm-1and O-H bending vibration zone of acrylic acid near 1350 cm-1. Furthermore, the neutralized -COO-reduced the CO in acrylic acid, and the absorption peak of CO appeared at 1557.98 cm-1. All of above indicate that grafting polymerization of corn straw residue cellulose water retention agent is successful. 
Number of references: 26
Main heading: Water absorption
Controlled terms: Absorption spectroscopy - Acrylic monomers - Biogas - Carboxylic acids - Cellulose - Chains - Complexation - Free radical polymerization - Free radicals - Grafting (chemical) - Hydrogels - Light absorption - Monomers - Organic acids - Polymerization - Straw - Stretching - Surface morphology
Uncontrolled terms: Biogas residues - Cellulose macromolecules - Experimental conditions - Microwave-assisted methods - Single-factor experiments - Synthesis and characterizations - Water absorbency - Water retention agents
Classification code: 535.2 Metal Forming
Metal Forming
- 602.1 Mechanical Drives
Mechanical Drives
- 741.1 Light/Optics
Light/Optics
- 802.2 Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions
- 802.3 Chemical Operations
Chemical Operations
- 804 Chemical Products Generally
Chemical Products Generally
- 804.1 Organic Compounds
Organic Compounds
- 815.1.1 Organic Polymers
Organic Polymers
- 815.2 Polymerization
Polymerization
- 821.5 Agricultural Wastes
Agricultural Wastes
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.026
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
14. Effects of soil drying process on soil shrinkage characteristic
Accession number: 20162602544371
Authors: Xing, Xuguang (1); Ma, Xiaoyi (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi; 712100, China
Corresponding author: Ma, Xiaoyi(xiaoyima@vip.sina.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 148-153
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: To explore soil shrinkage characteristics during soil drying process, loam soil from Shandong Province (SD) and silty clay loam soil from Shaanxi Province (SX) were selected. The initial bulk density of the two different types of soil was set at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.50 g/cm3. A centrifuge method was adopted for soil-water characteristic curve measurement, and the axial and radial shrinkages during drying process were measured and quantitatively analyzed. Results showed that firstly, as for SD and SX soils, soil moisture was decreased with the increase of suction, but the decreasing range was different due to different bulk densities. When suction was increased from 0 to 7000 cm, soil moisture was decreased with different rates. Secondly, linear shrinkage ratio increased with decrease of soil moisture during drying process, and the non-linear relationship between linear shrinkage ratio and soil moisture could be well fitted by the Logistic model, with high determination coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.96 to 0.99. Thirdly, axial shrinkage strain (δs), radial shrinkage strain (δr) and volume shrinkage strain (δV) all decreased with the increase of soil bulk density. And further analyses indicated that the mainly shrinkage characteristics for SD and SX soils were horizontal shrinkage and vertical shrinkage, respectively. Meanwhile, correlation analyses showed that δs, δrand δVwere all negatively correlated with sand content and positively correlated with silt and clay contents. And the correlation between the three types of shrinkage strains (i. e., δs, δrand δV) and soil particle content was obviously influenced by bulk density. Detailedly, as for SD soil, δsand δrwere significantly correlated with clay and silt contents, however, δVwas significantly correlated with sand content; as for SX soil, δs, δrand δVwere all significantly or highly significantly correlated with sand and silt contents, but there was no significant correlation with clay content. 
Number of references: 17
Main heading: Soils
Controlled terms: Dehydration - Drying - Moisture - Moisture determination - Shrinkage - Silt - Soil moisture - Strain
Uncontrolled terms: Correlation analysis - Determination coefficients - Linear shrinkage ratio - Non-linear relationships - Shrinkage characteristic - Soil shrinkage - Soil-water characteristic curve - Vertical shrinkage
Classification code: 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 802.2 Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions
- 944.2 Moisture Measurements
Moisture Measurements
- 951 Materials Science
Materials Science
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.019
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
15. Guidance line recognition of agricultural machinery based on particle swarm optimization under natural illumination
Accession number: 20162602544354
Authors: Meng, Qingkuan (1, 2); Zhang, Man (3); Yang, Genghuang (1, 2); Qiu, Ruicheng (3); Xiang, Ming (3)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin; 300222, China; (2) Tianjin Key Laboratory of Information Sensing and Intelligent Control, Tianjin; 300222, China; (3) Key Laboratory of Modern Precision Agriculture System Integration Research, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China
Corresponding author: Zhang, Man(cauzm@cau.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 11-20
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: In farmland with complex environment, guidance line recognition of agricultural machinery based on machine vision is subjected to illumination variation, weed noise, etc. In addition, the conventional path detection algorithms have the drawbacks of low processing speed and poor anti-interference. The visual navigation path detection under natural environment was conducted. Firstly, to reduce the influence of illumination changes on the quality of image segmentation, Cg component was constructed on the base of YCrCb color mode and the 2Cg-Cr-Cb factor was selected to preprocess the image. Secondly, the clustering segmentation of the image was performed based on improved K-means algorithm to achieve the respective clusters of soil and green crop information. Then, the weed interference information in the binary image was eliminated by morphological filtering algorithm so as to obtain the complete and clear crop information. Finally, according to the characteristics of the crop rows in the image, linear equation constraints of crop rows were established. An algorithm of crop lines detection based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) was designed. Experiment results showed that the image segmentation based on 2Cg-Cr-Cb gray image can effectively identify crop from soil background under different illumination conditions. The segmentation images were less affected by change of illumination and no background noise was contained. The guidance line recognition method based on PSO can quickly and accurately detect the navigation line. Furthermore, it had good fitness for different crops and nice adaptability for different crop growth stages in the farmland. Compared with conventional guidance line recognition algorithms, the designed algorithm had the advantages of high speed and good robustness. 
Number of references: 23
Main heading: Particle swarm optimization (PSO)
Controlled terms: Agricultural machinery - Agriculture - Algorithms - Clustering algorithms - Computer vision - Crops - Farms - Image segmentation - Information filtering - Optimization
Uncontrolled terms: Clustering segmentation - Illumination conditions - Illumination variation - Improved K-Means algorithm - Line recognition - Morphological filtering - Natural environments - Particle swarm optimization algorithm
Classification code: 723.5 Computer Applications
Computer Applications
- 821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
- 903.1 Information Sources and Analysis
Information Sources and Analysis
- 921.5 Optimization Techniques
Optimization Techniques
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.002
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
16. Design methods for kinematic decoupled parallel mechanisms and its applications
Accession number: 20162602544398
Authors: Shen, Huiping (1); Xiong, Kun (1); Meng, Qingmei (1); Liu, Anxin (2)
Author affiliation: (1) School of Mechanical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou; 213016, China; (2) College of Field Engineering, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing; 210007, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 348-356
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Kinematic decoupling of parallel mechanisms is a significant characteristic. Parallel mechanism with decoupling features is easy in kinematic analysis, real-time control and industrial applications. The topic was dealt by many scientists and some kinematic decoupled parallel mechanisms were proposed. The design theory for parallel mechanisms was used based on the position and orientation characteristics (POC) and the ordered single-open-chain (SOC), the existed input-output decoupled parallel mechanisms covered 2-DOF to 6-DOF were analyzed for their topology analysis and motion decoupling analysis, from which it can be known that kinematic decoupling can be viewed simultaneously into the topology decoupling and kinematic parameters decoupling. Based on this investigation, four general design rules and principles and the corresponding methods for decoupling parallel mechanisms were proposed respectively, which were based on the synthesis and decomposition of basic kinematic chain (BKC), sub parallel mechanisms, reasonable chosen base point and special prismatic joints configuration. The corresponding examples were designed to illustrate each method. Fifteen novel decoupled parallel mechanisms were totally proposed. Among them, the kinematic decoupling can be divided into position-posture separate decoupling, position-posture internal decoupling, which can be regarded as the direction and roadmap of the kinematic decoupling. The research enriched the numbers of decoupled parallel mechanisms and provided an effective methodology for decoupled parallel mechanisms design. 
Number of references: 30
Main heading: Mechanisms
Controlled terms: Chains - Degrees of freedom (mechanics) - Design - Kinematics - Real time control - Topology
Uncontrolled terms: Basic kinematic chain - Coupling degree - Degree of freedom - Kinematic Analysis - Kinematic parameters - Parallel mechanisms - Position and orientations - Single open chains (SOC)
Classification code: 601.3 Mechanisms
Mechanisms
- 602.1 Mechanical Drives
Mechanical Drives
- 731 Automatic Control Principles and Applications
Automatic Control Principles and Applications
- 921.4 Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory
Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory
- 931.1 Mechanics
Mechanics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.046
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
17. Environmental response of stomatal and hydraulic conductances and their effects on regulating transpiration of cucumber
Accession number: 20162602544370
Authors: Zhang, Zhongdian (1); Zhang, Dalong (1); Li, Jianming (1); Zhang, Zhi (1); Jiao, Xiaocong (1); Zhang, Jun (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi; 712100, China
Corresponding author: Li, Jianming(lijianming66@163.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 139-147
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: The effects of environmental factors, such as soil moisture (SW), air temperature (T), air relative humidity (RH) and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on stomatal conductance (Gs) and total hydraulic conductance of soil-plant system (Kt) under steady flow condition were analyzed, and regulation effects of these impact factors on plant transpiration were investigated. Greenhouse cucumber was used as the experimental material, based on the design of composite quadratic orthogonal regressive rotation where the artificial climate box was adopted, the main effects, single effects and marginal effects of four environmental impact factors on Gsand Ktwere interpreted. The results showed that all environmental factors exerted positive effect on Gsand Kt, interaction effect was also found between SW and PAR, T and RH on Gsand Kt. The single effect of RH can be described by a parabolic function and those of other impact factors were described as linear function, which were increased with increase of Gsand Kt. The marginal effects of each impact factor on Gsand Ktshowed that RH was the main regulating path for Gs, and all the impact factors except PAR efficiently regulated Kt. The regulating effects of the four environmental factors, Gsand Kton transpiration were analyzed with paths and correlation analyses. The results showed that T, PAR and Gsmainly exerted indirect positive effect on transpiration by strengthening Kt, which was followed by the direct positive effect on transpiration. SW mainly exerted indirect positive effect on transpiration by strengthening both Ktand Gs. RH exerted direct negative effect, while its main effect path was exerting indirect positive effect on transpiration by promoting Gsand Kt. Both Gsand Ktwere remarkably responded to the four environmental impact factors and interactively regulated the transpiration synergistically. 
Number of references: 39
Main heading: Environmental impact
Controlled terms: Environmental regulations - Greenhouses - Radiation effects - Soil moisture - Transpiration
Uncontrolled terms: Environmental factors - Environmental impact factors - Environmental response - Experimental materials - Greenhouse cucumbers - Hydraulic conductance - Photosynthetic active radiations - Stomatal conductance
Classification code: 454.2 Environmental Impact and Protection
Environmental Impact and Protection
- 461.9 Biology
Biology
- 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 821.6 Farm Buildings and Other Structures
Farm Buildings and Other Structures
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.018
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
18. Effects of saline water irrigation on water consumption characteristics and water use efficiency of cotton
Accession number: 20162602544366
Authors: Zhang, Junpeng (1); Feng, Di (1); Cao, Caiyun (2); Sun, Chitao (1); Li, Kejiang (2); Sun, Jingsheng (1)
Author affiliation: (1) Key Laboratory of Crop Water Use and Regulation, Ministry of Agriculture, Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang; 453002, China; (2) Institute of Dryland Farming, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Hengshui; 053000, China
Corresponding author: Sun, Jingsheng(jshsun623@163.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 107-112
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: To make effective use of shallow ground saline water resource for relieving the water crisis in Hebei Low Plain, a three-year field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation with saline water of different salinities on soil water and salt contents, soil evaporation, stage water consumption of cotton, seed cotton yield and water use efficiency. The experiment included four treatments with different salinity levels of 1g/L, 3g/L, 5g/L and 7g/L of irrigation water, which were denoted as S1, S2, S3 and S4.Results showed that during cotton growing period, soil water and salt contents were increased with the increment of irrigation water salinity, especially for soil salt content. Significant differences of soil water and salt contents for each treatment were appeared during experimental years. In wet years, soil water content of root zone was high and a large proportion of salt was leached out; while in arid years, soil water content in root zone was low and salt was accumulated. After three-year continuous irrigation with saline water, soil salt content in cotton root zone was not accumulated year by year. During the whole growth period, average soil evaporation intensity was higher in S3 and S4 treatments than that in S1 treatment, but there was little difference between S1 and S2 treatments. Irrigation with saline water of salinity lower than 7g/L had a certain influence on cotton water consumption process, but the differences in total water consumption were not significant. S2 treatment obtained the highest average seed cotton yield and water use efficiency, which was followed by S1, S3 and S4 treatments. Compared with S1 treatment, the average seed cotton yield and water use efficiency of S2 treatment were increased by 2.43% and 1.15%, and those for S3 and S4 treatments were decreased by 1.67% and 0.25%, 8.88% and 7.31%, respectively. There were no significant differences in seed cotton yield and water use efficiency among S1, S2 and S3 treatments, however, those for S4 treatment were significantly reduced. The study can provide important theoretical support for developing the use of shallow ground saline water resource in cotton irrigation. 
