姚宝林,李光永,叶含春,李发永.干旱绿洲区膜下滴灌棉田土壤盐分时空变化特征研究[J].农业机械学报,2016,47(1):151-161.
Yao Baolin,Li Guangyong,Ye Hanchun,Li Fayong.Characteristics of Spatial and Temporal Changes in Soil Salt Content in Cotton Fields under Mulched Drip Irrigation in Arid Oasis Regions[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2016,47(1):151-161.
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干旱绿洲区膜下滴灌棉田土壤盐分时空变化特征研究   [下载全文]
Characteristics of Spatial and Temporal Changes in Soil Salt Content in Cotton Fields under Mulched Drip Irrigation in Arid Oasis Regions   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2015-06-10  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2016.01.020
中文关键词:  棉田  干旱绿洲区  免冬、春灌  膜下滴灌  土壤盐分
基金项目:“十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAC10B01)和国家自然科学基金项目(51169024)
作者单位
姚宝林 中国农业大学
塔里木大学 
李光永 中国农业大学 
叶含春 塔里木大学 
李发永 塔里木大学 
中文摘要:基于Penman-Monteith公式设计一定梯度的灌水定额和灌水次数双因素组合试验,通过2012—2014年连续3a免冬、春灌膜下滴灌棉花田间定位试验研究,测定分析土壤盐分时空变化规律及其对棉花产量的影响。结果表明:膜下滴灌棉花生育期0~30cm土壤盐分变幅大于40~100cm,较小的灌水定额和灌水次数使0~30cm盐分变幅增大,棉花苗期和花铃期变幅最为明显。灌水定额对土壤剖面盐分变异程度影响弱于灌水次数。增加灌水定额有利于减小棉花各生育阶段0~30cm土壤盐分含量。土壤剖面盐分呈“C”形分布,0~40cm土壤盐分含量灌水12次比灌水16次大1.74%,50~80cm土层土壤盐分含量灌水16次比灌水12次大1.71%,灌水次数对90~100cm土层土壤盐分影响不明显。同一灌水次数下,460mm灌溉定额籽棉产量最高,适宜灌溉定额下,16次灌水次数籽棉产量高于灌水12次籽棉产量。灌溉水利用效率随灌水定额的降低和灌水次数的增加而提高,在南疆水资源短缺情况下高频次小定额灌溉可获得最大的灌溉水利用效率。当0~30cm初始土壤含盐量(2.03g/kg)小于3.0g/kg时,棉花生育期460mm灌溉定额、16次灌水次数,不会产生土壤盐分累积情况,可作为南疆干旱区免冬、春灌适宜棉花灌溉制度。
Yao Baolin  Li Guangyong  Ye Hanchun  Li Fayong
China Agricultural University;Tarim University,China Agricultural University,Tarim University and Tarim University
Key Words:cotton fields  arid oasis regions  no winter and spring irrigation  drip irrigation under mulch  soil salt content
Abstract:On the basis of Penman-Monteith formula, the double factor combination experiments were designed, and the factors included certain gradients of the irrigation quotas and irrigation frequencies. Through consecutive 3 year investigations concerning field experiments of cotton under conditions of mulched drip irrigation with no winter and spring irrigation (NWSI) from 2012 to 2014, the rules for changes in soil salt content were determined, and the effects of these changes on cotton yield were analyzed. The results showed that during the growth period of cotton, soil salt content within soil layer depths of 0~30cm was more conspicuous than that within soil layer depths of 40~100cm,smaller irrigation quotas and less irrigation frequency brought about increased magnitudes of changes within soil layer depths of 0~30cm, and such changes became the most salient at seedling stage as well as blossing and boll forming stages. Effects of irrigation quotas on salt content in soil profiles were weaker than such effects exerted by irrigation frequencies. Enhancement of irrigation quotas was beneficial for reductions of salt content within soil layer depths of 0~30cm at different stages of cottons growth. Salt content in soil profiles exhibited a “C” shaped distribution: within soil layer depths of 0~40cm, salt content was 1.74% greater under 12 irrigations than that under 16 irrigations; within soil layer depths of 50~80cm, salt content was 1.71% higher under 16 irrigations than that under 12 irrigations; whereas within soil layer depths of 90~100cm, irrigation frequency exerted insignificant effects on salt content. Under the same irrigation frequency, the maximum seed cotton yield occurred under the irrigation quota of 460mm. Under favorable irrigation quotas, seed cotton yield was greater under 16 irrigations than that under 12 irrigations. Irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) was enhanced under lowered irrigation quotas and increased irrigation frequencies, and in South Xinjiang afflicted by water deficit, the maximum IWUE can be acquired under high irrigation frequencies and low irrigation quotas. Within soil layer depths of 0~30cm, when initial soil salt content amounted to 2.03g/kg (less than 3.0g/kg), during the growth period of cotton, an irrigation quota of 460mm with 16 irrigations did not lead to the situation of soil salt accumulation. Therefore, it can be regarded as a suitable irrigation scheduling for NWSI in arid regions in South Xinjiang.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

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