牛康,周利明,苑严伟,刘阳春,方宪法.勺链式马铃薯排种器自补种系统设计与试验[J].农业机械学报,2016,47(s1):76-83.
Niu Kang,Zhou Liming,Yuan Yanwei,Liu Yangchun,Fang Xianfa.Design and Experiment on Automatic Compensation System of Spoon-chain Potato Metering Device[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2016,47(s1):76-83.
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勺链式马铃薯排种器自补种系统设计与试验   [下载全文]
Design and Experiment on Automatic Compensation System of Spoon-chain Potato Metering Device   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2016-07-20  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.S0.012
中文关键词:  勺链式排种器  马铃薯  漏种检测  自动补种  电容传感器
基金项目:国家重点研发计划重点专项(2016YFD0700103)和“十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAF32B02)
作者单位
牛康 中国农业大学
中国农业机械化科学研究院 
周利明 中国农业机械化科学研究院 
苑严伟 中国农业机械化科学研究院 
刘阳春 中国农业机械化科学研究院 
方宪法 中国农业机械化科学研究院
南方粮油作物协同创新中心 
中文摘要:针对勺链式马铃薯排种器普遍存在的漏种问题,提出了一种基于电容值精确测量技术的漏种检测方法,设计了电容式漏种检测传感器,以及以PLC为核心的自补种系统,实现了该系统在马铃薯种植机上的应用,并试验研究了该系统的补种性能。试验结果表明:排种速度为0.3~0.7m/s时,原始漏种率为7%~11.3%,排种株距误差率为3.3%~9.1%;经自补种系统补偿后,最终漏种率为1.1%~1.75%,补种株距误差率为7.6%~16.9%;在试验范围内,随排种速度增大,补种成功率变化不大,平均为84.6%。设计的电容式漏种检测传感器检测可靠,自补种系统补偿效果显著,补种株距精度满足马铃薯种植要求。
Niu Kang  Zhou Liming  Yuan Yanwei  Liu Yangchun  Fang Xianfa
China Agricultural University;Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences;Southern Regional Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain and Oil Crops in China
Key Words:Spoon-chain metering device  potato  loss sowing detection  automatic compensation  capacitance sensor
Abstract:Spoon chain metering is the most widely used metering device in small and medium sized potato planter at present because of its high reliability, low cost and adjustable plant spacing. Its performance is closely related with the planting quality. However, spoon chain metering still encounters loss sowing problem, which can be reduced by optimizing structure and parameters of metering device. Nevertheless, the rate of loss sowing is still around 7%. Artificial assistance metering can resolve these problems effectively but with increased labor intensity and hidden danger. In order to solve this problem, a loss sowing detection method based on capacitance value precision measurement technology was proposed in this paper, and an automatic re seeding system was designed which was mainly composed of control system, capacitance sensor and reseed metering device. In order to test performance of the automatic compensation system, a performance test was carried out using self made device. Spoon chain was driven by a servo motor and its speed was adjusted by servo driver. Reseeding chain was driven by a servo motor and its speed was controlled by PLC controller. Micro potatoes, with diameter of 25~30mm, were used in main metering system and re seeding system. The metering speed was set as 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7m/s, and the number of theoretical seed metering was 600 at different speeds. By mounting a laser sensor on seed discharge hole, the number of normal seeding and re seeding were recorded by PLC automatically. Total seeding, loss sowing, normal seeding, theoretical seeding, re seeding rate, original rate and final rate of loss sowing can be calculated. The tests showed that, with the metering speed increasing from 0.3m/s to 0.7m/s, the original rate of loss sowing, the final rate of loss sowing, the metering row spacing error and the reseeding row spacing error were increased from 7% to 11.3%, 1.1% to 1.75%, 3.3% to 9.1% and 7.6% to 16.9%; with the increasing of chain speed, changes of reseeding rate were relatively small, and the final rate of loss sowing was less than 1.75%, and rate of reseeding was around 84.6%. The performance of the designed compensation system is stable, and the loss sowing problem of potato spoon-chain metering device can be solved well.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

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