Number of references: 19
Main heading: Saline water
Controlled terms: Cotton - Cultivation - Efficiency - Evaporation - Irrigation - Soil moisture - Soils - Water - Water resources - Water supply
Uncontrolled terms: Irrigation waters - Saline water irrigations - Soil evaporations - Soil salt content - Soil water content - Water consumption - Water use efficiency - Yield
Classification code: 444 Water Resources
Water Resources
- 446.1 Water Supply Systems
Water Supply Systems
- 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 802.3 Chemical Operations
Chemical Operations
- 821.3 Agricultural Methods
Agricultural Methods
- 821.4 Agricultural Products
Agricultural Products
- 913.1 Production Engineering
Production Engineering
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.014
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
19. Experimental study of clogging defense measures for improved subsurface drainage
Accession number: 20162602544376
Authors: Tao, Yuan (1, 2); Wang, Shaoli (1); Xu, Di (1); Qu, Xingye (1)
Author affiliation: (1) Department of Irrigation and Drainage, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing; 100048, China; (2) College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing; 210098, China
Corresponding author: Wang, Shaoli(shaoliw@iwhr.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 187-192
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Clogging is one of the main factors for long-term stable operation of subsurface drainage systems. It also should be paid attention during the application and popularization of subsurface drainage system. The main issues of applying improved subsurface drainage are choosing specifications for filter, preventing clogging, lowering the attenuation of discharge and reducing soil losses. Based on soil column experiment, two filter paving patterns, two kinds of geotextile and three laying locations of the geotextile were considered, the attenuation of discharge process, mass of geotextile clogging and mass of soil losses were simulated under single defense measure of filter or geotextile, and defense measures of filter and geotextile were combined respectively, the reasonable distribution of filter and geotextile for improved subsurface drainage was proposed. The results indicated that Terzaghi critera was reasonable and feasible for choosing specifications of gravel filter and it had good effect on preventing the attenuation of discharge for layered filter and mixed filter. By setting geotextile around the pipe, both layered and mixed filters worked well on slowing down the attenuation of discharge and clogging and soil losses. Furthermore, from the comprehensive view of attenuation of discharge and clogging and soil losses, considering the long-term safe and stable operation of the improved subsurface drainage, priority should be given to the combined measure of layered filter and geotextile around the pipe. 
Number of references: 16
Main heading: Drainage
Controlled terms: Geotextiles - Groundwater flow - Soils - Specifications
Uncontrolled terms: Clogging - Defense measures - Discharge process - Filter - Soil-column experiment - Stable operation - Subsurface drainage system - Subsurface drainages
Classification code: 444.2 Groundwater
Groundwater
- 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 819.5 Textile Products and Processing
Textile Products and Processing
- 902.2 Codes and Standards
Codes and Standards
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.024
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
20. Prediction model of soil NO3--N concentration based on extreme learning machine
Accession number: 20162602544364
Authors: Zhang, Miao (1); Kong, Pan (1); Li, Yanhua (1); Ren, Haiyan (1); Pu, Pan (1, 2); Zhang, Li’nan (2)
Author affiliation: (1) Key Laboratory on Modern Precision Agriculture System Integration Research, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) Key Lab. Of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 93-99
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: The soil nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) is essential element for crop growth. Because of the obvious advantages on cost, applicability and easy-implementation, the nitrate ion-selective electrode (ISE) was demonstrated potentials in both laboratory and in-field researches on soil available nitrogen detections. However, problems of unidealistic selectivity and potential drift usually limited the application of ISE. The extreme learning machine algorithm was used to decouple the signals of nitrate ion-selective electrode from the interference of chloride. Three data processing algorithms, including drift correction, Nernstian model and extreme learning machine were systemically analyzed. Experiments were carried out on the self-designed multi-channel nutrient detection platform. Totally 150 soil samples were selected for the system validation. The experimental results indicated that the accuracy and consistency of sensor’s scaling equations were effectively improved by drift correction algorithm. The variations of response slope and intercept potential were reduced by 3.67% and 7.25%, respectively. The neuron number in hidden layer of the extreme learning machine was 14, which were tested as optimized parameter. The extreme learning machine could effectively decouple the interference of chloride from nitrate ion-selective electrode in saline alkali soil. The maximum absolute error and root mean square error were 6.36 mg/L and 4.02 mg/L, respectively. In conclusion, the research results can provide references in the related studies for soil detection by ion-selective electrode. 
Number of references: 18
Main heading: Ion selective electrodes
Controlled terms: Chemical sensors - Chlorine compounds - Data handling - Electrodes - Ions - Knowledge acquisition - Learning algorithms - Learning systems - Mean square error - Nitrates - Nitrogen - Soils
Uncontrolled terms: Data processing algorithms - Extreme learning machine - Maximum absolute error - Nitrate ion selective electrode - Nitrate nitrogen - Optimized parameter - Root mean square errors - Saline-alkali soils
Classification code: 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing
Data Processing and Image Processing
- 723.4 Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence
- 801 Chemistry
Chemistry
- 802.1 Chemical Plants and Equipment
Chemical Plants and Equipment
- 804 Chemical Products Generally
Chemical Products Generally
- 804.2 Inorganic Compounds
Inorganic Compounds
- 922.2 Mathematical Statistics
Mathematical Statistics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.012
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
21. Effects of nitrogen application rates on root growth and nitrogen use of summer maize
Accession number: 20162602544369
Authors: Yin, Minhua (1); Li, Yuannong (1); Li, Hao (2); Xu, Yuanbo (1); Zhou, Changming (1); Zhang, Tianle (1)
Author affiliation: (1) Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi; 712100, China; (2) College of Economics and Management, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi; 712100, China
Corresponding author: Li, Yuannong(liyuannong@163.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 129-138
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Field experiments (2013 and 2014) were carried out to improve nitrogen use efficiency and decrease nitrate nitrogen leaching for summer maize. Two nitrogen fertilizers, including urea (with nitrogen application rates of 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg/hm2, 40% of nitrogen fertilizer was applied as basic and 60% of it was top dressed at bell stage; namely N0, N80, N160 and N240) and controlled-release fertilizer (with nitrogen application rates of 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg/hm2, all applied as basic fertilization; namely K0, K60, K120, K180 and K240) were chosen to investigate the effects of different nitrogen application rates on root growth, yield, nitrogen absorption and nitrogen use efficiency of summer maize and nitrate nitrogen distribution in soil. The results showed that characteristic parameters of summer maize root at filling stage presented a trend of increase and then decreased along with the improvement of nitrogen application rate for both of the two nitrogen fertilizers. The characteristic parameters of summer maize root were higher in N160 of the urea treatments and higher in K120 of the controlled-release fertilizer treatments than those of the other treatments. In addition, compared with root surface area, total root length and yield had higher correlation. This meant that root length of summer maize played an important role in yield improvement under different nitrogen application rates. Furthermore, the nitrate nitrogen accumulation of the controlled-release fertilizer treatments agreed much better with the plant requirement for nitrogen than that of the urea treatments. In contrast to urea treatments, nitrate nitrogen content of the controlled-release fertilizer treatments had less variation and the maximum nitrate nitrogen content was shallower in 0~200 cm soil layer at harvest. Among the two nitrogen fertilizers treatments, N160 and K120 had greater yield, nitrogen harvest index and nitrogen use efficiency than other treatments. And K120 was potential in saving fertilizer and increasing efficiency, which could averagely increase nitrogen harvest index by 5.38% and improve nitrogen use efficiency by 4.96% compared with N160 in two years. In conclusion, the nitrogen application rate of treatment K120 was appropriate for summer maize cultivation in Guanzhong Region, Shaanxi Province. 
Number of references: 30
Main heading: Nitrogen fertilizers
Controlled terms: Efficiency - Fertilizers - Harvesting - Metabolism - Nitrates - Nitrogen - Soils - Urea - Urea fertilizers
Uncontrolled terms: Nitrate nitrogen - Nitrogen application rates - Nitrogen-use efficiency - Root growth - Summer maize - Yield
Classification code: 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 804 Chemical Products Generally
Chemical Products Generally
- 821.3 Agricultural Methods
Agricultural Methods
- 913.1 Production Engineering
Production Engineering
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.017
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
22. Hydrological regulation performances of LID practices based on different rainfall reappearance periods
Accession number: 20162602544375
Authors: Sun, Yanwei (1); Pomeroy, C.A. (2); Lü, Subing (1); Xu, Cundong (1)
Author affiliation: (1) School of Water Conservancy, North-China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou; 450011, China; (2) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; 84112, United States
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 178-186
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Urbanization caused hydrological change and increased stormwater runoff volumes, which led to flooding, erosion and the degradation of instream ecosystem health. Low impact development (LID) options had been proposed as an alternative approach to mimic the natural flow regime by using decentralized designs to control stormwater runoff at the source, rather than at a centralized location in the watershed. Hydrological regulation performances of these LID practices can be influenced by rainfall characteristics, such as rainfall intensity and duration. To evaluate the impacts of different rainfall reappearance periods, rainfall analysis was conducted to determine the rainfall characteristics and SCS II type was selected for the analysis. A modeling approach based on SWMM was described to incorporate these LID practices into an existing hydrological model to estimate the impacts of LID practices on the surface runoff. Results demonstrated that the LID practices led to significant stormwater control for different rainfall reappearance periods. Hydrological regulation performances of the LID practices were varied with rainfall reappearance periods. For LID practices with the same surface area, the detention pond performed the best in reducing peak flow rate, which was followed by infiltration trench, bioretention cell and porous pavement. Detention pond was capable to reduce the peak flow rate of 100-year storm to the value of 10-year storm, indicating significant performances. Differences in peak flow reduction were due to structure differences in the LID practices. For the infiltration regulation performances, infiltration trench had the highest recharge ratio for all the rainfall reappearance periods, followed by bioretention cell and porous pavement. Porous pavement, though made of 100% pervious material, infiltrated small runoff which was limited by the native soil infiltration rate when the rainfall volume exceeded the storage capacity. Deep analysis was conducted to determine the reasons that the LID practices performed differently when they had the same surface area. Results showed that the “effective storage”, which was the water volume that a facility can contain, was the crucial factor. When rainfall intensity was larger than native soil infiltration rate, the excessive water was stored in the facility, and then it was released or infiltrated to the groundwater, depending on the facility structure. Consequently, the water exceeded the “effective storage” was flowed over the LID practices and made contribution to the surface runoff directly. Calculation results showed that the “effective storage” for the detention pond was 1861.20 m3, which was the largest among the four LID practices, and it explained the reason that detention pond worked the best in peak flow reduction. The “effective storage” for the infiltration trench, porous pavement and bioretention cell were 744.48 m3, 80.37 m3and 565.14 m3, respectively. 
Number of references: 24
Main heading: Runoff
Controlled terms: Ecology - Ecosystems - Groundwater - Infiltration - Lakes - Pavements - Rain - Soil moisture - Storage (materials) - Storm sewers - Storms
Uncontrolled terms: Decentralized design - Hydrological changes - Hydrological modeling - Low impact development - Rainfall characteristics - Return periods - Structure difference - SWMM
Classification code: 443.3 Precipitation
Precipitation
- 444.1 Surface Water
Surface Water
- 444.2 Groundwater
Groundwater
- 452.1 Sewage
Sewage
- 454.3 Ecology and Ecosystems
Ecology and Ecosystems
- 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 694.4 Storage
Storage
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.023
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
23. Measurement methods of fruit tree canopy volume based on machine vision
Accession number: 20162602544353
Authors: Ding, Weimin (1, 2); Zhao, Siqi (1, 2); Zhao, Sanqin (1, 2); Gu, Jiabing (1, 2); Qiu, Wei (1, 2); Guo, Binbin (1, 2)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing; 210031, China; (2) Engineering Laboratory of Modern Facility Agricultural Technology and Equipment in Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing; 210031, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 1-10 and 20
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: There were some problems of artificial and sensor measurement for tree canopy volume, such as inefficiency, low precision, high cost, complex operation. In order to solve those problems, a new measurement method based on machine vision was proposed. The previous research indicated that there was significant correlation between tree canopy area and canopy. Based on this, the new method was proposed. Firstly, tree canopy image was obtained by machine vision according to the set standards. Secondly, tree canopy area was extracted by using a series of image processing operations. Meanwhile, the least square method and the 5-point calibration method were used to obtain the model of tree canopy volume. Finally, the corresponding volume was got. Experimental result showed that the average prediction error of the model of pear tree and Osmanthus fragrans were 13.73% and 10.18%, respectively. In view of the conditions of tree canopy, the structure estimation method was used to fit ellipsoid structure according to the contour of tree canopy that without a series of samples. Then, the volume of tree canopy was got by the compensation formula. Experimental result showed that the average prediction error of the model of peach trees and Osmanthus fragrans was about 10%. Consequently, characteristics extraction method of fruit tree canopy images was effective and feasible. The tree canopy volume characteristics can be perfectly expressed by tree canopy area and contour. 
