吴悠,张富仓,闫世程,向友珍,邹海洋,田建柯.柱状苹果树生长生理与蒸散特征对水分的响应研究[J].农业机械学报,2016,47(12):213-222.
Wu You,Zhang Fucang,Yan Shicheng,Xiang Youzhen,Zou Haiyang,Tian Jianke.Responses of Growth, Physiological and Evapotranspiration Characteristics of Columnar Apple Trees to Different Irrigation Depths[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2016,47(12):213-222.
摘要点击次数: 617
全文下载次数: 312
柱状苹果树生长生理与蒸散特征对水分的响应研究   [下载全文]
Responses of Growth, Physiological and Evapotranspiration Characteristics of Columnar Apple Trees to Different Irrigation Depths   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2016-09-14  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.12.026
中文关键词:  柱状苹果树  净光合速率  蒸腾速率  水分利用效率  蒸散
基金项目:国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划)项目(2011AA100504)和高等学校学科创新引智计划(111计划)项目(B12007)
作者单位
吴悠 西北农林科技大学 
张富仓 西北农林科技大学 
闫世程 西北农林科技大学 
向友珍 西北农林科技大学 
邹海洋 西北农林科技大学 
田建柯 西北农林科技大学 
中文摘要:通过研究不同灌水量和地表覆膜条件对柱状苹果树的生长生理及蒸散特征的综合影响,探寻适合苹果树生长且水分利用效率高的灌水量和保水措施。通过遮雨棚下可称量式蒸渗桶试验,设置4个灌水水平:60%ETC(W1)、80%ETC(W2)、100%ETC(W3)和120%ETC(W4);地表覆膜处理分别为有覆盖(M)和无覆盖(NM),分析柱状苹果树的干物质量、光合速率、蒸腾速率和阶段耗水情况对不同灌水量和地表覆盖条件的响应规律。结果表明,干物质量随灌水量增加而增加,且M处理可促进干物质量的积累;净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度均随着灌水量的增加而升高。不同生育期净光合速率和蒸腾速率由大到小依次均为:果实膨大期、果实成熟期、开花座果期、叶变期。相同灌水量和地表覆盖处理条件下,不同时刻净光合速率由大到小依次为10:00、13:00、08:00,蒸腾速率由大到小依次为13:00、10:00、08:00,气孔导度由大到小依次为10:00、08:00、13:00。瞬时水分利用效率(LWUE)最大值和最小值分别出现在W2处理10:00(4.52μmol/mmol)和W4处理13:00(2.62μmol/mmol);全生育期总蒸散量随着灌水量增加而增加,NM处理较M处理增加11.02%~16.35%。开花座果期、果实膨大期、果实成熟期和叶变期的耗水强度分别为3.29~4.36mm/d、2.40~4.85mm/d、0.83~1.79mm/d和0.77~1.53mm/d,耗水模数分别为19.34%~27.40%、55.99%~61.41%、8.62%~12.63%和5.85%~7.24%。最终得出120%ETC灌水量和地表覆膜条件有利于改善柱状苹果树的生长和生理状况,但80%ETC处理水分利用效率最高。地表覆膜不仅促进苹果树生长而且降低了土壤蒸发量,具有一定的保水作用。因此,MW2处理为相对节水的灌溉模式。
Wu You  Zhang Fucang  Yan Shicheng  Xiang Youzhen  Zou Haiyang  Tian Jianke
Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University and Northwest A&F University
Key Words:columnar apple trees  net photosynthetic rate  transpiration rate  water use efficiency  evapotranspiration
Abstract:Considering the soil water deficit and low water use efficiency of apple orchards in the semi-arid areas of Northwest China, the effects of mulching and water supply on growth, physiological properties and evapotranspiration features of columnar apple trees were investigated to explore suitable irrigation depth and soil water conservation measures for healthy growth and higher water use efficiency of apple trees. The weighing bucket experiments under a shelter were subjected to four irrigation water levels: 60%ETC (W1), 80%ETC (W2), 100%ETC (W3) and 120%ETC (W4), and two mulching modes: mulching (M) and no mulching (NM), resulting in eight treatments in total. The results showed that dry matter was increased with the increase of irrigation amount, and the M treatment promoted accumulation of dry matter. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were increased with the increase of irrigation depth. Pn and Tr at different growth stages under different irrigation depths and mulching modes showed a decreasing trend as fruit enlargement stage, fruit maturation stage, flowering and fruit bearing stage and leaf changing stage. Under the same irrigation depth and mulching mode, Pn, Tr and Gs at different times in a day showed a decreasing trend as 10:00, 13:00 and 8:00, 13:00, 10:00 and 08:00, and 10:00, 08:00 and 13:00, respectively. The maximum and minimum leaf water use efficiency (LWUE) found at 10:00 in the MW2 treatment (4.52μmol/mmol) and at 13:00 in the MW4 treatment (2.62μmol/mmol), respectively. The accumulative evapotranspiration during the whole growth period was increased with the increase of irrigation depth, those of NM treatments were increased by 11.02%~16.35% compared with those of M treatments. Water consumption rate at flowering and fruit bearing stage, fruit enlargement stage, fruit maturation stage and leaf changing stage reached 3.29~4.36mm/d, 2.40~4.85mm/d, 0.83~1.79mm/d and 0.77~1.53mm/d, with the corresponding water consumption modulus of 19.34~27.40%, 55.99~61.41%, 8.62%~12.63% and 5.85%~7.24%, respectively. The results indicated that the W4 and M treatments were beneficial for improving the growth and physiological characteristics of columnar apple trees, but the highest water use efficiency was obtained in the W2 treatment. Fruit enlargement stage was found to be the most active physiological metabolic reaction stage of columnar apple trees, and mulching played a certain role in the soil water conservation.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

   下载PDF阅读器