付金霞,张鹏,郑粉莉,关颖慧,高燕.河龙区间近55 a降雨侵蚀力与河流输沙量动态变化分析[J].农业机械学报,2016,47(2):185-192,207.
Fu Jinxia,Zhang Peng,Zheng Fenli,Guan Yinghui,Gao Yan.Dynamic Change Analysis of Rainfall Erosivity and River Sediment Discharge of He Long Reach of the Yellow River from 1957 to 2011[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2016,47(2):185-192,207.
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河龙区间近55 a降雨侵蚀力与河流输沙量动态变化分析   [下载全文]
Dynamic Change Analysis of Rainfall Erosivity and River Sediment Discharge of He Long Reach of the Yellow River from 1957 to 2011   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2015-09-10  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.02.024
中文关键词:  河龙区间  输沙量  降雨侵蚀力  人类活动  贡献
基金项目:水利部公益性行业科研专项(201201083)
作者单位
付金霞 西北农林科技大学 
张鹏 西北农林科技大学 
郑粉莉 西北农林科技大学
中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与干旱农业国家重点实验室 
关颖慧 西北农林科技大学 
高燕 西北农林科技大学 
中文摘要:基于河龙区间12个雨量站点1957—2011年降雨日数据及输沙量年数据,采用滑动平均、线性倾向估计、Mann-Kendall非参数检验、累计距平、双累积曲线等方法,分析了河龙区间近55 a降雨侵蚀力和输沙量的动态变化过程以及二者之间的相关关系,定量评估了降雨侵蚀力变化和人类活动对河龙区间输沙量变化的影响及贡献率。结果表明,河龙区间近55 a降雨侵蚀力在378.1~2 324.6 MJ ·mm/(hm 2 ·h ·a)之间变化,其平均值为 1 319.7 MJ ·mm/(hm 2 ·h ·a); 整个研究期内降雨侵蚀力呈不显著减小趋势,年均减小量为9.7 MJ ·mm/(hm 2 ·h ·a)。近55 a降雨侵蚀力变化过程可划分为3个阶段:1957—1974年为快速下降阶段,其下降率为83.7%;1975—1999年为缓慢下降阶段,其下降率为66.6%;2000—2011年为缓慢回升阶段,其上升率为42.7%。以1957—1969年降雨侵蚀力为基准,20世纪70、80、90年代以及21世纪前12 a降雨侵蚀力分别减小了15.9%、19.5%、27.5%和22.7%。河龙区间近55 a输沙量变化介于(0.09~21.37)亿t之间,其平均值为5.6亿t。整个研究期内输沙量呈极显著的下降趋势,其下降速率为0.19亿 t/a。以1957—1969年输沙量为基准,20世纪70、80、90年代以及21世纪前12 a输沙量分别减少了27.3%、64.1%、54.8%和88.7%。经Mann-Kendall非参数检验法和累计曲线法综合判定,1979年为河龙区间输沙量突变年份。输沙量与降雨侵蚀力具有极好的线性相关性。通过建立二者双累积曲线方程,计算得出20世纪80、90年代和21世纪前12 a降雨侵蚀力变化对输沙量变化的贡献率分别为22.6%、44.3%和19.0%,而人类活动对输沙量变化的贡献率分别为77.4%、55.7%和81.0%,人类活动对输沙量变化的影响程度较大。1980—1989年和2000—2011年具有基本相同的降雨侵蚀力条件,但后者的输沙量却比前者减少67.6%,表明2000—2011年河流输沙量的变化主要由人类活动引起,人类活动每年减少输沙量2.5亿t。
Fu Jinxia  Zhang Peng  Zheng Fenli  Guan Yinghui  Gao Yan
Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University;State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Water Resources,Northwest A&F University and Northwest A&F University
Key Words:He-Long reach  sediment discharge  rainfall erosivity  human activity  contribution
Abstract:The dynamic change of rainfall erosivity and river sediment discharge as well as the correlation between river sediment discharge and rainfall erosivity were analyzed based on daily rainfall data and yearly sediment discharge of 12 rainfall stations located in He-Long reach of the Yellow River from 1957 to 2011. Meanwhile, the impact and contribution of rainfall erosivity changes and human activities on the river sediment discharge changes were quantitatively evaluated. The main methods used were the moving average, linear trend estimation, Mann-Kendall nonparametric test, cumulative departure curve and double mass curve. The results showed that rainfall erosivity in He-Long reach from 1957 to 2011 shifted from 378.1 MJ ·mm/(hm 2 ·h ·a) to 2 324.6 MJ ·mm/(hm 2 ·h ·a) with a mean of 1 319.7 MJ ·mm/(hm 2 ·h ·a), and rainfall erosivity did not exhibit significant downtrend. The decrement of rainfall erosivity per year in 1957—2011 was 9.7 MJ ·mm/(hm 2 ·h ·a). The changing trend of rainfall erosivity was divided into three stages during past 55 years in He-Long reach, which consisted of a rapid declining trend from 1957 to 1974, a slow decreasing trend from 1975 to 1999, and a slow increasing trend from 2000 to 2011. The declining rates of the first and second stages were 83.7% and 66.6%, respectively, and the increasing rate of the third stage was 42.7%. With rainfall erosivity in 1957—1969 as a reference, rainfall erosivities in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and the first 12 years of the 21st century were decreased by 15.9%, 19.5%, 27.5% and 22.7%, respectively. The river sediment discharge in He-Long reach from 1957 to 2011 shifted from 9×10 6 t to 2.14×10 9 t with a mean of 5.60×10 8 t, and river sediment discharge showed highly significant downtrend. The decrement of river sediment discharge in 1957—2011 was 1.9×10 7 t/a. With river sediment discharge in 1957—1969 as a reference, river sediment discharges in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and the first 12 years of the 21st century were decreased by 27.3%, 64.1%, 54.8% and 88.7%, respectively. The Mann-Kendall nonparametric test and the cumulative departure curve showed that the abrupt change of river sediment discharge appeared in 1979. There was a better linear correlation between river sediment discharge and rainfall erosivity. According to the double mass curve equation, the contributions of rainfall erosivity to the river sediment discharge changes in the 1980s, 1990s and the first 12 years of the 21st century were 22.6%, 44.3% and 19.0%, respectively; while the contributions of human activities to the river sediment discharge changes were 77.4%, 55.7% and 81.0%, respectively. Therefore, the impact of human activities on the river sediment discharge changes was dominated. Although rainfall erosivity in two periods of 1980—1989 and 2000—2011 was similar, river sediment discharge in 2000—2011 was decreased by 67.6%, compared with that in 1980—1989. Thus, the river sediment discharge changes were mainly caused by human activities and the decrement of river sediment discharge per year caused by human activities was 2.5×10 8 t in 2000—2011.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

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