Number of references: 22
Main heading: Forestry
Controlled terms: Calibration - Computer vision - Fruits - Image processing - Least squares approximations - Orchards - Volume measurement
Uncontrolled terms: Area characteristic - Average prediction error - Characteristics extraction - Contour characteristic - Fruit trees - Least square methods - New Measurement Method - Parameter calibration
Classification code: 723.5 Computer Applications
Computer Applications
- 821.3 Agricultural Methods
Agricultural Methods
- 821.4 Agricultural Products
Agricultural Products
- 921.6 Numerical Methods
Numerical Methods
- 943.2 Mechanical Variables Measurements
Mechanical Variables Measurements
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.001
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
24. Detection of dextrin content in milk powder based on dynamic nonlinear chemical fingerprint method
Accession number: 20162602544382
Authors: Ma, Yongjie (1); Bao, Hongliang (2); Fan, Cheng (3); Fang, Yue (4); Wang, Shipeng (4); Dong, Wenbin (4)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an; 710021, China; (2) Mathematical and Sciences College, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang; 471022, China; (3) Institute of Product Quality Supervision and Inspection in Shaanxi Province, Xi’an; 710048, China; (4) College of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an; 710021, China
Corresponding author: Dong, Wenbin(dwb_dong@sina.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 228-234 and 227
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: A nonlinear chemical fingerprint method for determining the content of dextrin in milk powder was developed. Firstly, the content of dextrin in milk powder was rapidly determined by using the dynamic nonlinear chemical fingerprint method. Using sulfuric acid, manganese sulfate, acetone and sodium bromate as reaction system, the dextrin with different contents was added into milk powder as milk powder standard samples. The nonlinear chemical fingerprints of milk powder standard samples were obtained, and there was a linear relationship between inductive time or undulatory end time and the content of dextrin in milk powder standard samples, respectively. Then, the content of dextrin in milk powder was calculated by the least square method. The results showed that within 0~30% of mass fraction of dextrin, there was a good linear relationship between the content of dextrin in milk powder and inductive time or undulatory end time, the determination coefficient was 0.9972~0.9991, the recovery was 94.00%~104.89%, the relative standard deviation was 0.17%~1.17%, the determination range of dextrin content in milk powder was 0~30%, and the detection limit of 1.3×10-3~4.7×10-3mg/g was obtained. The developed method was a practical and feasible method for determining the content of dextrin in milk powder, and it had advantages of good accuracy, low cost, simple operation and no sample pretreatment. In addition, the method can be used to determine the dextrin content in different batches of the same brand of milk powder or different brands of milk powder, it can also be used as an approach for the determination of other components in other complex samples. 
Number of references: 21
Main heading: Least squares approximations
Controlled terms: Acetone - Chemical detection - Linear regression - Regression analysis - Sodium sulfate
Uncontrolled terms: Determination coefficients - Dextrin - Dynamic non-linear - Least square methods - Linear regression methods - Milk powder - Nonlinear chemical fingerprints - Relative standard deviations
Classification code: 801 Chemistry
Chemistry
- 804.1 Organic Compounds
Organic Compounds
- 804.2 Inorganic Compounds
Inorganic Compounds
- 921.6 Numerical Methods
Numerical Methods
- 922.2 Mathematical Statistics
Mathematical Statistics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.030
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
25. Non-destructive identification of kiwifruit with forchlorfenuron residue based on near infrared hyperspectral imaging technology
Accession number: 20162602544381
Authors: Gao, Zhenhong (1, 2); Zhang, Zhiwei (1); Huo, Yingqiu (3); Yue, Tianli (2)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Food Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao; 266109, China; (2) College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi; 712100, China; (3) College of Information Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi; 712100, China
Corresponding author: Zhang, Zhiwei(zzw5301@163.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 222-227
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Based on the difference of forchlorfenuron residue and organic component, non-destructive identification method of treated and control kiwifruits was studied using hyperspectral imaging system. Firstly, the representative samples were got by field experiment, and the hyperspectral image was got. The instrument parameters of hyperspectral image were as follows: exposure time 10ms, scanning speed 20 mm/s and object distance 20 mm/s. Secondly, the spectral regions of 1040~1120 nm and 1335~1500 nm were selected, totally 116 wave bands were produced, and the average hyperspectral value of each sample was calculated. Finally, all data of hyperspectral image were calculated by Matlab, and the non-destructive identification method of two types of kiwifruit was established. The residue of forchlorfenuron was determined by HPLC, organic component in kiwifruit was analyzed according to the national standard. The results showed that correct identification rate of PCA-LDA and support vector machine (SVM) mathematical models was 94.4%; forchlorfenuron residue level of treated kiwifruit and control kiwifruit were 0.03 mg/kg and 0 mg/kg, respectively; the content of organic components were different, such as total sugar, total phenols, vitamin C, titratable acid, 17 kinds of amino acids and eight trace elements. Therefore, the high spectrum technology was an efficient method for non-destructive identification of PGR (plant growth regulation) kiwifruit. 
Number of references: 32
Main heading: Image processing
Controlled terms: Biological materials - Imaging techniques - Infrared devices - Machine components - Spectroscopy - Support vector machines - Trace elements
Uncontrolled terms: Forchlorfenuron - High spectrum - Hyper-spectral images - Hyperspectral imaging systems - Kiwifruits - Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging - Non destructive - Representative sample
Classification code: 461.2 Biological Materials and Tissue Engineering
Biological Materials and Tissue Engineering
- 601.2 Machine Components
Machine Components
- 723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications
Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications
- 746 Imaging Techniques
Imaging Techniques
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.029
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
26. Study on preparation and stability of ginger oil nano-emulsions
Accession number: 20162602544385
Authors: Chen, Dong (1); Zhang, Xiaoyang (1); Liu, Yaozheng (2); Liang, Li (1); Yu, Guoyong (1); Li, Quanhong (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana; 61801, United States
Corresponding author: Li, Quanhong(liquanhong66@163.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 250-258
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: The method for the preparation of ginger oil nano-emulsions using ultrasonic emulsification with OSA starch Purity Gum 2000 (PG), Hi Cap 100 (HC) and C001(F)as emulsifier was studied. Then the stability of ginger oil nano-emulsions was also studied. Through single factor and response surface optimization experiment, OSA starch PG and HC were chosen as emulsifiers. The optimum parameters to prepare ginger oil nano-emulsion with PG as emulsifier were ultrasonic power 430 W, ginger oil concentration 9% and PG concentration 0.1 g/mL. The average particle size of PG ginger oil nano-emulsion was (148±4.23)nm. The optimum parameters to prepare ginger oil nano-emulsion with HC as emulsifier were ultrasonic power 410W, ginger oil concentration 9.2% and HC concentration 0.125 g/mL. The average particle size of HC ginger oil nano-emulsion was (162±3.25)nm. The PG and HC ginger oil nano-emulsions both have good pH resistance ability. Acidic solution are better for ginger oil nano-emulsions to keep stable. Both of PG and HC ginger oil nano-emulsions also have good ionic resistance ability and the ability of PG ginger oil nano-emulsion is stronger than HC. The influence of Ca ion on stability of ginger oil nano-emulsions is greater than Na ion. The addition of malt dextrin can improve the freeze-thaw stability of PG and HC ginger oil nano-emulsions. PG ginger oil nano-emulsion shows better freeze-thaw stability than HC ginger oil nano-emulsion. This study contributes to the further application of ginger oil nano-emulsions in food industry. 
Number of references: 22
Main heading: Oils and fats
Controlled terms: Convergence of numerical methods - Emulsification - Emulsions - Food additives - Freezing - Particle size - Stability - Starch - Thawing - Ultrasonics
Uncontrolled terms: Average particle size - Freeze-thaw stability - Ginger oil - Nano-emulsions - Optimum parameters - Preparation - Response surface optimization - Ultrasonic emulsification
Classification code: 753.1 Ultrasonic Waves
Ultrasonic Waves
- 802.3 Chemical Operations
Chemical Operations
- 803 Chemical Agents and Basic Industrial Chemicals
Chemical Agents and Basic Industrial Chemicals
- 804 Chemical Products Generally
Chemical Products Generally
- 804.1 Organic Compounds
Organic Compounds
- 921.6 Numerical Methods
Numerical Methods
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.033
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
27. Theory and test on kinematics characteristics of double curve-face gear piston pump
Accession number: 20162602544115
Authors: Lin, Chao (1); Zhao, Xianglu (1); Wu, Xiaoyong (1); Meng, Fanming (1)
Author affiliation: (1) The State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing; 400044, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 387-393
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Nowadays, plunger pumps are being developed in the direction of high pressure and large flow. Therefore, the friction pairs in the pump adhesive wear and burn phenomenon has become increasingly serious. To solve these problems, the dynamic performance of the pump and lubrication characteristics were improved, the structure was optimized and high wear-resistant materials were used by most researchers. However, the wear problems were not solved fundamentally. In order to solve the wear problems of swash plate piston pump fundamentally, a new type of axial piston pump was proposed. The swash plate was replaced by double curve-face gear, the friction pairs were replaced by gears. By using the transmission principle of curve-face gear pair, the movement characteristics models of the piston pump, the single piston and six pistons of double curve-face gear were established, and the movement law of the piston was obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the above theory, the motion simulation analysis and theoretical simulation results were compared and analyzed. By using the virtual prototype of ADAMS, the simulation model of movement characteristics of piston pump was established, and the piston movement feasibility of the new piston pump was validated. The piston movement characteristics of piston pump were tested by using the test-bed and the result was obtained. The comparison between test and theoretical results indicated that the test result was basically agree with the theoretical result, and the relative error between test and theoretical results was within 5%, the correctness of theoretical movement characteristics model of piston pump was testified. This experimental results showed that the flow pulsation performance of the piston pump can be better than the current level when the structural parameters were fully optimized. 
Number of references: 22
Main heading: Pistons
Controlled terms: Engines - Friction - Kinematics - Mathematical models - Plates (structural components) - Problem solving - Pumps - Reciprocating pumps - Testing - Wear of materials
Uncontrolled terms: Axial piston pump - Face gears - Kinematics characteristics - Lubrication characteristics - Motion simulation analysis - Movement characteristics - Simulation - Wear resistant materials
Classification code: 408.2 Structural Members and Shapes
Structural Members and Shapes
- 612.1.1 Internal Combustion Engine Components
Internal Combustion Engine Components
- 618.2 Pumps
Pumps
- 931.1 Mechanics
Mechanics
- 951 Materials Science
Materials Science
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.051
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
28. Optimal design of variable tooth electromagnetic actuator
Accession number: 20162602544116
Authors: Shi, Yong (1); Ning, Yigao (1); Zhao, Jianhui (1); Sun, Jun (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin; 150001, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 394-400 and 407
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: As one of the most important performance indexes for electromagnetic actuator with tooth structure, linearity has major impact on the vibration controlling effect. However, traditional fixed tooth electromagnetic actuator has poor linearity. To solve this problem, the analytical model of variable tooth electromagnetic actuator was worked out by analyzing magnetic circuit. Influence rules of several parameters, such as air gap, the difference between tooth width of stator and active cell, coil turns and the radius of the active cell, on actuator performance were analyzed based on the analytical model, indicating that the difference between tooth width of stator and active cell had great influence on the linearity of variable tooth electomagnetic actuator. And the necessity of applying variable tooth to gain good linearity was revealed theoretically and the realization of good linearity needed to be at the expense of decreasing electromagnetic force. To improve the linearity of variable tooth electromagnetic actuator as much as possible and minimize the decrease of electromagnetic force at the same time, genetic algorithm was applied to the optimal design. The results showed different setting for genetic algorithm parameters had negligible effect on optimization results and that compared with the fixed tooth electromagnetic actuator, variable tooth electromagnetic actuator can improve linearity by 93.08% under the condition of electromagnetic force was only dropped by 8.22%. Finally, the simulating calculation for optimized scheme was carried out with the finite model which was verified by the experimental results of the processed prototype, and calculation result proved that the optimized actuator had good linearity in the displacement range of 0~3 mm, meanwhile, it validated the analytical model. 
