金 鑫,杜新武,杨传华,姬江涛,董 哲,颜 华.蔬菜移栽穴盘苗自动输送装置设计与试验[J].农业机械学报,2016,47(7):103-111.
Jin Xin,Du Xinwu,Yang Chuanhua,Ji Jiangtao,Dong Zhe,Yan Hua.Design and Experiment on Automatic Transporting Mechanism for Vegetable Potted Seedlings[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2016,47(7):103-111.
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蔬菜移栽穴盘苗自动输送装置设计与试验   [下载全文]
Design and Experiment on Automatic Transporting Mechanism for Vegetable Potted Seedlings   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2016-01-19  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.07.015
中文关键词:  蔬菜穴盘苗  自动移栽  自动输送装置  设计  试验
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51505130)、黑龙江省科学基金项目(E2015042)和河南省教育厅高校科研项目(15A416003)
作者单位
金 鑫 河南科技大学 
杜新武 河南科技大学 
杨传华 佳木斯大学 
姬江涛 河南科技大学 
董 哲 中国农业机械化科学研究院 
颜 华 中国农业机械化科学研究院 
中文摘要:针对目前穴盘蔬菜自动移栽中钵苗离盘转运至导苗筒过程钵体损伤大、机构轨迹复杂及机电气控制成本高等问题,设计了一种由纵向移盘机构、顶苗机构、横向移盘机构、导苗筒、夹苗机构等组成的纯机械传动式蔬菜移栽穴盘苗自动输送装置。利用功能-动作过程-动作法(F-P-A法)对穴盘苗自动输送过程进行动作分解,确定了符合各环节动作要求的机构形式;运用运动建模、仿真和精度综合分析等方法,并结合农艺与动力学要求,得出横向移盘机构圆柱凸轮最大压力角αmax=29.32°,夹苗机构的苗爪翻转凸轮行程hp=29mm等关键部件参数;基于建立的时序分析模型,利用Visual Studio编写了可视化的蔬菜移栽穴盘苗自动输送装置时序分析程序,通过对各机构动作进行匹配,优选出一组最佳参数:纵移机构初始相位角φz=185°,顶苗机构初始相位角φd=108°,曲柄长度a=78mm,连杆长度b=112mm,偏距e=20mm,苗爪翻转机构初始相位角φf=15°,苗爪开合机构初始相位角φk=135°。以苗龄期45d、3种不同含水率的番茄穴盘苗为试验对象,进行自动输送试验。结果表明:穴盘苗基质含水率和取苗速度对装置取苗成功率均有影响,呈负相关,基质损失率则与取苗速度关系不大;该装置能够实现140株/min的取苗速度(取苗成功率超过95%),当基质含水率为符合育苗规范的32.79%时,取苗成功率98.44%、基质损失率36.67%,满足移栽农艺要求且远超人工移栽效率。
Jin Xin  Du Xinwu  Yang Chuanhua  Ji Jiangtao  Dong Zhe  Yan Hua
Henan University of Science and Technology,Henan University of Science and Technology,Jiamusi University,Henan University of Science and Technology,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences
Key Words:vegetable potted seedling  automatic transplanting  automatic transporting device  design  experiment
Abstract:In order to solve the problems of transporting, such as complexity of the mechanism, high cost of the electrical control system, pot damage in the process of transplanting, a new automatic seedling transplanting device was designed, which consists of vertical movement mechanism, ejecting mechanism, horizontal movement mechanism, guiding mechanism and gripping mechanism. The specific form of each mechanism were determined by using F-P-A method. The cam’s maximum pressure angle was determined as 29.32° and the cam displacement was determined as 29mm according to agricultural requirements using virtual modeling, simulation and accuracy analysis. The sequence analysis model program was built with the Visual Studio software, and a group of optimal parameters was obtained with this program. The initial phase angle of vertical mechanism was 185°, initial phase angle of ejecting mechanism was 108°, the length of the crank was 78mm, the length of the connecting bar was 112mm, the eccentricity was 20mm, the initial phase angle of the gripping mechanism was 15° and the initial phase angle of the opening and closing mechanism was 135°. The experiment was done with three different moisture contents of the tomato seedlings aged 45 d. The experiment result showed that the moisture content and gripping speed both had impacts on the success rate of the seedlings, and both had negative correlation, the gripping speed had little impact on the damage of the seedling. This device had the performance that the maximum gripping speed was 140 plants per minute at which the success rate of gripping was above 95%, and the success rate of gripping was 98.44% and the damage rate of the seedling was 36.67% at the condition that the moisture content was 32.79%, which meets the agricultural requirements and was faster than the manual.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

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