梁浩,胡克林,侯森,邹国元,王磊.填闲玉米对京郊设施菜地土壤氮素淋洗影响的模拟分析[J].农业机械学报,2016,47(8):125-136.
Liang Hao,Hu Kelin,Hou Sen,Zou Guoyuan,Wang Lei.Simulation Analysis of Effect of Planting Summer Catch Crop Sweet Corn on Nitrate Leaching for Greenhouse Vegetable Field in Suburbs of Beijing[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2016,47(8):125-136.
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填闲玉米对京郊设施菜地土壤氮素淋洗影响的模拟分析   [下载全文]
Simulation Analysis of Effect of Planting Summer Catch Crop Sweet Corn on Nitrate Leaching for Greenhouse Vegetable Field in Suburbs of Beijing   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2015-12-14  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.08.017
中文关键词:  玉米  设施蔬菜  填闲作物  水氮模型  水分渗漏  硝酸盐淋失
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201000314)和农业部植物营养与肥料重点实验室开放基金项目(IARRP-2014-36)
作者单位
梁浩 农业部植物营养与肥料重点实验室 
胡克林 中国农业大学 
侯森 中国农业大学 
邹国元 北京市农林科学院 
王磊 农业部植物营养与肥料重点实验室 
中文摘要:在北京郊区开展了3a(2008—2010年)的田间试验,在前茬蔬菜3种施肥处理(CK,不施肥;N1,施N 380kg/hm;N2,施N 260kg/hm)的基础上,在夏季休闲期分别在N1和N2处理上增设了甜玉米种植处理,即N1C和N2C,以探讨填闲作物种植对京郊设施菜地夏季敞棚期氮素淋失的阻控作用。利用田间系统观测数据对土壤-作物系统水氮管理模型WHCNS进行了校验,并对设施菜地夏季休闲期土壤水氮平衡及氮素淋洗进行了模拟分析。结果表明,休闲处理的水分消耗项主要是蒸发和渗漏,而填闲处理的水分消耗项主要是蒸腾和渗漏,各处理水分渗漏量由大到小依次为:CK、N1、N2、N1C、N2C,甜玉米的种植提高了土壤水分的上行通量,减少了近42%的水分渗漏量。休闲处理的水分平衡均值为正,而填闲处理的水分平衡为负,说明甜玉米的种植消耗了土体储存的水分。硝态氮淋洗量由大到小依次为:N1、N2、CK、N1C、N2C,填闲处理的氮素淋洗量范围为1.3~50.9kg/hm,远低于施肥处理的59.2~273.6kg/hm,甚至低于不施肥处理的38.6~151.6kg/hm,N1C和N2C处理的氮素淋洗量分别比N1和N2处理降低80%和85%。因此,在夏季选择深根系的甜玉米作为填闲作物,对硝态氮的淋洗有明显的阻控作用,是降低土壤硝态氮淋失风险最直接有效的措施之一。
Liang Hao  Hu Kelin  Hou Sen  Zou Guoyuan  Wang Lei
Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Ministry of Agriculture,China Agricultural University,China Agricultural University,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences and Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Ministry of Agriculture
Key Words:corn  greenhouse vegetable  catch crop  water and nitrogen model  water drainage  nitrate leaching
Abstract:In order to reduce the effect of intensive rainfall on nitrate leaching in summer for greenhouse vegetable field in North Plain China, a three-year (2008—2010) field experiment was conducted in the suburbs of Beijing during the period of intensive rainfall season from July to September. Five different treatments were designed, including three nitrogen fertilizer levels (CK, no nitrogen fertilizer;N1, 380kg/hm and N2, 260kg/hm of nitrogen) in previously grown crop, and two other treatments with and without sweet corn as a catch crop based on the treatments of N1 and N2, denoted by N1C and N2C, respectively. The three-year field observed data was used to calibrate and validate the WHCNS (soil water heat carbon nitrogen simulator) model, and subsequently nitrate leaching, and water and nitrogen balance of different treatments were simulated. The results showed that evaporation and drainage were two main pathways of water consumption for the fallow treatments, while the main pathway of catch crop treatments was evapotranspiration and drainage. The amount of water drainage was in the order of CK>N1≈N2>N1C>N2C. Planting sweet corn can reduce nearly 42% of water drainage compared with without catch crop treatments. The water balance for fallow treatments was positive, and it was negative for the catch crop treatments, which indicated that the sweet corn consumed soil water stored in soil profile. The order of nitrate leaching rate of different treatments was N1>N2>CK>N1C>N2C, and the mass of nitrate leaching for catch crop treatments ranged from 1.3kg/hm to 50.9kg/hm, which was much lower compared with those of N1 and N2 treatments (59.2~273.6kg/hm), and even lower than that of the CK treatment (38.6~151.6kg/hm). The catch crop reduced 80% and 85% of nitrate leaching compared with treatments of N1 and N2, respectively. It can be concluded that using the deep-rooted sweet corn as a catch crop in summer can delay and control the nitrate leaching. Therefore, it can be used as an efficient method to reduce the risk of nitrate leaching for greenhouse vegetable field in the North China Plain.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

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