Number of references: 19
Main heading: Actuators
Controlled terms: Analytical models - Electric actuators - Electromagnets - Genetic algorithms - Magnetic actuators - Optimal systems - Optimization - Stators
Uncontrolled terms: Actuator performance - Algorithm parameters - Electomagnetic actuators - Electromagnetic actuators - Electromagnetic forces - Finite model - Linearity - Vibration controlling
Classification code: 704.1 Electric Components
Electric Components
- 705.1 Electric Machinery, General
Electric Machinery, General
- 732.1 Control Equipment
Control Equipment
- 921 Mathematics
Mathematics
- 921.5 Optimization Techniques
Optimization Techniques
- 961 Systems Science
Systems Science
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.052
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
29. Identification of red bean variety with probabilistic GA-PNN based on hyperspectral imaging
Accession number: 20162602544380
Authors: Sun, Jun (1, 2); Lu, Xinzi (1); Zhang, Xiaodong (2); Zhu, Wenjing (2); Wu, Xiaohong (1); Yang, Ning (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang; 212013, China; (2) Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Ministry of Education, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang; 212013, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 215-221
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: A method to identify different varieties of red bean based on hyperspectral imaging technology was proposed. The hyperspectral imaging system with spectrum range of 390~1050 nm was used to capture the hyperspectral images of 162 red bean samples, which were collected from three different areas (Anhui, Shandong and Jiangsu Provinces). ENVI software was adopted to determine the region of interest (ROI) in the hyperspectral image and extract the hyperspectral data by averaging the reflectance from all the pixels in the ROI images, and the original spectra were preprocessed by Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing. As there was a large number of noise and redundant information in the raw hyperspectral images and hyperspectral data, some data processing methods should be used to remove the noise, accelerate the processing efficiency and improve the performance of the models. The method of feature extraction was SPA, the number of characteristic wavelengths was determined as 9 by using the leave-one-out cross-validation. The methods of feature selection were PCA and ICA. According to the standard of the cumulative contribution rate of variance was more than 85%, seven characteristic wavelengths were selected. Through test and verification, 17 was the best number of characteristic wavelengths of ICA. Finally, the selected optimal characteristic wavelengths and principal components were used as the inputs of the model. However, the results did not meet the expected accuracy, the threshold of PNN neural network and hidden layer nodes were optimized by GA. The recognition rate of the model was higher than 85%, and the recognition rate of the highest SPA-GA-PNN model reached 97.5%. The results demonstrated that it was feasible to use hyperspectral imaging technology for the identification of red bean variety. PNN neural network model can identify red bean variety fast, effectively and nondestructively and provide theoretical basis and technical means for the realization of red bean variety identification based on hyperspectral image technology. 
Number of references: 21
Main heading: Image processing
Controlled terms: Data handling - Feature extraction - Genetic algorithms - Image segmentation - Imaging techniques - Independent component analysis - Network layers - Neural networks - Spectroscopy - Statistical methods
Uncontrolled terms: Hyper-spectral images - Hyperspectral imaging systems - Hyperspectral imaging technologies - Leave-one-out cross validations - Probabilistic neural networks - Red beans - The region of interest (ROI) - Variety identification
Classification code: 723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications
Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications
- 723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing
Data Processing and Image Processing
- 746 Imaging Techniques
Imaging Techniques
- 922.2 Mathematical Statistics
Mathematical Statistics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.028
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
30. Effect of farmland drainage irrigation on soil infiltration characteristics and cotton seedling growth in Southern of Xinjiang Province, China
Accession number: 20162602544365
Authors: Wang, Xingpeng (1, 2); Duan, Aiwang (1); Li, Shuang (1)
Author affiliation: (1) Farmland Irrigation Research Institute of CAAS, Xinxiang; 453000, China; (2) College of Water Resource and Architectural Engineering, Tarim University, Alaer; 843300, China
Corresponding author: Duan, Aiwang(duanaiwang@aliyun.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 100-106
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: To evaluate the applicability of farmland irrigation and drainage in southern Xinjiang, adopting the experiment of water supplied by Markov bottle, of fixed disc infiltrometer, of cotton indoor seeding and growth, the effect of farmland irrigation and drainage on infiltration characteristics of the soil water at point source and non-point source, cotton emergence rate and growth was studied. The experiment results showed that during the test of soil water point source infiltration, the horizontal migration at different salinity irrigation water infiltration was more obvious than the longitudinal direction. When drainage salinity was over 2 g/L, the soil water content values in the horizontal direction showed a significant downward trend with the increasing of salinity. During the test of soil water non-point source infiltration, the amount of soil water infiltration decreased with the increasing salinity at the same water head. And the amount significantly decreased with the decrease of water head. According to steady-state non-point source infiltration, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity Ksincreased first and then decreased after different salinity irrigation, but the model parameters λcchanged oppositely, when drainage salinity was at 2 g/L, Ksand λcreached inflection point, and the effect was more obvious with the higher salinity. The cotton had a normal growth when water salinity was below 3 g/L, while there was a obvious damage to the cotton emergence rate when it was at 5 g/L. There was a low effect on cotton seeding growth when the salinity was below 4 g/L, however, cotton growing was slowed significantly when the salinity was over 4 g/L. 
Number of references: 28
Main heading: Infiltration
Controlled terms: Bottles - Cotton - Cultivation - Farms - Hydraulic conductivity - Irrigation - Seed - Soil moisture - Soils
Uncontrolled terms: Disc infiltrometer - Farmland drainage - Infiltration characteristic - Longitudinal direction - Non-point source - Point sources - Saturated hydraulic conductivity - Soil water content
Classification code: 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 632.1 Hydraulics
Hydraulics
- 694.2 Packaging Materials
Packaging Materials
- 821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.013
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
31. Jetting mechanism and rules of micro scale 3D printing based on EHD
Accession number: 20162602544117
Authors: Yang, Jianjun (1); Zhang, Zhiyuan (1); Lan, Hongbo (1); Peng, Zilong (1); Wang, Fei (1)
Author affiliation: (1) School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao; 266520, China
Corresponding author: Lan, Hongbo(hblan99@126.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 401-407
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Micro scale 3D printing based on electrohydrodynamic (electrohydrodynamic jet printing, E-jet printing) is an emerging and promising micro/nano scale 3D printing processes, which was demonstrated with outstanding strengthens and high potentials in terms of high resolution, low cost and easy operation. Micro scale 3D printing was utilized in various areas, including tissue engineering, electronics, micro fuel cell, composite materials, etc. Different from the traditional jet printing technology, the EHD jet is driven by electric field to draw a very fine jet from the top of the liquid cone. The forming mechanism of micro scale 3D printing based on EHD was complex, and there were several influencing factors and process parameters. The stress state of Taylor cone was analyzed theoretically, and then the finite element simulation and experimental methods were used to verify the theory. Through the investigation, the jetting mechanism of the micro scale 3D printing method was explored, and the influences of voltage and pressure of cone-jet mode on E-jet printing were revealed, and some useful conclusions were achieved. The result showed that the Taylor cone was shortened with the increase of voltage, and it was lengthened with the increase of inlet. Meanwhile, it was shown that the printing can be carried out in a certain range of voltage and pressure, rather than specific values of voltage or pressure, so the cone jet and printing quality can be improved by adjusting the voltage and air pressure. A printing example of light curing resin material was given, and the printing quality was good. The research results provided theoretical basis and guidance for improving the forming accuracy and control performance of micro scale 3D printing based on EHD. 
Number of references: 20
Main heading: 3D printers
Controlled terms: Atmospheric pressure - Cell engineering - Electric fields - Electrohydrodynamics - Finite element method - Fuel cells - Printing - Tissue engineering
Uncontrolled terms: 3-D printing - 3D printing process - Control performance - Electrohydrodynamic jet printings - Experimental methods - Finite element simulations - Influence rule - Light curing resins
Classification code: 443.1 Atmospheric Properties
Atmospheric Properties
- 461.1 Biomedical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
- 701.1 Electricity: Basic Concepts and Phenomena
Electricity: Basic Concepts and Phenomena
- 702.2 Fuel Cells
Fuel Cells
- 745.1 Printing
Printing
- 745.1.1 Printing Equipment
Printing Equipment
- 921.6 Numerical Methods
Numerical Methods
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.053
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
32. Design of automatic multi-channel wireless agricultural sand samplerliu Haiyang
Accession number: 20162602544360
Authors: Liu, Haiyang (1); Chang, Jiali (1); Chen, Zhi (1); Xuan, Chuanzhong (1); Si, Zhimin (1); Song, Tao (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Huhhot; 010018, China
Corresponding author: Chen, Zhi(sgchenzhi@imau.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 53-60
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Currently, the automation level of sand samplers used for farmland soil wind erosion is very low. In addition, they can’t record the sediment data real-timely and have no functions of wireless transmission and networking. So it brings many difficulties and other issues to the study on motion characteristics of the soil wind erosion particles at different stages in the transport process. To solve these problems, a new type of automatic multi-channel wireless sand sampler based on wireless sensor network technology and the reverse hedge sand separator was designed. It was dedicated to study agricultural soil wind erosion and realize these functions of automatic acquisition of quantity of soil wind erosion, wireless transmission and real-time data processing. The results showed that the system can circularly scan up to six testing points, the eight channels of each testing point and automatically collect wind erosion data, and the maximum response time was no more than 2s. The rotating start-up wind speed of the sand sampler was 3.4 m/s, and the maximum weighing range was 0~180 g; the precision of weighing sensors was up to 0.01 g and 10 hours continuous measurement error was within ±0.04 g with sampling efficiency more than 85%. The length of data packet was 32 bytes and the effective transmission distance can reach 1000 m under the conditions of 1 kb/s transfer rate and maximum transmitting power. Communication setup time was less than 5s. The system had advantages of low power consumption, easy to use, simple operation and automatic data acquisition, it can meet the needs of research on farmland soil wind erosion. 
Number of references: 23
Main heading: Wireless sensor networks
Controlled terms: Agriculture - Data acquisition - Data handling - Erosion - Farms - Sand - Soils - Weighing - Wind
Uncontrolled terms: Automatic acquisition - Automatic data acquisition - Continuous measurements - Effective transmission - Maximum transmitting power - Motion characteristics - Real-time data processing - Wireless transmissions
Classification code: 443.1 Atmospheric Properties
Atmospheric Properties
- 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 716.3 Radio Systems and Equipment
Radio Systems and Equipment
- 723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing
Data Processing and Image Processing
- 821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
- 943.3 Special Purpose Instruments
Special Purpose Instruments
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.008
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
33. Effect of carbon source supply tactics on treatment of aquaculture wastewater with biofloc technology
Accession number: 20162602544394
Authors: Shi, Mingming (1); Liu, Huang (2); Long, Li’na (2); Ruan, Yunjie (1, 3); Guo, Xishan (1); Zhu, Songming (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou; 310058, China; (2) Fishery Machinery and Instrument Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai; 200092, China; (3) Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca; 14850, United States
Corresponding author: Ruan, Yunjie(ruanyj@zju.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 317-323
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: For the trend and necessary to limit water exchange and control disease, biofloc technology (BFT) has been widely applied in aquaculture. The carbon source supplement is the base and core of BFT, which will significantly affect the water quality, food conversion ratio (FCR) and the immune capacity in rearing animals. To explore the influence of carbon source supply tactics on the treatment of waste water discharged by recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), research was conducted, based on simulated aquaculture wastewater as the research object. In addition, the sucrose, sodium acetate and glycerol were used as carbon source, and three kinds of C/N ratio (5, 10 and 15) were evaluated for each type of carbon source respectively. Results showed that nitrification and assimilation occurred in the experimental groups. At the low C/N ratio (C/N ratio is 5), the nitrification intensity of different carbon source had extremely difference(P3). In addition, combined with biofloc sludge volume index (SVI), settlement performance of biofloc had no significant influence on the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen(P>0.05). At a low C/N ratio(C/N ratio is 5), the difference of EPS polysaccharide contents of three carbon source was not significant (P>0.05), and with the increase of C/N ratio, EPS polysaccharide of three carbon source had different contents and change tendencies. 
