李华龙,窦子荷,蒋腾聪,冯 浩,于 强,何建强.水分胁迫对冬小麦冠层辐射截获率和利用效率的影响[J].农业机械学报,2018,49(9):226-237.
LI Hualong,DOU Zihe,JIANG Tengcong,FENG Hao,YU Qiang,HE Jianqiang.Influences of Soil Water Stress on Solar Radiation Interception and Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat Canopy[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2018,49(9):226-237.
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水分胁迫对冬小麦冠层辐射截获率和利用效率的影响   [下载全文]
Influences of Soil Water Stress on Solar Radiation Interception and Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat Canopy   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2018-03-08  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2018.09.027
中文关键词:  冬小麦  水分胁迫  光合有效辐射  冠层PAR截获率  光能利用效率  地上部生物量
基金项目:国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划)项目(2013AA102904)、陕西省科技统筹创新工程计划项目(2016KTZDNY03-06)、黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室开放基金项目(A314021402-1611)、西北农林科技大学人才专项(千人计划项目)和高等学校学科创新引智计划(111计划)项目(B12007)
作者单位
李华龙 西北农林科技大学 
窦子荷 西北农林科技大学 
蒋腾聪 西北农林科技大学 
冯 浩 西北农林科技大学
中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所 
于 强 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所 
何建强 西北农林科技大学 
中文摘要:冬小麦地上部生物量和最终产量都取决于冠层截获光合有效辐射(Photosynthetically active radiation,PAR)的能力以及辐射利用效率(Radiation use efficiency,RUE)的大小。目前主要的作物生长模型都是利用作物冠层PAR截获率与RUE的关系来模拟作物的干物质积累和产量形成过程。为了探讨不同生育期受旱对冬小麦冠层PAR截获率和RUE的影响,本研究开展了2个生长季(2015—2016年和2016—2017年)的冬小麦田间试验。试验设置返青+拔节受旱(Early stress, ES),抽穗+灌浆受旱(Later stress, LS)以及全生育期不灌水(Whole stress, WS)3个不同处理,另外设置充分灌水处理作为对照(CK),灌水定额为80mm。冠层接收到的太阳辐射通过每个小区中心处安装的PAR传感器全天候、不间断测得。结果表明土壤相对含水率能够有效反映冬小麦在不同受旱处理下的缺水状态。在受旱条件下,ES、LS和WS处理的最大叶面积指数分别比CK处理低31%、15%和58%。受叶面积指数影响,CK、ES、LS和WS处理的最大冠层PAR截获率分别为90%、88%、79%和42%,WS处理显著低于其他3个处理,同时,各处理叶面积指数和冠层PAR截获率的差异导致不同的冠层消光系数,其中ES处理的消光系数低于LS处理。CK、ES、LS和WS处理2年的平均地上部生物量分别为1532、1410、1403、537g/m2。冬小麦的作物生长速率(Crop growth rate,CGR)呈现出和地上部生物量相似的规律,二者之间具有良好的相关性(R2=0.99)。冠层辐射截获率和地上部生物量决定了冬小麦的RUE,本研究中CK处理的RUE为3.55g/MJ,ES和LS处理的RUE要比CK处理低22%和5%,而WS处理仅比CK处理低22%。冬小麦的RUE在整个生育期呈先增大后减小的趋势,在开花期达到峰值。营养阶段受旱引起的冬小麦RUE降低幅度更大,全生育期受旱下冬小麦RUE呈现不同的干旱响应机制,有待于进一步研究。本研究认为将消光系数和RUE作为生育期或者积温的函数来对待而非单一常数,可以帮助改善作物模型中干物质的估算精度,降低模拟结果的不确定性。
LI Hualong  DOU Zihe  JIANG Tengcong  FENG Hao  YU Qiang  HE Jianqiang
Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University;Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Science and Ministry of Water Resource,Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Science and Ministry of Water Resource and Northwest A&F University
Key Words:winter wheat  water stress  photosynthetically active radiation  fraction of canopy PAR interception  radiation use efficiency  aboveground biomass
Abstract:The aboveground biomass and yield of winter wheat depend on intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) by crop canopy and radiation use efficiency (RUE). At present, many successful crop growth models estimate aboveground biomass accumulation and yield formation based on fraction of intercepted PAR (FIPAR) and RUE. In order to investigate the influences of water stress on FIPAR and RUE of winter wheat at different growth stages, field experiments of winter wheat were conducted under a rainout shelter in two growing seasons (2015—2016 and 2016—2017) in Yangling, Shaanxi Province. The experimental design involved four different treatments of water stress: no irrigation at greening and jointing stages (namely the early stress, ES), no irrigation at heading and filling stages (namely the later stress, LS), no irrigation at all stages (namely whole stress, WS), and full irrigation at all stages (namely CK). The irrigation level was 80mm. The incident solar radiation by the canopy was continuously measured all day with PAR sensors installed at the center of each plot. The results showed that the relative available soil water content can effectively reflect water status of winter wheat under different drought treatments. The maximum leaf area index (LAI) of ES, LS and WS were 31%, 15% and 58% lower than that of CK treatment, respectively. Affected by LAI, the maximum FIPAR of CK, ES, LS and WS were 90%, 88%, 79% and 42%, respectively. And the WS treatment was significantly lower than the other three treatments for the maximum FIPAR. Meanwhile, the difference of LAI and FIPAR among different treatments resulted in different extinction coefficient, especially the extinction coefficient of ES is lower than that of LS. The averaged aboveground biomass of CK, ES, LS and WS treatments across the two growing seasons were 1532g/m2, 1410g/m2, 1403g/m2 and 537g/m2, respectively. For RUE of winter wheat, the CK treatment was 355g/MJ, and the ES and LS treatments were 22% and 5% lower than the CK treatment, in addition, the WS treatment was 22% lower than CK. The RUE of winter wheat was firstly increased and then decreased through whole development season, and peaked at the flowering stage. The RUE reduction of winter wheat caused by water stress in the vegetative stage was greater than that in the reproductive stage under water stress. The RUE of winter wheat under the WS treatment showed very different responding mechanisms to water stress, which needed further study. The research result suggested that if the extinction coefficient and RUE that can be treated as a function of growth stage or thermal time accumulated temperature rather than a single constant, the estimation accuracy of dry matter in the current model could be improved and the uncertainties of the model could be reduced under serious water stress. 

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

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