马小玲,张宽地,董旭,杨明义,杨帆.黄土坡面细沟流土壤侵蚀机理研究[J].农业机械学报,2016,47(9):134-140.
Ma Xiaoling,Zhang Kuandi,Dong Xu,Yang Mingyi,Yang Fan.Study of Rill Flow Soil Erosion Mechanism on Loess Slope Surface[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2016,47(9):134-140.
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黄土坡面细沟流土壤侵蚀机理研究   [下载全文]
Study of Rill Flow Soil Erosion Mechanism on Loess Slope Surface   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2016-07-11  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.09.020
中文关键词:  黄土坡面  细沟侵蚀  细沟水动力学  土壤剥离率  床面形态
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51579214)、中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(Z109021564)、黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室主任基金项目(A314021402-1619)和流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室开放基金项目(IWHR-SKL-2014)
作者单位
马小玲 西北农林科技大学 
张宽地 西北农林科技大学 
董旭 西北农林科技大学 
杨明义 西北农林科技大学 
杨帆 西北农林科技大学 
中文摘要:细沟侵蚀是黄土坡面最主要的侵蚀方式之一,土壤剥离过程是细沟侵蚀中的重要环节。采用6种坡度(2°、4°、6°、8°、10°、12°)、5种流量(8、16、24、32、40L/min)组合冲刷试验,系统研究了黄土坡面细沟流土壤剥蚀率与水动力学和床面形态的耦合关系。结果表明:土壤剥蚀率与流量、坡度均呈幂函数增加关系,且坡度对土壤剥蚀率的影响更大;不同类型土壤无量纲剥蚀率与无量纲流速之间存在分区现象,表明土壤侵蚀受到除泥沙粒径外其他因素的影响;不同类型土壤无量纲剥蚀率与无量纲切应力双对数函数呈线性增加关系,且不存在分区;不同类型土壤无量纲剥蚀率与无量纲单位水流功率存在分区;土壤剥蚀率随跌坑发育系数的增加呈幂函数增加趋势,而土壤剥蚀率随L/H增加呈幂函数减小趋势,说明床面形态越加复杂、跌坑发育越加成熟,土壤侵蚀就越剧烈。研究结果对细沟水流侵蚀机理的探究具有一定的理论价值,对黄土坡面水土流失治理及生态修复均具有一定的指导意义。
Ma Xiaoling  Zhang Ku  i  Dong Xu  Yang Mingyi  Yang Fan
Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University and Northwest A&F University
Key Words:loess hillslope  rill erosion  rill water dynamics  soil detachment rate  bed form
Abstract:Rill erosion is one of the most important slope erosion in loess area, and soil detachment process is an important link of rill erosion. However, the existing studies only are based on a single soil conditions, while the simple relationship between soil detachment rate and water dynamics cannot fully reflect the coupling mechanism of the soil detachment rate under different types of soil. More importantly, the existing research involves little on the relationship between the detachment rate and bed surface morphology. The article adopted the combination of six kinds of slope gradients (2°, 4°, 6°, 8°, 10° and 12°) and five discharges (8L/min, 16L/min, 24L/min, 32L/min, 40L/min) to do scouring experiment. The results showed that: soil detachment rate had power function relationship with discharge and slope, and slope had a greater influence than discharge; Different types of non dimensional soil detachment rate and non dimensional unit stream power had zoned phenomenon with non dimensional flow velocity which showed that soil detachment had other influence factors except diameter of particles; Non dimensional soil detachment rate and non dimensional shear stress double log function had a linear increase relationship, and there was no partition; Soil detachment rate had a trend of increase power function with the increase of down hole development coefficient, and the soil detachment rate had a power function decreasing trend with the L/H increases. This results show that the more complex bed surface morphology increased, the more mature down hole developed increasingly and the more intense soil detachment is. The results of the study have some theoretical value to the mechanism of sediment transport on rill flow erosion, moreover it has a certain guiding significance on loess slope surface soil detachment control and ecological restoration.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

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