Number of references: 24
Main heading: Wastewater treatment
Controlled terms: Ammonia - Aquaculture - Calcium carbonate - Disease control - Efficiency - Glycerol - Nitrification - Nitrogen - Nitrogen removal - pH - Removal - Sodium - Sugar (sucrose) - Waste treatment - Water quality - Water treatment
Uncontrolled terms: Ammonia nitrogen removal - Aquaculture wastewater - C/N ratio - Carbon source - Different carbon sources - Food conversion ratio - Recirculating aquaculture system - Removal efficiencies
Classification code: 445.1 Water Treatment Techniques
Water Treatment Techniques
- 445.2 Water Analysis
Water Analysis
- 452.4 Industrial Wastes Treatment and Disposal
Industrial Wastes Treatment and Disposal
- 549.1 Alkali Metals
Alkali Metals
- 801.1 Chemistry, General
Chemistry, General
- 802.2 Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions
- 804 Chemical Products Generally
Chemical Products Generally
- 821.3 Agricultural Methods
Agricultural Methods
- 822.3 Food Products
Food Products
- 913.1 Production Engineering
Production Engineering
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.042
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
34. Spatial modeling of forest stock volume based on auxiliary information
Accession number: 20162602544389
Authors: Wang, Haibin (1); Peng, Daoli (1); Fan, Yinglong (2); Li, Weitao (1); Zhang, Chao (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) South-Central Forest Inventory and Planning Institute of SFA, Changsha; 410014, China
Corresponding author: Peng, Daoli(dlpeng@bjfu.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 283-289
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Taking the stock volume of continuous forest inventory in Miyun District of Beijing as research object, and combining auxiliary factors associated with stock volume, the spatial interpolation analysis of the stock volume was carried out by using the ordinary Kriging and Co-Kriging methods, and the results were compared with those of reference 25 in the same study area based on the partial least squares regression method. The results show that based on the auxiliary information, Co-Kriging method is superior to ordinary Kriging and partial least squares regression method, the correlation coefficient between the estimated value and the measured value based on Co-Kriging method was 0.845, the correlation coefficient between the estimated value and the measured value based on ordinary Kriging method was 0.389, and the correlation coefficient between the estimated value and the measured value based on partial least squares regression method was 0.766, respectively. Co-Kriging can significantly improve the prediction accuracy compared with ordinary Kriging, generating the root mean square error decreased by 71%, respectively, and the correlation coefficient between predicted values and measured values increases by 54%. Finally, the spatial distribution map of forest stock volume in Miyun was generated. The research shows that the application of geo-statistical methodology has a good application prospect, and it can provide a feasible method for the estimation of forest stock. 
Number of references: 27
Main heading: Least squares approximations
Controlled terms: Forestry - Interpolation - Mean square error - Regression analysis
Uncontrolled terms: Auxiliary information - Co-Kriging - Continuous forest inventories - Forest stock volume - Ordinary kriging - Partial least squares regression - Spatial interpolation analysis - Statistical methodologies
Classification code: 921.6 Numerical Methods
Numerical Methods
- 922.2 Mathematical Statistics
Mathematical Statistics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.037
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
35. Novel topological structures and properties for 5-SPS parallel mechanisms with linear moving platform
Accession number: 20162602544399
Authors: Shen, Huiping (1, 2); Huang, Jun (1, 2); Zhu, Shuaishuai (1, 2); Deng, Jiaming (1, 2)
Author affiliation: (1) School of Mechanical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou; 213016, China; (2) Research Center for Advanced Mechanism Theory, Changzhou University, Changzhou; 213016, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 357-365
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Parallel mechanisms with linear moving platform (LMP) have good practical application value, but it was rarely studied. Firstly, using structure coupling-reducing theory based on the position and orientation characteristics (POC) and the ordered single-open-chain (SOC) units, five 5-SPS parallel mechanisms with LMP were designed, and four of them were novel ones. Secondly, the “existence criterion of mechanism” was proposed. Each 5-SPS parallel mechanisms with LMP had its own advantages and applications. Accordingly, the existence of five 5-SPS and the non-existence of 6-SPS, 4-SPS, 3-SPS, 2-SPS parallel configurations with LMP were proved. As a consequence, the criterion can be used to determine the existence of mechanisms. Then, the three important topological characteristics, including coupling degree, the output POC and the input-output motion decoupling, as well as the position workspace characteristics, of the five 5-SPS parallel mechanisms with LMP were separately calculated and compared. It was shown that the coupling degree of mechanisms and difficulty of solving forward displacement analysis can be reduced, but the workspace would be reduced simultaneously when the collinearing or coinciding of the spherical joints on the moving platform was occurred. And the mechanisms with triple-spherical-joint structure had input-output motion decoupling. These results can provide theoretical basis for engineering design, optimal selection and potential use of the five 5-SPS parallel mechanisms with LMP. 
Number of references: 15
Main heading: Mechanisms
Controlled terms: Topology
Uncontrolled terms: Coupling degree - Moving platform - Parallel mechanisms - Position and orientations - Topological structure - Workspace
Classification code: 601.3 Mechanisms
Mechanisms
- 921.4 Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory
Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.047
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
36. Dynamic engagement performance of hydro-viscous clutch based on AMESim
Accession number: 20162602544395
Authors: Liao, Xiangping (1); Gong, Guofang (1); Sun, Chenchen (1); Wang, Fei (1)
Author affiliation: (1) State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou; 310027, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 324-332
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: It is not easy for large engineering machinery equipment to start smoothly and successfully, because the starting torque is much larger than its rated torque. In order to improve the starting torque without increasing the installed power of system, a new driving system, which was composed of electric motor, flywheel and hydro-viscous clutch (HVC), was proposed. Based on the mathematics model of new driving system and oil film bearing capacity, the AMESim simulation model of HVC system was built up. According to the influence analysis of flywheel rotary inertia and oil film thickness control method on the dynamic engagement performance of HVC, curves of torque, rotational speed and jerk degree were obtained. The simulation results showed that compared with wet clutch, HVC can effectively avoid the start-up shock by reasonable control of oil film thickness, and the variable decreasing speed of oil film thickness was a good method to increase the starting torque and reduce the jerk degree. To verify the theoretical analysis and simulation, a test rig of the HVC system was established. The experimental results showed that the viscous torque curve with twice of the load torque and duration of 50 s were achieved by controlling the oil film thickness of HVC, which can satisfy the demands of big starting torque and small impact for large engineering machinery equipment. 
Number of references: 19
Main heading: Torque
Controlled terms: Clutches - Film thickness - Flywheels - Lubricating oils - Machinery - Wheels
Uncontrolled terms: AMESim - Analysis and simulation - Engineering machinery - Influence analysis - Mathematics model - Oil film thickness - Oil-film bearings - Rotational speed
Classification code: 601.1 Mechanical Devices
Mechanical Devices
- 601.2 Machine Components
Machine Components
- 602.2 Mechanical Transmissions
Mechanical Transmissions
- 607.1 Lubricants
Lubricants
- 931.2 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids
Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids and Solids
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.043
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
37. Comparative investigation of locusts visual bio-selection response effect induced by incentive effect of polarized light and spectral light
Accession number: 20162602544393
Authors: Liu, Qihang (1); Zhou, Qiang (2)
Author affiliation: (1) School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang; 453003, China; (2) College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China
Corresponding author: Zhou, Qiang(zq@cau.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 311-316
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: With the aim to definite the visual sensitivity selection difference of locusts biological response inspired by the visual excitation effect of spectral and polarized light, and determine the visual excitation factor and the visual sensitivity information of locusts phototactic and polartactic selection, based on the investigated experiment of swarm locusts biological selection effect responding to spectral light and polarized light respectively, the visual regulating function of locusts phototactic and polartactic selection disparity, the visual sensitivity factors and the visual exciting intensity of locusts stimulated by spectral light and polarized light were analyzed. Results show that locusts light aggregation degree induced by the superimposition function of spectral and spectral polarized light presented the sensitivity difference of physiological response to the regulation of polarized light vector, but when light stimulus intensity increased, the sensitive polarization vector of locusts visual response orientation changed, and the photosensitive biology aggregation response effect stimulated by the coupling light stimulation effect of 210°, 120° vector of violet polarized light and violet light, 210° vector of orange polarized light and orange light was the better, while that of 270° vector of violet polarized light and violet light was the worst. Locusts visual light selectivity with the visual excitation state tended to polarized light with the weaker stimulation intensity, spectral light stimulation intensity and polarized light vector sensitive degree weakened locusts positioning control behavior, and locusts polartactic vision sensitivity inspired by UV and violet polarization vector was the stronger while blue and orange polarization vector was the weaker, but 90°, 270° vector of polarized light made the stimulation effect of spectral light dominate light selectivity intensity. Moreover, the enhanced degree of locust visual sensitivity selection to violet polarized light, 120° vector of UV polarized light caused by the increment of the stimulating intensity was the stronger and the weaker respectively, and the weakened degree of spectral light selectivity caused by 90° vector of blue polarized light was the stronger. Thus, the aggregation difference of locusts response to spectral light coupling with polarized light and the selection intensity difference between spectral light and polarized light, originated from the regulated output effect of light reaction synergistically or antagonistically generated by the incentive of polarized light vector and the stimulation of spectral light, and spectral light intensity could weaken the intensity of selection to polarization vector information, but locusts bio-photosensitive response and spectral light sensitivity presented significant correlation, and the light gradient of spectral light coupling with polarized light, significantly affected locusts sensitive response intensity, while light stimulation intensity effect was not significant. Research results provide theoretical support for the manufacture of the agricultural pest induction machinery product and locusts visual response mechanism. 
Number of references: 20
Main heading: Light polarization
Controlled terms: Citrus fruits - Excited states - Light sensitive materials - Machinery - Photosensitivity - Physiological models - Polarization - Vectors
Uncontrolled terms: Bio-selection response effect - Incentive effects - Locusta migratoria - Physiological response - Polarization vectors - Positioning control - Sensitivity difference - Stimulation intensity
Classification code: 741.1 Light/Optics
Light/Optics
- 821.4 Agricultural Products
Agricultural Products
- 921.1 Algebra
Algebra
- 931.3 Atomic and Molecular Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.041
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
38. Image recognition algorithm and experiment of overlapped fruits in natural environment
Accession number: 20162602544355
Authors: Miao, Zhonghua (1); Shen, Yichou (1); Wang, Xiaohua (1); Zhou, Xiaofeng (2); Liu, Chengliang (3)
Author affiliation: (1) School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai; 200072, China; (2) Modern Agricultural Equipment Co., Ltd., Beijing; 100083, China; (3) School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai; 200240, China
Corresponding author: Wang, Xiaohua(x.wang@shu.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 21-26
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: A combined algorithm for image recognition and boundary segmentation of overlapped objectives under natural and unstructured environments was proposed. The algorithm dealt with the challenging problem of image processing applied to the agriculture with complicated external factors, such as illumination changes in unstructured natural environment, objective feature overlapping. Firstly, the image noise on the original image received from the camera was filtered out using bilateral algorithm. Secondly, overlapped objectives in the filtered image were recognized by OTSU algorithm based on the improved operator. Then the single object position was obtained by using K-means clustering algorithm on the pixels of the overlapped objectives. Afterwards using Sobel operator or Canny operator, the approximate area of the single object was recognized by connected domain analysis on the edge detection results and the domain growth. Finally, after internal and external reception basins received from the area of the object, the position of the single object boundary was confirmed, the precise contour of the single object was obtained by using watershed algorithm on the restricted area which was the area between internal and external reception basins. In order to verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed algorithm, several experiments were carried out, and only two experiments were shown due to the limited space. The first experiment chose a relatively simple image with overlapped tomatoes under the simple image composition, the second experiment chose a complicated image to further verify the adaptability of the algorithm. The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm can recognize the overlapped objectives under natural environments and it can also segment the single object from the overlapped objectives. 
