杨帆,程金花,张洪江,周柱栋,戴矜君.坡面草本植物对土壤分离及侵蚀动力的影响研究[J].农业机械学报,2016,47(5):129-137.
Yang Fan,Cheng Jinhua,Zhang Hongjiang,Zhou Zhudong,Dai Jinjun.Effect of Herb Plants on Soil Detachment and Erosion Dynamics[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2016,47(5):129-137.
摘要点击次数: 1137
全文下载次数: 512
坡面草本植物对土壤分离及侵蚀动力的影响研究   [下载全文]
Effect of Herb Plants on Soil Detachment and Erosion Dynamics   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2015-11-19  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.05.018
中文关键词:  草本植物  土壤分离  侵蚀动力  降雨击溅  径流冲刷
基金项目:北京高等学校青年英才计划项目(YETP0750)、国家自然科学基金项目(41271300、30900866)和中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2015ZCQ-SB-03)
作者单位
杨帆 北京林业大学 
程金花 北京林业大学 
张洪江 北京林业大学 
周柱栋 北京林业大学 
戴矜君 北京林业大学 
中文摘要:植被是影响坡面水力侵蚀过程的重要因素,深入理解草本植物坡面不同降雨和径流特性对土壤分离的作用是研究土壤侵蚀动力学的基础。为此基于坡面土壤分离试验,通过定量测定2种草本植物草冠、根系对降雨和径流的影响,研究了不同侵蚀力作用下的土壤分离特征。结果表明,草本植物对坡面径流和泥沙具有重要的调控作用,相同覆盖度下狗尾草坡面的径流含沙量低于青蒿坡面(P<0.05)。对比草本植物结构对坡面土壤分离的影响,植物根系对坡面的减沙贡献率均高于其冠层(P<0.05),其中,青蒿草冠对于坡面降雨的阻滞作用高于狗尾草草冠(P<0.05),而狗尾草根系的减沙效益高于青蒿根系(P<0.05),这主要与草本植物叶面积指数(LAI)及根系形态分布有关,不同植物的根长密度与土壤分离率呈指数函数关系。坡面土壤分离过程受到侵蚀阻力的影响,在草本植物覆盖坡面,随着植物覆盖度的增加,颗粒阻力和波阻力均呈增大趋势。降雨侵蚀力和径流剪切力是坡面土壤分离的主要侵蚀动力,不同试验条件下草本植物对降雨和径流侵蚀力的降低值为189.21~698.92J·mm/(m.2·min)和6.27~20.38kg/(m·s2),减弱系数分别为22.75%~84.04%和19.68%~63.97%。
Yang Fan  Cheng Jinhua  Zhang Hongjiang  Zhou Zhudong  Dai Jinjun
Beijing Forestry University,Beijing Forestry University,Beijing Forestry University,Beijing Forestry University and Beijing Forestry University
Key Words:herb plants  soil detachment  erosion dynamic  raindrops splashed  runoff scouring
Abstract:Water erosion process is the interaction between erosion force of rainfall and runoff and soil resistance under the various factors, especially the vegetation plays a signification role, therefore, a better understanding of the effects of different raindrops and runoff characteristics on soil detachment of ground cover hillslope is basis to research soil erosion dynamics processes. A slope soil detachment experiment was conducted to reveal the slope erosion dynamic mechanism of herbs coverage. There erosion plots (0.5m wide×2m long) which were composed of upslope sink (1.5m long) and downslope soil box (0.5m long) with average coverage of 0, 20%~30%, 50%~60% and 80%~90% were installed. In order to research the quantitative influence of herbs structure on soil detachment rate and erosion dynamics, the experimental treatments separately measured the detachment effect of rainfall and runoff on slope soil. The results showed that the effect of herbs structure on soil detachment was different, and sediment reduction rate of roots was higher than the canopy (P<0.05). For two kinds of experimental herbs, the raindrops retardation coefficient of Artemisia carvifolia canopy is higher than that of Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. canopy(P<0.05), and the sediment reduction effect of roots is the opposite, the sediment reduction rate was decreased by 57.79%~74.74% and 62.87%~81.21%, respectively. This is mainly related to leaf area index and fibrous root content, and root length density and soil detachment rate present index function relation. Comparing with the soil detachment resistance characteristics, for the slope of herbs coverage, granule resistance and wave resistance were increased with the increasing vegetation coverage. The slope soil detachment dynamics mainly includes the rainfall and runoff, the herbs coverage on the influence of rainfall and runoff erosion dynamics are 189.21~698.92J·mm/(m2·min) and 6.27~20.38kg/(m·s2), respectively. The reduction coefficients were 22.75%~84.04% and 19.68%~63.97%. This study reveals the important effect of ground cover on soil detachment from dynamic mechanism, aimed to provide basis research on the hillslope erosion dynamics.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

   下载PDF阅读器