谷晓博,李援农,杜娅丹,任全茂,吴国军,银敏华.施肥深度对冬油菜产量、根系分布和养分吸收的影响[J].农业机械学报,2016,47(6):120-128,206.
Gu Xiaobo,Li Yuannong,Du Yadan,Ren Quanmao,Wu Guojun,Yin Minhua.Effects of Fertilization Depth on Yield, Root Distribution and Nutrient Uptake of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2016,47(6):120-128,206.
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施肥深度对冬油菜产量、根系分布和养分吸收的影响   [下载全文]
Effects of Fertilization Depth on Yield, Root Distribution and Nutrient Uptake of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2015-08-06  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.06.016
中文关键词:  冬油菜  施肥深度  根系分布  养分吸收  产量
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503105、201503125)和国家高技术研究发展计划(863 计划)项目(2011AA100504)
作者单位
谷晓博 西北农林科技大学 
李援农 西北农林科技大学 
杜娅丹 西北农林科技大学 
任全茂 西北农林科技大学 
吴国军 西北农林科技大学 
银敏华 西北农林科技大学 
中文摘要:为了确定冬油菜较优的施肥深度,通过2a桶栽试验,设置5个施肥深度:地表施肥和地下5、10、15、20cm施肥,分别记为CK、D5、D10、D15和D20,并另设不施肥处理(F0),研究不同施肥深度处理对冬油菜地上部干物质量、不同土层的主根干质量和侧根干质量、侧根长、侧根体积和侧根表面积及冬油菜地上部植株的养分吸收情况和籽粒产量的影响。结果表明,D15处理在冬油菜花期能显著增加5~20cm和20cm以下土层的主根干质量以及主根总干质量,而0~5cm土层的主根干质量与CK和D5处理相比降低幅度不大;D15处理在冬油菜苗期和花期10~20cm土层的侧根干质量、侧根长、侧根体积和侧根表面积均为最大,且均显著大于CK和D5处理。在冬油菜花期和收获时D15处理的地上部干物质量及地上部植株的氮、磷、钾吸收量最大,且D15处理的油菜籽粒产量及籽粒中的氮、磷、钾吸收量最大,并显著大于CK、D5和D10处理;收获时,2a D15处理地上部植株中的氮、磷、钾的平均吸收量与CK相比分别增加48.07%、52.18%和62.96%,与D5相比分别增加25.75%、30.19%和33.41%,与D10相比分别增加10.59%、15.33%和17.06%。D15处理2a的平均产量与CK、D5和D10处理相比,分别提高85.10%、45.47%和31.26%;与D20处理相比提高了3.89%。综合考虑不同施肥处理冬油菜的根系分布、养分吸收量和籽粒产量,地表下15cm(D15处理)为冬油菜较优的施肥深度。
Gu Xiaobo  Li Yuannong  Du Yadan  Ren Quanmao  Wu Guojun  Yin Minhua
Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University and Northwest A&F University
Key Words:winter oilseed rape  fertilization depth  root distribution  nutrient uptake  yield
Abstract:In order to determine an optimal fertilization depth for winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), barrel experiment was conducted in 2013—2014 and 2014—2015 with six treatments, including no fertilizer (F0), and fertilization depths of 0cm (CK), 5cm (D5), 10cm (D10), 15cm (D15) and20cm (D20). The effects of different fertilization depths on above-ground dry weight of taproot and lateral root, and the length, volume, area of lateral root, nutrient uptake and yield of winter oilseed rape were systematically analyzed and compared. The results showed that D15 treatment significantly increased the taproot dry weight in 5~20cm and deeper than 20cm soil depths, while the reduction of taproot dry weight in 0~5cm soil depth was not great compared with CK and D5, thus the total taproot dry weight was significantly increased. The maximum lateral root dry weight, length, volume and area in the 10~20cm soil layer at both seedling stage and flowering stage were found in D15 treatment, which were also significantly higher than those in CK and D5. Above-ground dry matter and shoot nutrient uptake in D15 were the highest at both flowering and harvest stages of all the treatments, and D15 treatment achieved the greatest rapeseed yield and the most N, P, K uptakes in the seed at harvest, while the above-ground dry matter, shoot nutrient uptake, rapeseed yield in CK and D5 were significantly lower than those in D15 treatment. Compared with CK, the N, P, K uptakes of shoot at harvest in D15 treatment across the two growing seasons were increased by 48.07%, 52.18%, 62.96% and 25.75%, 30.19%, 33.41% in comparison with D5 treatment, respectively. In two growing seasons, the yield in D15 treatment was 85.10%, 45.47% and 31.26% higher than those in CK, D5 and D10, respectively. Considering the root distribution, nutrient uptake and yield of winter oilseed rape among all the treatments, fertilization depth of 15cm (D15) could be recommended as the optimal fertilization depth in oilseed rape cultivation.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

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