Number of references: 21
Main heading: Clustering algorithms
Controlled terms: Algorithms - Combinatorial optimization - Computer vision - Edge detection - Image processing - Image recognition - Image segmentation - Optimization - Watersheds
Uncontrolled terms: Boundary segmentation - Combinatorial optimization algorithm - Illumination changes - K-Means clustering algorithm - Natural environments - Recognition algorithm - Unstructured environments - Water-shed algorithm
Classification code: 444.1 Surface Water
Surface Water
- 723.5 Computer Applications
Computer Applications
- 903.1 Information Sources and Analysis
Information Sources and Analysis
- 921.5 Optimization Techniques
Optimization Techniques
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.003
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
39. Kinematics performance analysis and optimal design of redundant actuation parallel mechanism
Accession number: 20162602544397
Authors: Chen, Xiulong (1); Jiang, Deyu (1); Chen, Linlin (1); Wang, Qing (2)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao; 266590, China; (2) Institue of Nano Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao; 266590, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 340-347
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: The kinematics performance analysis and optimal design of 4-UPS-RPU (4-universal joints-prismatic pairs-spherical joints/revolute joints-prismatic pairs-universal joints) redundant actuation parallel mechanism was studied. The Jacobian matrix of the mechanism was established, and the three dexterity measures, which were conditional number, the smallest singular value and operation, were obtained. On this basis, the global dexterity coefficient, which was used to evaluate the dexterity of various configurations, was defined. And the distribution of different dexterity measures when parallel mechanism was kept in different attitudes, such as in single attitude of different Euler angles α and different Euler angles β, at the same Euler angle α and different Euler angles β, in the workspace were analyzed, respectively. Finally, based on the global dexterity coefficient, the structure parameters which include the distribution angle on stationary platfrom and motion platform and the distribution radius on stationary platfrom and motion flatfrom, were optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared with the global dexterity coefficient before and after optimization, it was found that the global dexterity coefficient after optimization was bigger than that before optimization. Thus the kinematic performance of 4-UPS-RPU redundant actuation parallel mechanism after optimization was much better than that before optimization, and the optimized effect was obvious. This research can provide important theoretical base of the structure design for the redundant actuation parallel mechanism. 
Number of references: 21
Main heading: Mechanisms
Controlled terms: Design - Genetic algorithms - Jacobian matrices - Kinematics - Optimal systems
Uncontrolled terms: Dexterity measures - Kinematic performance - Kinematics performance - Optimal design - Parallel mechanisms - Redundant actuation - Structure design - Structure parameter
Classification code: 601.3 Mechanisms
Mechanisms
- 921.1 Algebra
Algebra
- 931.1 Mechanics
Mechanics
- 961 Systems Science
Systems Science
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.045
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
40. Optimization of liquid smoking processing and its effect on quality of sturgeon fillets
Accession number: 20162602544383
Authors: Gui, Meng (1, 2); Lin, Jia (1); Ma, Changwei (1); Li, Pinglan (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) Beijing Fisheries Research Institute, Beijing; 100068, China
Corresponding author: Li, Pinglan(lipinglan@cau.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 235-241
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: In order to provide theoretical guidance for producing liquid smoking sturgeon fillets, the liquid smoking processing technology and effects of liquid smoking process on the quality of sturgeon fillets were studied. The type and concentration of liquid smoke, smoking time and drying time of liquid smoking process were optimized. The results indicated that desirable sensorial characteristics with intense and pleasant taste were acquired when diped in 5% hawthorn kernel smoked flavor II for 3h and dried at 85 for 2h. Microbiology, moisture content, crude protein, crude fat, salt content, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), benzopyrene and volatile components were determined to evaluate the effect of liquid smoking process on sturgeon fillets. The results showed that total viable count was reduced from 2×103CFU/g to 5×102CFU/g and the relative content of phenolic compounds was increased from 0.89% to 8.62% during the process. Meanwhile, the moisture content was decreased and crude protein content and crude fat content were increased. In addition, theliquid smoked sturgeon fillets contained no pathogenic bacteria and 0.22 μg/kg benzopyrene. The results suggested that the liquid smoking processing technology of sturgeon fillets should be proposed in market promotion for the products, and it meets national standards in microbiology and benzopyrene with desirable taste. 
Number of references: 19
Main heading: Liquids
Controlled terms: Bacteria - Carcinogens - Microbiology - Moisture - Moisture determination - Optimization - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Proteins
Uncontrolled terms: National standard - Pathogenic bacterium - Phenolic compounds - Processing technologies - Sturgeon - Total viable counts - Total volatile basic nitrogens - Volatile components
Classification code: 461.9.2 Microbiology
Microbiology
- 804.1 Organic Compounds
Organic Compounds
- 921.5 Optimization Techniques
Optimization Techniques
- 944.2 Moisture Measurements
Moisture Measurements
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.031
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
41. Hydrodynamics modeling and flow resistance characteristics simulation of plant tracheid pit
Accession number: 20162602544392
Authors: Chen, Qi (1); Xu, Fang (1); Ai, Qinglin (1); Zhang, Libin (1)
Author affiliation: (1) The Key Laboratory of Special Purpose Equipment and Advanced Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou; 310014, China
Corresponding author: Ai, Qinglin(aiql@zjut.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 303-310
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: The conductivity of tracheid is closely related to the flow characteristics of water through the pit. The aim was to investigate flow resistance characteristics of border pits with different structures. The Bernoulli mathematical model of the torus-margo border pit was established based on the energy conservation law. According to the obtained mathematical model, the geometrical structures of pit, such as the pit diameter, aperture diameter, torus diameter, pore diameter and porosity of margo, were the main factors that affected the pit flow resistance characteristics. The flow through the pit was simulated with CFD software package Fluent 6.3, the pit margo was worked as porous medium, and the turbulent structure was modeled by low Re k-Ε model. In the simulation, the influences of various pit structures on flow distribution in the pit were studied and analyzed. Resistance of pits were varied with morphology as predicted, the pit flow resistance was inversely proportional to pit diameter, aperture diameter, pit depth and margo pore size, and the pit flow resistance was proportional to torus size and margo thickness. The results supported the hypothesis of valve effect of the pit torus, when the distance between torus and center position was increased, pit flow resistance was decreased at the beginning, and then it was increased, the pit flow resistance was increased with decrease of distance between margo and pit aperture. The research results provided theoretical basis for further study on the hydrodynamic characteristics of plant conduits. 
Number of references: 20
Main heading: Computational fluid dynamics
Controlled terms: Fluid dynamics - Hydrodynamics - Pore size - Porous materials
Uncontrolled terms: Energy conservation law - Flow charac-teristics - Flow resistance characteristic - Geometrical structure - Hydrodynamic characteristics - Hydrodynamics modeling - Plant tracheid - Porous medium
Classification code: 931.1 Mechanics
Mechanics
- 951 Materials Science
Materials Science
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.040
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
42. Reliability evaluation of dual crop coefficient approach on evapotranspiration calculation of peach tree in North China
Accession number: 20162602544372
Authors: Tong, Guodong (1); Liu, Honglu (2); Li, Fahu (1); Yang, Shengli (2); Fan, Haiyan (2)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) Beijing Hydraulic Research Institute, Beijing; 100044, China
Corresponding author: Li, Fahu(lifahu@cau.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 154-162
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: In order to evaluate the reliability and applicability of dual crop coefficient approach on calculating actual evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of fruit tree in the North China Plain, the evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of peach tree were measured by sap flow and water balance methods in an orchard of Beijing, China in 2012 and 2013, and the corresponding values were also calculated by dual crop coefficient approach. Experimental results showed that daily evapotranspiration rates calculated by dual crop coefficient approach and measured by sap flow and water balance methods were increased firstly and then decreased with time during peach tree growth period, and the calculated values had significantly positive correlation with those obtained by the twp measurement methods (R2>0.77** and R2>0.76**). The relative error of total actual evapotranspiration in the whole growth period calculated by dual crop coefficient approach was less than 4.5% compared with the measured values by sap flow and water balance methods, but the calculated soil evaporation was 59.5%~64.8% smaller than that measured by micro-lysimeter, and the calculated transpiration was 25.6%~26.0% greater than that measured by sap flow method. The crop coefficients obtained by dual crop coefficient approach, sap flow and water balance methods also showed a increasing trend firstly and then they were decreased with time during the growth period of peach tree, and the average values during the whole growth period were 0.90, 0.89, and 0.95, respectively, for dual crop coefficient approach, sap flow and water balance methods. By calculation and analyses on the ratio of root mean square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR) and the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), it can be concluded that dual crop coefficient approach is an effective method to calculate actual evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of peach tree under full irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas. 
Number of references: 31
Main heading: Evapotranspiration
Controlled terms: Crops - Evaporation - Forestry - Fruits - Mean square error - Orchards - Transpiration - Trees (mathematics)
Uncontrolled terms: Consistency evaluation - Crop coefficient - Crop transpirations - Peach trees - Sap flow - Soil evaporations - Water balance method
Classification code: 461.9 Biology
Biology
- 802.3 Chemical Operations
Chemical Operations
- 821.3 Agricultural Methods
Agricultural Methods
- 821.4 Agricultural Products
Agricultural Products
- 921.4 Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory
Combinatorial Mathematics, Includes Graph Theory, Set Theory
- 922.2 Mathematical Statistics
Mathematical Statistics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.020
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
43. Antioxidant inhibition effect of effective fraction of clove on minimally modified low density lipoprotein
Accession number: 20162602544384
Authors: Jiang, Shenhua (1, 2); Wan, Yan (1); Yang, Qiongyu (1); Huang, Zeyong (1); Zhang, Huahao (1); Ma, Haile (1, 2)
Author affiliation: (1) School of Pharmacy and Life Science, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang; 332000, China; (2) School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang; 212013, China
Corresponding author: Ma, Haile(mhl@ujs.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 242-249
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Minimally modified low density lipoprotein (mm-LDL) plays an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. In order to further study the inhibition effect of effective fraction of clove (EFC) on mm-LDL, antioxidation was induced by ferrous sulfate in vitro and inhibition effect was examined by the following methods: determination of conjugated dienes (CD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), UV-visible spectra, LDL-tryptophan fluorescence, free amino groups on lysine. The results indicated that EFC (2.5 μg/mL) effectively delayed the CD to be generated, and this delay effect of EFC was better than that of positive control-BHT (0.5 μg/mL) in the course of oxidation propagation. EFC (50 μg/mL)also put off the generation of TBARS during the decomposition of LDL, this delay effection of EFC was better than that of BHT(10 μg/mL). Likewise, the UV-visible spectra of LDL during the course of oxidation could be protected from being changed by EFC with certain concentrations (1.25 μg/mL, 1.5 μg/mL). Meanwhile, EFC (5 μg/mL) could significantly inhibit the decay of free amino groups on lysine in terms of protection on protein (apoB-100) oxidation of LDL, and this fraction (1 μg/mL) may effectively protect LDL-tryptophan from destruction (P<0.05), furthermore, this distinction of inhibition effect was not significant with BHT(1.25 μg/mL). In conclusion, these results proved that EFC had a significantly antioxidant activity on mild oxidation of LDL, which provides reference for further research and development of functional food. 
Number of references: 35
Main heading: Antioxidants
Controlled terms: Amino acids - Iron - Lipoproteins - Oxidation
Uncontrolled terms: Anti-oxidant activities - Anti-oxidation - Clove - Low density lipoproteins - Oxidative modification - Research and development - Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - Tryptophan fluorescence
Classification code: 545.1 Iron
Iron
- 802.2 Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions
- 804.1 Organic Compounds
Organic Compounds
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.032
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
44. Application of sacramento model calibrated by free search algorithm in cold and arid region of Northeast China
Accession number: 20162602544374
Authors: Wang, Bin (1, 2); Huang, Jinbai (3); Gong, Xinglong (1); Zhu, Shijiang (4); Wang, Guizuo (5)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Water Conservancy and Architecture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin; 150030, China; (2) Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization of Agricultural Water Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Harbin; 150030, China; (3) College of Hydraulic, Energy and Power Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou; 225009, China; (4) College of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Three Gorges University, Yichang; 443002, China; (5) Development Research Center, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing; 100038, China
Corresponding author: Gong, Xinglong(gongxinglong5188@126.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 171-177
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Free search (FS), which was set up based on the group of animal behavior, was adopted as an optimization algorithm to calibrate the Sacramento (SAC) model and the Xin’anjiang (XAJ) model. Calculation of the calibrated SAC model and XAJ model were conducted for the three watersheds of Songhua River System and Liao River System. Applicability of the SAC model was validated in cold and arid regions of Northeast China via comparison of the simulation results between the SAC model and XAJ model. The results indicated that the iterative calculation process of FS was simple and needed a few settings of the algorithm parameters, and it exhibited relatively high efficiency in the process of SAC model and XAJ model calibration; the simulation result of the SAC model was better than that of the XAJ model under the same conditions and its Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was higher than that of XAJ model. Whereas, the simulation accuracy of the SAC model needed to be improved in the case of application to the cold and arid region of Northeast China, and the performance of the SAC model needed further development and improvement. 
