切抛组合式小麦宽幅沟播破茬清秸防堵装置设计与试验
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国家重点研发计划项目(2021YFD2000405)和国家自然科学基金项目(32101630)


Design and Experiment of Cutting and Throwing Combined Anti-blocking Device for Wide-seedbed Seeding of Wheat
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    摘要:

    针对西北地区玉米秸茬覆盖地小麦免少耕宽幅沟播时,由于玉米根茬阻碍秸秆流动导致的秸茬聚集壅堵、土壤扰动大、种带清洁率低、播种质量差等问题,提出先被动切割、后主动抛撒的种带清理方法。设计了一种切抛组合式破茬清秸防堵装置,通过纵向布置的倾斜缺口圆盘与旋抛装置配合作业对种带残茬与秸秆进行清理。适配防堵装置设计了分流式开沟器,实现行距稳定的一沟两行播种。分析确定了缺口圆盘倾角与偏角参数;依据滑切理论设计计算了平直旋刀与侧倾旋刀刃线结构参数;建立MBD-DEM联合仿真平台并采用正交旋转组合试验方法,以种带清洁率、秸茬粘结键破碎率与土壤扰动宽度为指标进行旋抛装置关键参数优化仿真试验。基于仿真结果建立各指标回归模型并通过响应面分析与多目标优化得出,当侧倾旋刀倾角为20°、回转速度为310r/min时,防堵装置种带清洁率达到96.9%,秸茬粘结键破碎率为26.9%,土壤扰动宽度为139mm。在玉米秸茬覆盖地进行小麦播种试验,结果表明切抛组合式小麦宽幅沟播破茬清秸防堵装置通过性良好,种床清洁率为90.1%,破茬率为96.2%,土壤扰动宽度为127mm,土壤扰动量为6.9%,整机作业质量稳定且播种后小麦出苗均匀,满足宽幅沟播小麦免耕播种农艺要求。

    Abstract:

    To address the issues of residue accumulation and blockage, significant soil disturbance, low cleanliness of seedbed, and poor seeding quality caused by maize stubble and straw residues during no-tillage wide-row wheat sowing in maize residue-covered fields, a seedbed cleaning method combining passive cutting and subsequent active throwing was proposed. A cutting and spreading combined residue-breaking and residue-preventing device was designed, which utilized longitudinally arranged inclined notched discs and rotating spreading devices to clean seedbed residues and straw. A diversion-type furrow opener was designed to stabilize row spacing and achieve one furrow seeding two rows. The tilt angle and skew angle parameters of the notched discs were determined based on force and kinematic analyses of straw residues during device operation. The straight and inclined rotary blade parameters were designed and calculated based on the sliding-cutting theory. Using the orthogonal rotation combination experimental method, key parameters of the spreading device were optimized through simulation experiments on the established MBD-DEM combined simulation platform, with seedbed cleanliness rate, residue breaking rate, and soil disturbance as indicators. Based on simulation results, regression models for each indicator were established and response surface analysis and multi-objective optimization were conducted. The optimal parameters were determined to be as tilt angle of 20° and rotation speed of 310r/min, resulting in seedbed cleanliness rate of 96.9%, residue bonds breaking rate of 26.9%, and soil disturbance width of 139mm. Wheat seeding experiments in maize residue-covered fields showed that the sowing machine equipped with the cutting and spreading combined anti-breaking and residue-preventing device had good pass ability, with seedbed cleanliness rate of 90.1%, residue-breaking rate of 96.2%, soil disturbance width of 127mm, soil disturbance rate of 6.9%, stable overall operation quality, and uniform wheat emergence after seeding, meeting the agronomic requirements for wide-seedbed seeding of wheat.

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张仕林,黄玉祥,赵宏波,付作立,刘正道,史江涛.切抛组合式小麦宽幅沟播破茬清秸防堵装置设计与试验[J].农业机械学报,2024,55(5):40-52. ZHANG Shilin, HUANG Yuxiang, ZHAO Hongbo, FU Zuoli, LIU Zhengdao, SHI Jiangtao. Design and Experiment of Cutting and Throwing Combined Anti-blocking Device for Wide-seedbed Seeding of Wheat[J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2024,55(5):40-52.

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  • 收稿日期:2024-02-19
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  • 在线发布日期: 2024-03-16
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