侯贤清,李 荣,吴鹏年,李培富,王西娜.秸秆还田配施氮肥对土壤碳氮含量与玉米生长的影响[J].农业机械学报,2018,49(9):238-246.
HOU Xianqing,LI Rong,WU Pengnian,LI Peifu,WANG Xi’na.Effects of Straw Returning with Nitrogen Application on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen Content and Maize Growth[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2018,49(9):238-246.
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秸秆还田配施氮肥对土壤碳氮含量与玉米生长的影响   [下载全文]
Effects of Straw Returning with Nitrogen Application on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen Content and Maize Growth   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2018-03-18  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2018.09.028
中文关键词:  秸秆还田  氮肥  土壤有机碳氮  土壤微生物量碳氮  土壤酶活性  玉米生长
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31760370)、“十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD22B05-03)和宁夏青年科技人才托举工程项目(科协发组字〔2017〕76号)
作者单位
侯贤清 宁夏大学 
李 荣 宁夏大学 
吴鹏年 宁夏大学 
李培富 宁夏大学 
王西娜 宁夏大学 
中文摘要:为明确宁夏扬黄灌区秸秆还田条件下的适宜施氮量,在玉米秸秆全量还田条件下,设4种纯氮施用水平(0kg/hm2(N0)、150kg/hm2(N1)、300kg/hm2(N2)、450kg/hm2(N3)),以秸秆还田不施氮肥(N0)为对照,研究了秸秆还田配施不同纯氮水平对土壤有机碳氮含量、微生物量碳氮含量和酶活性及其对玉米生长的影响。结果表明,秸秆还田配施氮肥有利于耕层土壤有机碳和全氮含量的提高,随施氮量的增加,土壤碳氮比降低,其中以N2和N3处理对提高耕层有机碳氮含量效果最佳。秸秆还田条件下土壤微生物量碳氮比随施氮量的增加而降低,N2处理对微生物量碳含量、N3处理对微生物量氮含量的提高作用最为显著。秸秆还田配施氮肥能显著提高土壤脲酶、过氧化氧酶、碱性磷酸酶和蔗糖酶活性,以N2和N3处理的改善效果较优。秸秆还田配施氮肥对玉米前期生长影响不显著,而N2处理对中后期玉米生长具有显著促进作用。2年玉米籽粒产量以N2处理增产效果最佳,平均较N0处理提高22.0%。通过2年研究结果表明,在宁夏扬黄灌区实施秸秆还田配施氮肥措施可增加土壤有机碳氮含量,调节土壤碳氮比,促进玉米生长,进而提高玉米产量,以秸秆还田配施纯氮300kg/hm2效果最佳。
HOU Xianqing  LI Rong  WU Pengnian  LI Peifu  WANG Xi’na
Ningxia University,Ningxia University,Ningxia University,Ningxia University and Ningxia University
Key Words:straw returning  nitrogen  soil organic carbon and nitrogen  soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen  soil enzyme activity  maize growth
Abstract:In order to define the optimum application rate of nitrogen fertilizer under the condition of straw returning in Yanghuang Irrigation Area of Ningxia,the treatment with no straw returning (N0) as the control,the effects of different nitrogen application rates (0kg/hm2 (N0),150kg/hm2 (N1),300kg/hm2(N2) and 450kg/hm2(N3)) on soil organic carbon and nitrogen,microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content,soil enzyme activity,and maize growth were investigated.The results showed that the straw returning with an optimum application rate of nitrogen was useful for increasing soil organic carbon and total nitrogen at 0~40cm layer,and the contents of soil organic carbon,total nitrogen with N2 and N3 were significantly increased,compared with N0.The ration of carbon to nitrogen was decreased with the increase of application rate of nitrogen under the condition of straw returning.The treatment with straw returning and nitrogen application significantly increase the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen compared with straw returning and no nitrogen fertilizer treatment,and the ratio of microbial biomass carbon to microbial biomass nitrogen was decreased with the increase of nitrogen application rate.The improvement effects of soil microbial biomass carbon with N2 and soil microbial biomass nitrogen with N3 were the most significant.Straw returning with nitrogen application could significantly improve the activities of soil urease,catalane,alkali phosphata,and sucrase,and the improvement effect of soil enzyme activities with N2 and N3 were the best.The effect of N2 on maize growth at middle and late stages were great,while it had no effects on maize growth at early stage.The maize grain yield and water use efficiency enhancement were the highest under N2.The 2 year mean maize grain yields with N2 were significantly increased by 220%,compared with N0.The 2 year results indicated that straw returning with application of nitrogen can increase the soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents,regulate the ration of carbon to nitrogen,increase the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and enzyme activity,thus improving maize growth and grain yield in Yanghuang Irrigation Area of Ningxia.The straw returning with application of pure nitrogen of 300kg/hm2 was the best.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

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