Number of references: 20
Main heading: Iterative methods
Controlled terms: Algorithms - Arid regions - Efficiency - Learning algorithms - Optimization
Uncontrolled terms: Algorithm parameters - Free search algorithm - Iterative calculation - Model calibration - Optimization algorithms - Region of northeast chinas - Simulation accuracy - Xin’anjiang models
Classification code: 443 Meteorology
Meteorology
- 444 Water Resources
Water Resources
- 913.1 Production Engineering
Production Engineering
- 921.5 Optimization Techniques
Optimization Techniques
- 921.6 Numerical Methods
Numerical Methods
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.022
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
45. Classifying method of haploid and diploid based on least square error
Accession number: 20162602544386
Authors: Li, Haoguang (1, 2); Li, Weijun (1); Qin, Hong (1); Chen, Shaojiang (3); Liu, Jin (3); Li, Wei (3)
Author affiliation: (1) Laboratory of High Speed Circuit and Neural Network, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) College of Information and Control Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Dongying; 257061, China; (3) National Maize Improvement Center of China, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100193, China
Corresponding author: Li, Weijun(wjli@semi.ac.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 259-264
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: In the identification of haploid maize based on pollen xenia effect, it is of vital importance to determine oil content threshold between haploid and diploid rapidly, accurately and efficiently for automatic classification of haploid by automatic magnetic sorting system in large quantities. A new method based on the least square error was proposed to discriminate haploid from diploid maize seed. Aiming at 10 crosses of maize, through incrementing the number of samples contained in each training set, the size of the training set which can get ideal recognition rate was determined. Principle of least square error used to classify haploid from diploid maize seed was described, and then several experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Seed oil content was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyzer in the experiments. The least square error method can rapidly determine oil content threshold between haploid and diploid with low amount of samples to realize the practical goal that the haploid correct recognition rate and the diploid correct rejection rate reached more than 90%, and it would provide parameters guidance for the haploid automatic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) verification system in the later large-scale classification and improve the efficiency of separation. It was very practical to obtain good classification result with low cost, and it would provide support for the development of haploid engineering. 
Number of references: 21
Main heading: Least squares approximations
Controlled terms: Classification (of information) - Cost engineering - Errors - Magnetic levitation vehicles - Magnetism - Nuclear magnetic resonance - Oils and fats
Uncontrolled terms: Diploid - Haploid - Least square errors - Maize seeds - Oil contents
Classification code: 701.2 Magnetism: Basic Concepts and Phenomena
Magnetism: Basic Concepts and Phenomena
- 716.1 Information Theory and Signal Processing
Information Theory and Signal Processing
- 804.1 Organic Compounds
Organic Compounds
- 911 Cost and Value Engineering; Industrial Economics
Cost and Value Engineering; Industrial Economics
- 921.6 Numerical Methods
Numerical Methods
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.034
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
46. Effects of water and fertilizer coupling on growth, yield and quality of grape under drip irrigation with film mulching
Accession number: 20162602544367
Authors: Wang, Lianjun (1); Wang, Chenghan (1); Qiao, Jianlei (1); Xiao, Yingkui (2)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Horticulture, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun; 130118, China; (2) College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun; 130025, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 113-119 and 92
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Water and fertilizer are the two important material resources in agricultural production, which are closely related to the yield and quality of crop. In order to discuss the effects of water and fertilizer coupling on growth, yield and quality of grape under drip irrigation with film mulching, the experiment of fertilization under drip irrigation with film mulching was conducted in plastic greenhouse. There were four irrigation levels with irrigation depth of 180 mm (W1), 270 mm (W2), 360 mm (W3) and 450 mm (W4), respectively; and four fertilization levels, including N 150 kg/hm2+P2O5120 kg/hm2+K2O 165 kg/hm2(F1), N 225 kg/hm2+P2O5180 kg/hm2+K2O 248 kg/hm2(F2), N 300 kg/hm2+P2O5240 kg/hm2+K2O 330 kg/hm2(F3) and N 450 kg/hm2+P2O5360 kg/hm2+K2O 495 kg/hm2(F4). A total of 16 treatments were designed. The experimental results showed that the new shoots of grape plant under the treatment F2 with W2 grew better among the treatments, and the chlorophyll content in grape leaves was at a high level in the whole growth period, which was 3.28 mg/g, 3.77 mg/g, 3.65 mg/g and 3.53 mg/g at new shoots growth, anthesis, fruit enlargement and fruit coloring stages, respectively. The fruit shape index of treatment F3 coupled with W4 was the highest among all treatments; however, the differences between each other groups were not significant except treatments F1W1 and F1W2. In addition, the analysis of fruit yield and quality indicated that the grape fruit yield of treatment F2W2 was not the highest, but there was no significant difference between the yield of treatments F2W2 and F2W3, which got the highest yield. Besides, the fruit quality of treatment F2W2 was more perfect compared with the other treatments. The soluble solids content of fruit of treatment F2W2 was the highest among all treatments, which reached 19.64%. The soluble sugar content and hardness index of fruit of treatment F2W2 also showed advantage, which were 17.00% and 0.71 kg/cm2, respectively. Comprehensive analysis results showed that the fertilizer application rate of treatment F2 coupled with irrigation depth of treatment W2 had a positive significance on increasing yield and improving quality of grape fruit. 
Number of references: 31
Main heading: Irrigation
Controlled terms: Agriculture - Fertilizers - Film growth - Fruits - Plants (botany) - Quality control
Uncontrolled terms: Drip irrigation - Fruit quality - Grape - Nutrient absorption - Use efficiency
Classification code: 804 Chemical Products Generally
Chemical Products Generally
- 821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
- 913.3 Quality Assurance and Control
Quality Assurance and Control
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.015
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
47. Impact of biochar addition on soil water retention based on water stable isotopes
Accession number: 20162602544377
Authors: Zheng, Lijian (1); Ma, Juanjuan (1); Guo, Fei (1); Ren, Rong (1); Guo, Xianghong (1); Sun, Xihuan (1, 2)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Water Resource Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan; 030024, China; (2) Shanxi Conservancy Technical College, Yuncheng; 044004, China
Corresponding author: Ma, Juanjuan(mjjsxty@163.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 193-198
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: Application of biochar in soil is being increasingly discussed as a mean to sequestrate carbon and improve chemical and physical properties for plant growth. Compared with the studies assessing the impact on water retention, little research has been published elucidating the mechanisms which were responsible for the change of water stable isotope extraction time. The impacts of biochar on water retention of three types soil (sandy, loam and clay) with different biochar application rates were investigated by extraction timing curve and mean proportional contribution. The mixtures were extracted by cryogenic vacuum distillation and analyzed with isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the minimum extraction time (Tmin) was 30 min for sandy soil, 45 min for loam soil and 60 min for clay soil. The biochar application rates changed the Tmin, as well as the water hydrogen isotope value and mean proportional contribution. The isotopic composition of extracted sandy soil water was more depleted in2H with the increase of biochar application rates at Tmin, while the extent of deviation to the standard values displayed peak for loam and clay soil water hydrogen isotope. The results indicated that biochar application rate was directly correlated to the water retention of sandy soil, and it was increased with the increase in water retention of loam and clay soils, but not all biochar application rates had the same impact. The loam soil was more sensitive than the clay soil to the biochar application. 
Number of references: 29
Main heading: Extraction
Controlled terms: Carbon - Clay - Distillation - Infrared spectroscopy - Isotopes - Sand - Soil moisture - Soils
Uncontrolled terms: Bio chars - Chemical and physical properties - Extraction techniques - Isotopic composition - Soil water retention - Stable isotopes - Water retention - Water stable isotopes
Classification code: 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 802.3 Chemical Operations
Chemical Operations
- 804 Chemical Products Generally
Chemical Products Generally
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.025
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
48. Effects of fertilization depth on yield, root distribution and nutrient uptake of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)
Accession number: 20162602544368
Authors: Gu, Xiaobo (1); Li, Yuannong (1); Du, Yadan (1); Ren, Quanmao (1); Wu, Guojun (1); Yin, Minhua (1)
Author affiliation: (1) Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling; Shaanxi; 712100, China
Corresponding author: Li, Yuannong(liyuannong@163.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 120-128 and 206
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: In order to determine an optimal fertilization depth for winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), barrel experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 with six treatments, including no fertilizer (F0), and fertilization depths of 0cm (CK), 5cm (D5), 10 cm (D10), 15 cm (D15) and 20 cm (D20). The effects of different fertilization depths on above-ground dry weight of taproot and lateral root, and the length, volume, area of lateral root, nutrient uptake and yield of winter oilseed rape were systematically analyzed and compared. The results showed that D15treatment significantly increased the taproot dry weight in 5~20 cm and deeper than 20 cm soil depths, while the reduction of taproot dry weight in 0~5 cm soil depth was not great compared with CK and D5, thus the total taproot dry weight was significantly increased. The maximum lateral root dry weight, length, volume and area in the 10~20 cm soil layer at both seedling stage and flowering stage were found in D15treatment, which were also significantly higher than those in CK and D5Above-ground dry matter and shoot nutrient uptake in D15were the highest at both flowering and harvest stages of all the treatments, and D15treatment achieved the greatest rapeseed yield and the most N, P, K uptakes in the seed at harvest, while the above-ground dry matter, shoot nutrient uptake, rapeseed yield in CK and D5were significantly lower than those in D15treatment. Compared with CK, the N, P, K uptakes of shoot at harvest in D15treatment across the two growing seasons were increased by 48.07%, 52.18%, 62.96% and 25.75%, 30.19%, 33.41% in comparison with D5treatment, respectively. In two growing seasons, the yield in D15treatment was 85.10%, 45.47% and 31.26% higher than those in CK, D5and D10, respectively. Considering the root distribution, nutrient uptake and yield of winter oilseed rape among all the treatments, fertilization depth of 15 cm (D15) could be recommended as the optimal fertilization depth in oilseed rape cultivation. 
Number of references: 27
Main heading: Nutrients
Controlled terms: Cultivation - Forestry - Harvesting - Oilseeds - Plants (botany) - Soils
Uncontrolled terms: Fertilization depth - Nutrient uptake - Oil seed rape - Root distribution - Yield
Classification code: 483.1 Soils and Soil Mechanics
Soils and Soil Mechanics
- 821.3 Agricultural Methods
Agricultural Methods
- 821.4 Agricultural Products
Agricultural Products
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.016
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
49. Developing situation and system construction of low-carbon environment friendly drip irrigation technology
Accession number: 20162602544363
Authors: Li, Yunkai (1); Feng, Ji (1); Song, Peng (1); Zhou, Bo (1); Wang, Tianzhi (1); Xue, Song (1)
Author affiliation: (1) College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 83-92
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: It is one of the important ways of solving water shortage to develop the drip irrigation technology. However, a series of problems brought by the rapid development need rethink profoundly. Based on the description of the drip irrigation technology application status and policy support to develop the drip irrigation, the environmental problems brought by the great success of drip irrigation technology used in Xinjiang Province were described in detail. A low-carbon environment friendly drip irrigation technology system is necessary, whose basic connotation is to realize the goal of “three lows and two highs”, including “low-energy”, “low-pollution”, “low-emission”, “high-effect” and “high-benefit”. At the same time, the key technologies were stated in detail. The technology of “consumption reduction” contains self-pressure drip irrigation technology and construction technology for low-pressure or micro-pressure drip irrigation system. The technology of “pollution abatement” contains security drip irrigation with poor quality water and drip irrigation with biodegradable mask or under mulch. The technology of “emission reduction” contains emission reduction of farmland greenhouse gas in drip irrigation and drip irrigation with clean energy to get water. The technology of “effect-raising” contains treatment technology of water quality, sedimentation and filtration technology, and product development of long-lasting anti-clogging drip irrigation emitters. The technology of “high-gain” contains irrigation with integration of water and fertilizer and so on. Eventually, the future research priorities and the key issues need to be resolved about low-carbon environment friendly drip irrigation technology were proposed. 
