李仙岳,郭 宇,丁宗江,冷 旭,田 彤,胡 琦.不同地膜覆盖对不同时间尺度地温与玉米产量的影响[J].农业机械学报,2018,49(9):247-256.
LI Xianyue,GUO Yu,DING Zongjiang,LENG Xu,TIAN Tong,HU Qi.Influence of Different Film Mulchings on Soil Temperature at Different Time Scales and Maize Yield[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2018,49(9):247-256.
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不同地膜覆盖对不同时间尺度地温与玉米产量的影响   [下载全文]
Influence of Different Film Mulchings on Soil Temperature at Different Time Scales and Maize Yield   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2018-05-23  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2018.09.029
中文关键词:  地温  玉米产量  不同颜色地膜  降解地膜  红外热成像
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0400205)、国家自然科学基金项目(51469022、51669020)、内蒙古自然科学基金项目(2016JQ06)、内蒙水利科技计划项目(NSK2016)和内蒙古科技计划项目
作者单位
李仙岳 内蒙古农业大学 
郭 宇 内蒙古农业大学 
丁宗江 内蒙古农业大学 
冷 旭 内蒙古农业大学 
田 彤 内蒙古农业大学 
胡 琦 内蒙古农业大学 
中文摘要:针对北方干旱地区白色塑料地膜覆盖导致的农膜残留及作物生长后期地温过高等问题,筛选适合当地的环保型地膜。设置了白色、黑色快速(WO1、BO1)、中速(WO2、BO2)、慢速(WO3、BO3)降解膜,并以白色、黑色塑料地膜(WP、BP)和无膜覆盖(CK)作为对照,共计9个处理,研究不同地膜覆盖地膜破损特征及作物产量效应,并基于红外成像和自动连续传感技术探索不同处理瞬时地表温度、逐时和逐日土壤不同深度温度的变化规律。结果表明:黑色降解膜的破损占比大于白色降解膜,覆膜130d后黑色降解膜平均破损占比高于白色降解膜8.4%。在瞬时尺度地表温度由大到小顺序为:黑膜处理、白膜处理、无膜处理(CK),且生育期平均温度分别为34.10、32.34、29.12℃(P<0.05)。在逐时和逐日尺度,不同颜色地膜覆盖土壤温度由大到小顺序为:白膜处理、黑膜处理、无膜处理;且与白色地膜覆盖相比,在日最高温时刻,黑色地膜覆盖0~15cm土层土壤温度平均降低11℃。在玉米生长初期和末期(5月、9月),黑白地膜覆盖下平均温差达1.13℃(P<0.05),而生育中期(6—8月),平均温差为0.45℃(P>0.05)。地膜降解速率影响破损占比,从而影响土壤温度的空间变异性和地膜保温效果;慢速降解膜破损小,故保温效果与塑料地膜覆盖相近,在9月0~15cm土层WP、WO3、WO2与WO1处理(快速降解膜)的温差分别达到3.03、2.70、1.05℃(P<0.05),而对应的黑色降解膜覆盖温差分别为3.00、2.57、1.01℃(P<0.05)。白色和黑色慢速降解膜覆盖与对应的塑料地膜覆盖相比,产量无显著差异(P>0.05),但同颜色不同降解速率的降解膜覆盖下产量呈显著差异(P<0.05),不同降解速率的降解膜覆盖产量由大到小顺序为:慢速处理、中速处理、快速处理。可见,黑色地膜处理保温效果好、产量高,且在作物生长后期可降低土壤表层温度;而黑色慢速降解膜与黑色塑料地膜覆盖保温、增产效应相近,且绿色环保,在北方干旱区农业生产中替代白色塑料地膜覆盖具有一定的可行性。
LI Xianyue  GUO Yu  DING Zongjiang  LENG Xu  TIAN Tong  HU Qi
Inner Mongolia Agricultural University,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University and Inner Mongolia Agricultural University
Key Words:ground temperature  maize yield  different film mulchs  degradation film  infrared thermal imaging
Abstract:The residue of plastic mulching and premature aging due to high soil temperature at late stage of crop growth would be caused by white plastic film mulching at arid area in northern China, so the main object was choosing the optimal green film mulching. The nine treatments were experimented, including the white and black rapid (WO1 and BO1), medium (WO2 and BO2) , low (WO3 and BO3) degradation film and white and black plastic film (WP and BP), no mulching (CK) to study the effects of different film mulchings on the film damaging and maize yield, and explore instant surface temperature, soil temperature for every hour and every day based on infrared imaging and continuous monitoring technique. The result showed that the proportion of film damaging for black degradation film was higher than that of white degradation film, which was 8.4% after 130d mulching. The higher rank of instant surface temperature was in the order of black film, white film and no film, and the average soil temperature in growth stage was 3410℃, 32.34℃ and 29.12℃, respectively (P<0.05). The higher rank of soil temperature for every hour and every day was in the order of white film, black film and no film, and black film mulching could reduce soil temperature by 1.1℃ of 0~15cm soil layer at daily highest temperature time compared with white film mulching. The average soil temperature difference reached 1.13℃ (P<0.05) between white and black film mulching at the maize early and late growth stages (May and September), however, it was just 0.45℃ at the maize middle growth stages (from June to August). The proportion of film damaging was influenced by film degradation rate, and it would influence the variability of temperature distribution in space and heat preservation effect. Therefore, lower film degradation rate, less film damaging, and the close heat preservation effect between plastic film and low degradation film mulching. The soil temperature difference for WP, WO3 and WO2 treatments compared with WO1 treatment, respectively, was 3.03℃, 2.70℃ and 1.05℃(P<0.05), and 3.00℃, 2.57℃ and 1.01℃(P<0.05) for corresponding black film mulch. There was no difference for maize yield between low degradation film and plastic film whether black or white film mulching. However, there was significant difference among different degradation rates film mulching under same color film mulching (P<0.05). The higher rank of maize yield for different degradation rates film mulching was in the order of low, middle and rapid degradation film mulching. So, the black film mulching with the best heat preservation effect and higher yield could reduce surface soil temperature at late growth stages, and there were close heat preservation and yield increasing effect between black low degradation film and plastic film mulching. It was feasible for developing agriculture in arid areas, northern China to replace white plastic film mulching with black low degradation film mulching.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

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