冯 浩,王 杰,王乃江,刘建超,褚晓升,董勤各.起垄覆膜条件下夏玉米农田耗水过程分析[J].农业机械学报,2018,49(9):205-213.
FENG Hao,WANG Jie,WANG Naijiang,LIU Jianchao,CHU Xiaosheng,DONG Qin’ge.Analysis of Water Consumption in Summer Maize Field under Planting Pattern of Ridge-Furrow with Plastic Film Mulching[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2018,49(9):205-213.
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起垄覆膜条件下夏玉米农田耗水过程分析   [下载全文]
Analysis of Water Consumption in Summer Maize Field under Planting Pattern of Ridge-Furrow with Plastic Film Mulching   [Download Pdf][in English]
投稿时间:2018-03-01  
DOI:10.6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2018.09.025
中文关键词:  夏玉米  起垄覆膜  耗水  蒸发蒸腾  深层渗漏  HYDRUS-2D模型
基金项目:国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划)项目(2013AA102904)
作者单位
冯 浩 西北农林科技大学
中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所 
王 杰 西北农林科技大学 
王乃江 西北农林科技大学 
刘建超 西北农林科技大学 
褚晓升 西北农林科技大学 
董勤各 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所 
中文摘要:起垄覆膜是西北地区常用的一种种植方式,具有显著的增产效应,但是其增产是否导致了过度消耗土壤水分仍然存在争议。为了探究起垄覆膜增产是否具有可持续性,在陕西杨凌开展了连续3年(2014—2016)的夏玉米种植试验,设置起垄覆膜(RM)和平作不覆盖(NM)两个处理,在试验数据基础上,结合HYDRUS-2D模型分析起垄覆膜对夏玉米蒸腾、土壤蒸发及深层渗漏等田间耗水过程的影响。结果表明:HYDRUS-2D模型率定和验证的R2在0.65~0.85之间,RMSE在0.0147~0.0213cm3/cm3之间,说明该模型可以较好地模拟土壤水分变化过程。RM处理下夏玉米3年平均蒸腾速率比NM处理大18.2%,蒸腾量高15.6%;蒸发速率比NM处理小33.3%,土壤蒸发量低29.6%;蒸腾量的增加和蒸发量的减少使RM处理蒸发量占总蒸发蒸腾量的比值比NM处理小25.5%。RM处理的深层渗漏3年分别为82.5、46.0、9.0mm,平均是NM处理的1.3倍。RM处理3年平均增产5.3%,水分利用效率提高15.2%,并且田间耗水量减少了2.8%。本研究结果表明起垄覆膜能增大作物蒸腾量,减小土壤蒸发量,促使无效水转化为生产性用水,因此减小了田间水分消耗,具有节水增产效应,适合在当地推广。
FENG Hao  WANG Jie  WANG Naijiang  LIU Jianchao  CHU Xiaosheng  DONG Qin’ge
Northwest A&F University;Institute of Water and Soil Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University,Northwest A&F University and Institute of Water and Soil Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources
Key Words:summer maize  ridge-furrow with plastic film mulching  water consumption  evapotranspiration  leakage of deep water  HYDRUS-2D model
Abstract:Ridge-furrow with plastic film mulching planting is commonly used in Northwest China because it can obviously increase yield, but it is still unknown whether the effect of increasing yield is based on consuming more water or not. In order to explore above question, field experiments were conducted in Yangling of Shaanxi Province for three maize seasons with two treatments of ridge-furrow with plastic film mulching planting (RM) and flat field without mulching (NM). The HYDRUS-2D model combined with field experiment was also used to study soil water movement. The simulated results showed that HYDRUS-2D model performed well for simulating the movement of soil water, the coefficient of determination R2 was between 0.65 and 0.85, the root mean square error (RMSE) was between 0.0147cm3/cm3 and 0.0213cm3/cm3, both were in suitable range. Transpiration rate and cumulative transpiration of RM were 18.2% and 15.6% larger than those of NM, respectively. RM decreased evaporation rate and cumulative evaporation by 33.3% and 29.6%, respectively. The value of E/ET (ratio between evaporation and evapotranspiration) was also decreased under RM by 25.5%, but leakage of deep water of RM was 82.5mm, 46.0mm and 9.0mm for three years, which were about 1.3 times as large as that of NM. Summer maize yield and water use efficiency of RM were increased by 5.3% and 15.2%, respectively, and water consumption of field was reduced by 2.8%. The research result showed that RM treatment can change the water consumption structure of crop and make soil water to be more available for crop, because it can increase the maize transpiration and decrease the soil evaporation, thus decrease the water consumption of field, so it was profitable in Northwest China.

Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agriculture Machinery (CSAM), in charged of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), sponsored by CSAM and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Science(CAAMS), started publication in 1957. It is the earliest interdisciplinary journal in Chinese which combines agricultural and engineering. It always closely grasps the development direction of agriculture engineering disciplines and the published papers represent the highest academic level of agriculture engineering in China. Currently, nearly 8,000 papers have been already published. There are around 3,000 papers contributed to the journal each year, but only around 600 of them will be accepted. Transactions of CSAM focuses on a wide range of agricultural machinery, irrigation, electronics, robotics, agro-products engineering, biological energy, agricultural structures and environment and more. Subjects in Transactions of the CSAM have been embodied by many internationally well-known index systems, such as: EI Compendex, CA, CSA, etc.

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