Number of references: 79
Main heading: Irrigation
Controlled terms: Emission control - Environmental technology - Greenhouse gases - Pollution - Water filtration - Water pollution - Water quality - Water treatment
Uncontrolled terms: Construction technologies - Drip irrigation - Drip irrigation systems - Environment protection - Filtration technologies - Integration of water and fertilizers - Low carbon - Technology system
Classification code: 445.1 Water Treatment Techniques
Water Treatment Techniques
- 445.2 Water Analysis
Water Analysis
- 451.1 Air Pollution Sources
Air Pollution Sources
- 451.2 Air Pollution Control
Air Pollution Control
- 453 Water Pollution
Water Pollution
- 454 Environmental Engineering
Environmental Engineering
- 821.3 Agricultural Methods
Agricultural Methods
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.011
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
50. Numerical analysis of hydraulic performance in centrifugal pump with vane diffuser
Accession number: 20162602544357
Authors: Zhu, Xiangyuan (1); Jiang, Wei (1); Li, Guojun (1); Sun, Guangpu (1)
Author affiliation: (1) Key Laboratory of Thermal Fluid Science and Engineering of MOE, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an; 710049, China
Corresponding author: Li, Guojun(liguojun@xjtu.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 34-41 and 46
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: The unsteady numerical method was applied to simulate the flow field and pressure field in the single-stage centrifugal pump with vane diffuser by using SST k-ω turbulent model. The static pressure recovery, energy loss and pressure fluctuation in the diffuser and volute were analyzed and the results showed that the performance using the numerical method was in good agreement with data obtained from experimental investigation. The total pressure loss and static pressure recovery in the diffuser and volute presented periodic fluctuation due to interaction between impeller and diffuser, and they were much bigger than those in volute. The pressure loss in vane diffuser was increased as the increase of flow rate. The static pressure recovery was got small as the flow rate came large. Pressure loss and pressure recovery in volute presented the same trend. The difference between the maximum and minimum pressure losses was increased as the increase of operating flow rate, as well as the pressure recovery. The pressure pulsation intensity distributed on impeller was got stronge as the increase of operating flow rate. The pressure pulsation intensity distributed on guide blade was increased at low flow rate and reached the maximum value, and then it was decreased as the increase of flow rate. The large number of vorticity in the diffuser moved to exit was induced by the vane leading edge, but it was provoked by the vane trialing in volute. The maximum pressure fluctuation intensity coefficient (Csdv) in impeller was concentrated at the impeller exit, and it was concentrated on the vane leading edge and the volute exit in the diffuser and volute, respectively. 
Number of references: 20
Main heading: Numerical methods
Controlled terms: Centrifugal pumps - Computational fluid dynamics - Computer simulation - Energy dissipation - Flow rate - Impellers - Pumps - Recovery
Uncontrolled terms: Experimental investigations - Guide vane - Hydraulic performance - Periodic fluctuations - Rotor-stator interactions - Single-stage centrifugal pumps - Static-pressure recovery - Unsteady numerical method
Classification code: 525.4 Energy Losses (industrial and residential)
Energy Losses (industrial and residential)
- 601.2 Machine Components
Machine Components
- 618.2 Pumps
Pumps
- 631 Fluid Flow
Fluid Flow
- 723.5 Computer Applications
Computer Applications
- 921.6 Numerical Methods
Numerical Methods
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.005
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
51. Optimization of geometry algorithm for DBH of standing tree on 2D laser detection
Accession number: 20162602544390
Authors: Wang, Yaxiong (1); Kang, Feng (1); Li, Wenbin (1); Zheng, Yongjun (2)
Author affiliation: (1) School of Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing; 100083, China; (2) College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing; 100083, China
Corresponding author: Kang, Feng(kangfeng98@bjfu.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 290-296
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: It takes an important role to measure the DBH and position of standing tree by a 2D laser detection in current forestry surveying and mapping. A compensation scheme in short distances contraposing the two variables was put forward on three common geometry algorithms (arc length method, tangent method, dual-cosine method), and a compensation angle was used in the scheme. The functionary relation of compensation angles for arc length method and tangent method with distances was researched specifically, the regression analysis was also carried on, and the fitting equations were obtained (R2>0.85 for each fitting equation). Verification test for trunks using the fitting equations in the range of 0~5.5 m was carried out in which five poplar trunks were selected. The accuracies of measured values of radius and the distance were all improved by algorithms compensation. Thereinto, the measure precisions of radius values from arc length compensation algorithm and tangent compensation algorithm were respectively increased by 10.6 percent and 10.7 percent, and the mean absolute errors were 4.8 mm and 3.8 mm; the mean absolute errors of measured values of distance were controlled within 66.0 mm and 15.9 mm respectively after algorithms compensation. Experiments proved that the two compensation geometric algorithms could both be used as forestry surveying and mapping algorithms in short distances, and the tangent compensation algorithm is better. 
Number of references: 22
Main heading: Algorithms
Controlled terms: Carbon dioxide arc welding - Conformal mapping - Forestry - Geometry - Mapping - Optimization - Regression analysis - Surveying - Surveys - Timber
Uncontrolled terms: 2d lasers - Compensation algorithm - Fitting equations - Geometric algorithm - Geometry algorithms - Mean absolute error - Optimization of geometries - Standing tree
Classification code: 405.3 Surveying
Surveying
- 538.2.1 Welding Processes
Welding Processes
- 921 Mathematics
Mathematics
- 921.5 Optimization Techniques
Optimization Techniques
- 922.2 Mathematical Statistics
Mathematical Statistics
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.038
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
52. Web crawler of atmosphere and weather data based on MEAN stack with CheerIO
Accession number: 20162602544388
Authors: Hu, Rong (1); Feng, Zhongke (1); Jiang, Junzhiwei (1)
Author affiliation: (1) Precision Forestry Key Laboratory of Beijing, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing; 100083, China
Corresponding author: Feng, Zhongke(fengzhongke@126.com)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 275-282
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: To collect the meteorological data dispersed in various industries, fields and disciplines in a comprehensive and real-time way, and meet the needs of scientific research departments for data, an efficient directional crawler was developed based on Google’s full-Stack technology called MEAN (MongoDB + Express +AngularJS + Node. js) Stack and an fast flex Javascript Document Object Model module called CheerIO, the functions such as fast-gathering weather information, information analysis and processing by data storage, query, automatic mapping, statistical analysis, forecasting of GIS were realized. An application system deployed on Alicloud server which can real-timely update and forecast meteorological data was created, and it can also provide practical functions of massive data storage, convenient search and query. An efficient and practical web application system was built, which not only provided effective solutions for scattered online data collection but show people date intuitively by using HTML5 data visualizing technology. In actual project, it offered a great number of data support and example to the weather-related fields, such as forestry and preventive medicine. GIS data visualization is a constantly evolving concept, whose borders are expanding fast. At the age of the internet, especially in the globalization of information, the long-term value of data has been gained more and more recognition and affirmation from small companies to national political decision-making. It should be recognized what really it is and how it can help us. 
Number of references: 19
Main heading: Search engines
Controlled terms: Behavioral research - Data acquisition - Data handling - Data storage equipment - Data visualization - Decision making - Digital storage - Mapping - Meteorology - Weather forecasting - XML
Uncontrolled terms: CheerIO - Directional crawler - Document object model - MEAN Stack - Online data collection - Scientific researches - Weather data - Web application systems
Classification code: 405.3 Surveying
Surveying
- 443 Meteorology
Meteorology
- 722.1 Data Storage, Equipment and Techniques
Data Storage, Equipment and Techniques
- 723 Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications
Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications
- 723.2 Data Processing and Image Processing
Data Processing and Image Processing
- 912.2 Management
Management
- 971 Social Sciences
Social Sciences
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.036
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
53. PIV experiment on internal flow field of mixed-flow pump under different flow conditions
Accession number: 20162602544356
Authors: Shi, Weidong (1, 2); Ji, Leilei (1, 2); Li, Wei (1, 2); Shao, Peipei (1, 2); Li, Weiqiang (1, 2); Jiang, Xiaoping (1, 2)
Author affiliation: (1) Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang; 212013, China; (2) National Research Center of Pumps, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang; 212013, China
Corresponding author: Li, Wei(lwjiangda@ujs.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 27-33
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: In order to explore the internal flow characteristics of mixed-flow pump and optimize and improve the design method of the mixed-flow impeller and guide vane, the internal flow field of mixed-flow pump was measured based on the particle image velocimetry (PIV). The streamline and velocity distribution of impeller section at different phases and the vorticity distribution under small flow rate conditions were analyzed. The results showed that radial trend of flow was appeared in the impeller due to influence of vortex flow on the blade pressure surface and flow separation of suction surface under small flow rate conditions, and the flow was turbulent. With the increase of flow rate, the streamline was turned gradually in the axial direction and flows along with the contour line of hub. Under the large flow rate conditions, the vortex structures near blade pressure surface and close to the wall were obvious. At 0.6 times of the working condition, when impeller inlet came to the shooting section, clockwise rotation vortex was formed within the impeller; when impeller outlet came to the shooting section, the positive vorticity concentrated area appeared near the guide vane inlet edge and this region was moved in the inlet direction with rotation of impeller. When the blade outlet kept away from the shooting section, the negative vorticity concentrated area was appeared near the guide vane inlet. The causes of mixed-flow pump energy loss were revealed during the process of rotor-stator interaction between impeller and guide vane. The research results provided reference for revealing the internal flow characteristics and expanding the operation ranges of the mixed-flow pump. 
Number of references: 25
Main heading: Vortex flow
Controlled terms: Energy dissipation - Flow fields - Flow rate - Flow separation - Flow visualization - Impellers - Pumps - Velocimeters - Velocity measurement - Vorticity
Uncontrolled terms: Internal flow characteristics - Internal flow field - Mixed flow pump - Mixed-flow impeller - Multi-conditions - Particle image velocimetries - Rotor-stator interactions - Vorticity distribution
Classification code: 525.4 Energy Losses (industrial and residential)
Energy Losses (industrial and residential)
- 601.2 Machine Components
Machine Components
- 618.2 Pumps
Pumps
- 631 Fluid Flow
Fluid Flow
- 631.1 Fluid Flow, General
Fluid Flow, General
- 943.3 Special Purpose Instruments
Special Purpose Instruments
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.004
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    
54. Design and experiment of self-propelled water body restoration plants harvester
Accession number: 20162602544361
Authors: Zou, Fuxing (1); Li, Jianping (1, 2); He, Xiangyi (1); Ji, Mingdong (1); Yang, Xiaoe (3)
Author affiliation: (1) Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou; 310058, China; (2) Key Laboratory of Equipment and Informatization in Environment Controlled Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Hangzhou; 310058, China; (3) College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou; 310058, China
Corresponding author: Li, Jianping(jpli@zju.edu.cn)
Source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
Abbreviated source title: Nongye Jixie Xuebao
Volume: 47
Issue: 6
Issue date: June 25, 2016
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 61-66 and 82
Language: Chinese
ISSN: 10001298
CODEN: NUYCA3
Document type: Journal article (JA)
Publisher: Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery
Abstract: A variety of harvesting machines were developed to finish different harvesting works, such as combine-harvester for wheat and rice, harvesting boat for aquatic plants in rivers and lakes, trailer mower for grassland. But these machines are not suitable for aquatic plants growing in orderly arranged pools in large-scale greenhouses, which are used to purify tail water from sewage plants, because water in these pools is deep and space inside greenhouses is not enough for these machines to work in. Additionally, combustion engines are usually used to supply power for existing harvesters, consequently noises and exhaust pollution are serious problems in closed greenhouses. Aquatic plants grow rapidly and need to be cut regularly, which need a lot of labor. To satisfy the need of plants harvesting in greenhouses, research work on the functions, the basic structure, as well as the design of electric control system of a new type of harvester were done. A group of batteries was used in the new harvester to supply power for motors, which were used to drive cutting device, walking system and rotating mechanism separately. When it was working, the harvester walked along two parallel tracks above pools in greenhouses, cut grass in pools and transferred the grass from the left to the right, and then laid down grass on passages between two adjacent rows of pools. By experiments and calculation, the key parameters for the above mentioned mechanisms, such as main sizes, cutting power consumption, motor power, and walking speed were decided. Harvesting tests showed that when the machine walked at 0.75~0.92 m/s and average cutting speed of the cutter was 0.92 m/s, good results can be achieved, there were no repeated-cutting or uncut areas. Harvesting efficiency reached 7500~9000 m2/h, which was more than 20 times of artificial work. 
Number of references: 23
Main heading: Harvesters
Controlled terms: Design - Greenhouses - Harvesting - Lakes - Restoration - River pollution - Sewage - Testing
Uncontrolled terms: Artificial wetland - Combine harvesters - Combustion engines - Electric control system - Harvesting machines - Rivers and lakes - Rotating mechanisms - Water restoration
Classification code: 452.1 Sewage
Sewage
- 453 Water Pollution
Water Pollution
- 821 Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
Agricultural Equipment and Methods; Vegetation and Pest Control
DOI: 10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.009
Compendex references: YES
201628
Database: Compendex
Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Data Provider: Engineering Village
    

 


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